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tv   Book Discussion on Washington Rules  CSPAN  February 18, 2016 10:42pm-12:13am EST

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and to have a massive demonstration in there was of great deal to the south in criticism of the federal government with civil-rights activist in the south and people were worried. but the march in detroit to is very peaceful and a public-relations success in a lot of people that were hesitant to say we can support that but until key -- and i'm okay previewed and had a recording of him giving the same speech almost one year earlier in north carolina at a high-school.
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this is the speech he pioneered several years before with the outline when he spoke initially with the refrain of the i have the dream before the afl-cio labor movement almost two years before the march on washington in the speech he has perfected over time by the time it came around to his advisers told him not to give that speech. and if you watch him there are recordings he begins not with that i have the dream of refrained but a check written by the government and the declaration of
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independence. and then it is marked insufficient funds. the promise of american democracy. but he gets halfway but then he pushes aside. with very effectively in detroit. there were rumors the famous gospel singer just before he came on stage to say tell him about the dream. then his speech really wasn't getting a. so he went back to their refrained that gave this speech is now one of the
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most famous speeches in american history. end if she was reminding him of that but that is the refrain that we all know. >> two weeks after the march birmingham alabama. so when we look as a tremendous success we forget how complicated the history was after that. it wasn't a speech for they said we are wrong. but it marked an intense year of conflict in nothing punctuated that's live in
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the bombing of the church. this was on a sunday morning when people are preparing for church services in the they were all killed in this explosion. in the bill before congress and it reminds us how hard it was. a movement to go into the core of what this nation in shady. and also to the positions of hatred and the commitment of the quality to see their reinvigoration of this movement opposed the civil rights movement very clearly.
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>> professor of history at the university of wisconsin and the forgotten history of civil rights. booktv on c-span2.
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>> over guest is tom lewis bin does not lead here in town.
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he had to take the metro on entry leyte night. [laughter] and came down from saratoga springs despite the fact he is from "the new yorker" they say they he succeeds to show was the human face of washington that too often is perceived as baseless invalid is achievement enough. tom lewis. [applause] >> ironclad that you nictitating the metro i invited several people to come tonight and i have been
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in the back of the greenery with frantic messages saying we are stuck in traffic. i said ditched the car grab the metro in to get off that federal trade and goals so they will be coming in late and i expect some others as well. i want to take rebecca for introduction in the smithsonian associates for inviting me i am delighted to be here and honored to be here and also james nissen and john quincy adams and joseph henry. you'll also but it is good to remind ourselves that he gave 100,000 pounds that translated into a 500,000 of
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the u.s. currency and ultimately 105 sacks of cold and he said that money should be used in america for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. and we have to think john quincy adams he is under rated as the president in and congressperson he shepherded that money through with an often resistant and reluctant congress. calhoun wanted to reach her nominee to england because it would expand the role of the federal government in the state's and also unwise
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to take money from a foreigner. [laughter] once he got it through congress he had to persuade them again to take the money because it fell into the his temporarily and of president kim purine secretary of the treasury and he lost most of that in the shady arkansas bond deal in the now john quincy adams has to get congress to put pressure of the treasury to restore the money and that is what happened and i especially have to thank joseph henry as a pioneer that we never touch a computer or push a little but an owner selfie
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owner never even turn on a light without being touched by one of his discoveries clearer and of course, he became the first secretary in said the smithsonian should be for men of all countries in the fall times for extension of the boundaries of thought in he kept it checked out of the indians of people like stephen douglas david who wanted to expend all of his monday on agricultural schemes or project is and kept it ahead of the means of an andrew johnson, the president who wanted to
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rename the smithsonian washington in for the benefit of an indigent children of the district of columbia. perhaps his greatest achievement was surviving 30 years 1846 through 1878 as secretary. especially as during the civil war was is with the sothern's abilities but he stayed on and served a and say -- insert in the smithsonian thrives because of him. but also why i wrote the book isn't what it means to me. i began writing this book as a young child standing up in
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the back of my father's studebaker as he drove from philadelphia to virginia end would come in on new york avenue i would be quite stunned then later i add a little bit of an argument with my a high-school teacher that the washington people couldn't vote and said that does not make any sense because they are
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american citizens. and said they don't vote because there are not many of them and they don't really live there this did not sit well in the bottom me for many years. later in the eighties aged 90 cited a variety of projects in spent a great deal of time wandering the streets at night not just downtown and i came to think this is the city to
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investigate cry came in the course of my wanderings in those that were in my book with washington's history from the very beginning with the importance of race in the fact that importance has rippled through of over two centuries of washington's history in has endeared what has gone on in the united states and finally
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washington as the great symbol that it is of the democracy this may annoys some people epilogues to washingtonians but also belongs to indiana and it should. after all is our representatives and senators who control your destiny as washingtonians. and this is something i will be returning to taiwan in began washington and i like to think is our city. not jazz the capital of the united states but a history
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of our national city. so let's talk about how we will do our job tonight. i have five principal images the you have received dacia about them but don't thank you have been cheated. as the evening progresses. so let's take a look at this picture of the al washington family as this is called the president and his family the way it was presented in 1796
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as the colombian gallery in new york city. he really seemed to light is ujb historically inclined to ask why that despite the shortcomings. [laughter] but yet but you can see it
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is extraordinarily symbolic portrait in duquesne's the washington with his heel and don the table this is of washington military meehan in he like to the four paintings but never mind i have fallen in love with george washington and in some ways is not the easy to do but it is very important so he shows that in his
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painting locale it a rest on the shoulders? but his hand is resting on the globe. that did not exactly work out that way. and we have mirth the washington fifth inning
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ended in is to all of you as well fifth then it added to the now above the city of washington in is and it became an engraving. in washington gave $10,000 and now was cheeky of him to say. and you can see one of them
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as non to vernon. the there is george washington and his family looking down at the table where they used to rotate their breakfast. i do think it is a magnificent increase being in that is in extremely important because this picture represented what the country was. with what washington was up against.
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on the banks of the potomac. and then was given up to up to 10 miles square as of federal district. he created a diamond district if you will end as they do but to bendigo down across the potomac to alexandria.
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did to take gambles sides of the potomac end not gave them 1 penny to carry out the job and a trend setting of the congress at the time so washington has to contend with that. and then into the bay vision of the city which was very different it was a federal town.
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yes. this is rock creek you can see the town that was to me 1500 acres, 1200 divided into the quarter acre lots in the remaining 300 would-be public buildings. in jefferson would take 20 dwelling houses for those belonging to the government and lodging houses. which i am not sure is enough for the time. washington did not think that way.
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and then invite the l"enfant to come up with the plan with this city of about seven under 50,000 people and at the time of the largest city was 40,000 people. is the of words and they need that is important to. and that's the united states would be.
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and then l'enfant designed a city and washington went with l'enfant and there is another story that is in the book that tells how jefferson undermines 80 ted every turn and that ski with the lottery is not so read ticketless today. [laughter] is history and raising money. it completely and utterly
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fails and cost many close to $5 million but he did fluor others for one of those that was one of the most remarkable scoundrels in the history of the united states. the we have to return to the pitcher i apologize, excuse me we have talked a lot about but now we have to
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think about something else. that interestingly enough that the slayings had sate caller that is very much like washington's only turned up. and that is quite important. in vintage he possesses all we'll stay princely quality
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and frames that face. but this slavery made in the shadow but i will say something about the slave. and son dissertation is that our walkie road with dr. it's one of them claimed and another has claimed without question it is james riley who was not one of washington's slaves in the
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artist captured in london where he worked on the painting and i say it doesn't matter. but that to this late is the noble but it is important. and did is captured in this work then it is very much a part of the structure of the united states. i cannot resist telling you after it was sold went to various places it ended at bid new york where in 1,892,000 and vigorous good cleaning with soap and water
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it and solvent. haddad was painted by a 1859. but a very fine portrait notice after was presented the old kentucky home that
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was an uncomfortable fact in the if you look at his song i have not sorted all of that out of what is with the painting looking antislavery and remember their british
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said something to do with the destruction in 1815 and the dome of the capital has yet to be built. and that will undergo many changes. in that is the status made board did massachusetts and johnson came here and was quite appalled bayadere idea of slavery in the fact of the matter was by the 1840's when johnson arrived the slave trade weapons in full form with both washington
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d.c. and alex you andrea most especially. and it took the bottom of the diamond the way that alexandria is one of the major slave trades emporiums in the united states. there were plenty of slaves in feeling then hints of the slave trader. with federal capital prison was also slave holding to be situated iran and the capital.
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those that were growing in congress by this time were sitting in in the center of the slave trade. and it was a rare blow not from though one that you just saw. and this is the view of the patent office about 1846. and a fake it is very important to see this picture because it does show in now can return to the pitcher of a self end that
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painting of course, has these wonderful thing gets this man is having an interesting conversation the color of erskine speaks volumes about what is going on. end to this is the read gentrified house and is almost next door and to be sitting in a paul the repair. with that ruth about to collapse with terrible
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disrepair and then the whites wanted though white alders house coming into the back of this house. has these people are interrupting you and intruding on their space just as there are other intrusions' as the color of skin and suggest from the house alone the right is in the eric historical society and i urge you to go see a hint it is worth studying
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and thinking about. we have to move on quickly put to the washington monument. that was is designed in in 1836 and won a competition in but in that competition competition, he beat out other people in there were people that were unhappy about that. and had just secure the patent office that he also designed rand also has secured the addition into a
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the treasury that destroys pennsylvania avenue. and he was not so responsible for that. is to put his case in into the road. and take a look into what is a tall obelisk it went up over 76 feet to surrounded the statues of american greats. this is one of the stories that does not speak well for
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anybody except for one person at the end. but to begin with, but the washington monument society began raising money for this to put the structure on the amount it would not accept any more than $1 from any person. and i suspect that is not a good way to raise money. it took until 1848 when they have the ability to start the monument debate didn't have the death monday bet figure they would get it started july 1848. dolly madison was there with
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alexander hamilton's widow widow, and will link to the past but at the ceremony in to abraham lincoln and what else? to reach you probably know what happened so in 1854 the washington monument started to look for stowe and sent to buy foreign governments. but unfortunately the pope sent as stone and that didn't sit well with the new
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nothing party that was into a catholic and they would not have the people stoned in this building so they went in the middle of the night to smash the stone and throwing into the potomac and give people have been looking for it ever since. [laughter] but it is very important
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with the capital of the united states as people have taken over the washington monument. it just boggles my mind tuesday even at that time would allow that and did suggest a certain date close this on members of congress and how they regarded then city at that time. the monument had a troubled history and became the great
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monument during the civil war. [laughter] and that is because we have all of these troops in virginia end they had to feed them so there was an eagerness slaughterhouse. why not at though washington monument so they could slaughter the animals the blood drains down to the potomac school in everybody is happy. so he essentially that is what happens in the civil
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war it was like an old chimney. if after that finally in 1876 in the fervor of patriotism the united states congress was spurred into action and voted to complete the monument eggs soon as congress got involved guess what happened? everybody started to attack proposals to come up with their own. there were many, many proposals like this one pro proposals for a cuban deal or appear amid over just a
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bizarre number and unfortunately during the administration there was a million who was in charge of all of washington in civil engineering. you can see him here. at the top of this non approved osha project. [laughter] and is doing very well. and also another man, i was looking over my notes in a deal and he gets a couple of sentences but george perkins
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marsh was appointed by lincoln to be the ambassador to the a italian republic gore states in 1861 and then he died in italy. the team was the brilliant classical scholar and figure out what the size of the monument should be n. those dimensions he figured with the size of the pyramids so where should be 10 times the with at the base. that made 555 feet. it is basically the civic is
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already beginning to pitch a little bit in the ground underneath it is not a solid. for years to work under the amended to ensure that up with a grade to during these with the coloration and.
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and he had the ability to ignore congress as he said in a letter to his father the monument is a football for? and it is exactly you what it was. but he persevered starting the october 7th come 8084. and his hair in the cherry blossom time and i chose that because it was so foggy here in is now to move on
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and. is dead is a personal matter. but it wasn't too high when they started. [laughter] but but she was the woman.
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there have been all sorts of things happening. but nothing like what alice did then makes me and miseries of the procession in his into but with wilson and came with the car that
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stuck in in traffic for the parade in they had difficulty getting into the hotel where he was stating that and they refer. >> the key was that the raid in then to get yours the the back but the tests.
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but then there was bad enough to chain themselves to the white house fence fred go but bin i was being slipped messages to those who are having a happy reporters in a ball of the indignities, in rand wilson was over a barrel and had to capitulate. and by november 1918 wilson was in retreat. and he was decent in his defeat. he came to support the
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19th amendment and to god it passed in the house and it failed in the senate but he could get peace and bell little over a year through august of 20 with they come
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with their female companions for the coming with those male companions. but did not want to be known as a fast peace effort to church. [laughter]
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isn't that that happen immediately after he became president and but he was in a ways to cut and i am happy
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to say he was the worst president prevent whoof did washington was the message to congress in july eisenhower and fdr and calfed to which but not ones woodrow wilson which makes it very curious. he is buried in washington. but wilson of course, did extraordinary damage to the
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city of washington by allowing these racially vince to occur. island set almost entirely responsible i wrote about this recently for a the 1918 riot peach says there was so rich blood and in cities across this of yen but to follow that the defacto sec review should remain but
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here was washington and the cusp but when she came to washington for this concert the war in wood and jericho mia former and with that is
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standing against that of lot since own parents -- watson in his own parents in a diminished in this part of
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the picture of that dignified past to pose in the picture then double this brattling dash distress of his present circumstances and in the future for all of these children to me it is terribly important to tell us a lot about the racism not just from this city but also american life. i cannot close on a somber note to. [laughter] so i will talk about a wonderful painting. >> by a great to every had talked about the aerial
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deconstruction in to a of the american and with that energy that washington exhibits in in looking at the various neighborhoods but i found the city with removal of energy. to compromise government-owned and situation and despised those racial difficulties that continue but are getting better i like to think. b.c. washington, a great symbol and to end that is
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our national city. they key very much. [applause] >> [inaudible conversations] >> this is your moment. >> did you do your research? >> i'm sorry. >> noone would you like to have dinner with san of why
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but in his impressive new jersey bet that art is actually in princeton new jersey from her is to really encapsulate but then this is
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certainly didn't hurt and couldn't but to go back to get it notions of freedom in what looks like. but madison was the one to blow to release a reluctant and leaves. >> but actually we bring greek but applying the congress in there were no
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accommodations at that time. it was in the tender ted room luxury -- ted by a 10 the it what happened was when i would like to do is to say you have to reconsider this whole proposition that is for me in in your mind to create a place for the government the district of columbia, a
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federal government apart from the people of this democracy and you want to do it so those people can deliberate without pressure. no million man marches or martin luther king's speeches, and nothing like that to end may be a cook have talked him into it. [laughter]
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>> darr depending on you. [laughter] >> at what point did things the control louver million -- a monument but fortunately the capital
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planning came into at the turin of the century as a result of the previous commission. i am truncating a lot of history but but then when the of lincoln memorial to actually give us union station isn't the time when trains would go right across the mall in there was a huge station and. the agency is is so really
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it was the beginning of the last. >> [inaudible] >> that is george washington testis you did that. i will tell a little bit about him. george washington testis was of bed but there were some
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letters he is not doing so well in school. high-fashion ted -- washington died without issue ended his chuckle but to whom in he created the mention on a hell of the -- overlooking the city. and i'm sure you have in their best bets in the face of this new movement but taking of the recipient of full ruth and end it is the
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worst we have ever seen in the i have copied a few. but he married off but then it became robert e. lee. in the civil war then you will see in read a little bit about montgomery. . .
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>> part of it broke away. >> yes, in 1846. >> could you just give a bit of background about that. also, cast in concrete. i understand no longer exist. >> how interesting that you should bring that up. this was called in 1846 and it was because of, as i suggested, there is some
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evidence at least that it is because of the great slave trade that was going on in alexandria, virginia at the time. and if alexandria were a slave part of a slave state and not part of the district where slave commerce was becoming illegal, then at that point you had to, you would be free to engage in your selling. that was part of what the retrocession was about. the other part of your question quite intrigued me because as a matter of fact, there have been people who have been head of the senate committee on the district of columbia who have floated the idea that there should
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be a new exception in this sense return to the normal state. >> i have two questions. first, i was wondering about the name of the city and perhaps are there any alternatives, and the 2nd question is whether for what you think the fact that says john adams is missing.
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>> while. well, let's think about that. first question which had to do with the naming was basically washington, not to be washington. congress was not designated that way at the beginning. they designated it just as the federal seat of government. that is the way it is stated in the residence act of 1790. but what happened was washington appointed three commissioners. i go into those commissioners in some detail in my book, and they decided along the way, it was several years into the course of the city creation that it should be called washington, and they
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declared that it would be called washington. about your question about john adams -- excuse me? [inaudible conversations] >> i apologize. christopher columbus. columbia. zero, dc. that is in -- i believe that is an the federal act of 1790, that it would be the seat of government in the district of columbia. yes. it is as simple as -- columbus had great importance to this land at that time. there was a poet named joel barlow who wrote an extraordinarily long poem about this nation, so i
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apologize. the other part of your question was about john adams. i think you're right. john adams is over the years not been received very well for several reasons, to be sure. i think that david mccullough's magnificent biography of adams has begun to change that. he is very important to the republic. he is very important as one of the founders of the nation, and he was a person who by all means we should be thinking of memorializing in the city.
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i would be hard-pressed to disagree with that, as a matter of fact. [inaudible question] >> a little bit. that might be the operative word. what i started, washington became in a way midway between the north and the south for the railroads. the railroads, of course, shuttered their trains across what is now the mall. the mall had enormous tracts on it, an enormous number of tracks that went down maryland avenue. and when the cleveland
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administration of the railroads had a very big push to make them off, they were filling in the mall that we walk across today largely reclaimed beyond the washington monument. and -- as part of the plan. a group, and it was a senator from michigan who was very much involved with
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the district of columbia, everything in the district of columbia. he really cared about the city. and one of the things he wanted to do was to bring some design organization to it because largely by 1900 the plans have been ignored. and then he waited until they were out of town. they counted. the congressional maneuvering ultimately
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appointed a commission, and it included the designer of the chicago world's fair. fred olmstead and charles mckeown. two of the most brilliant architects including -- and you have the son of the man who was the most brilliant and foremost landscape architect. it was certainly a part of it. they went to europe and
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studied all the great cities of europe all these guys great capitals of europe. very hard they were all in paris, but he had to go off to a meeting with james cassatt, and cassette was also head of the pennsylvania railroad, and he did not want the railroad where it was. and burn them shorted not wanted where it was. what they arranged this for a tunnel basically to go
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under capitol hill to the south and then they would build union station so that the trains would terminate there. and i think i have exhausted all my knowledge. >> the origin of the residency. >> excuse me? now you have got me started. the origin is in the constitution of the united states. article one section eight, clause 17 which says that this is a part from the country. and that is where it began. but i think you might want more. it has been reinforced.
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no one knew how to govern the city. congress did not want to govern it. and so they allowed for a man and then the mayor was elected, etc. it came up 1871. 1871, i think. therefore it had a territorial governor. it did not have any elected officials at that point. that is when alexander shepp had for rain. i don't want to get into shepherd.


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