tv Book Discussion on Washington Rules CSPAN February 19, 2016 2:54am-4:26am EST
commitment on the scale of the marshall plan in this echoed that was wanting to end discrimination with the legacy of the centuries of the equality. so he is his speech of jobs and freedom. >> we have nine other than because the mill k finishes so who will spoke in a the representative of those who spoke as well. throughout the day there were a number of people who came to support like bob dylan peter paul and mary
was fairly controversial. but he was a communist and a member of the young communist league that he was also a homosexual. and he was arrested is under homosexual sex in by far was widely known the principal architect and was a tremendous grass-roots organizer and then to make a tremendous statement
facility a philip randolph to organize the march the first person in he called was rustin and they put together a plan but when randolph led to get support from the major civil-rights organizers the principal objections came he is a former communist and was arrested for homosexual sex he cannot be the principal for this march. and a. philip randolph initially conceited and said okay.
and of hundred thousand came judy treat. to lead to have a positive impact. and to have a massive demonstration in there was of great deal to the south in criticism of the federal government with civil-rights activist in the south and people were worried. but the march in detroit to is very peaceful and a public-relations success in a lot of people that were hesitant to say we can support that but until key
-- and i'm okay previewed and had a recording of him giving the same speech almost one year earlier in north carolina at a high-school. this is the speech he pioneered several years before with the outline when he spoke initially with the refrain of the i have the dream before the afl-cio labor movement almost two years before the march on washington in the speech he has perfected over time by the time it came around to his advisers told him not to give that speech. and if you watch him there are recordings he begins not
with that i have the dream of refrained but a check written by the government and the declaration of independence. and then it is marked insufficient funds. the promise of american democracy. but he gets halfway but then he pushes aside. with very effectively in detroit. there were rumors the famous gospel singer just before he came on stage to say tell him about the dream.
then his speech really wasn't getting a. so he went back to their refrained that gave this speech is now one of the most famous speeches in american history. end if she was reminding him of that but that is the refrain that we all know. >> two weeks after the march birmingham alabama. so when we look as a tremendous success we forget how complicated the history was after that.
it wasn't a speech for they said we are wrong. but it marked an intense year of conflict in nothing punctuated that's live in the bombing of the church. this was on a sunday morning when people are preparing for church services in the they were all killed in this explosion. in the bill before congress and it reminds us how hard it was. a movement to go into the core of what this nation in shady.
>> over guest is tom lewis bin does not lead here in town. he had to take the metro on entry leyte night. [laughter] and came down from saratoga springs despite the fact he is from "the new yorker" they say they he succeeds to show was the human face of washington that too often is perceived as baseless invalid is achievement enough. tom lewis. [applause] >> ironclad that you nictitating the metro i
invited several people to come tonight and i have been in the back of the greenery with frantic messages saying we are stuck in traffic. i said ditched the car grab the metro in to get off that federal trade and goals so they will be coming in late and i expect some others as well. i want to take rebecca for introduction in the smithsonian associates for inviting me i am delighted to be here and honored to be here and also james nissen and john quincy adams and
joseph henry. you'll also but it is good to remind ourselves that he gave 100,000 pounds that translated into a 500,000 of the u.s. currency and ultimately 105 sacks of cold and he said that money should be used in america for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. and we have to think john quincy adams he is under rated as the president in and congressperson he shepherded that money through with an often resistant and reluctant congress.
calhoun wanted to reach her nominee to england because it would expand the role of the federal government in the state's and also unwise to take money from a foreigner. [laughter] once he got it through congress he had to persuade them again to take the money because it fell into the his temporarily and of president kim purine secretary of the treasury and he lost most of that in the shady arkansas bond deal in the now john quincy adams has to get congress to put pressure of the treasury to restore the money and that is what happened and i especially
have to thank joseph henry as a pioneer that we never touch a computer or push a little but an owner selfie owner never even turn on a light without being touched by one of his discoveries clearer and of course, he became the first secretary in said the smithsonian should be for men of all countries in the fall times for extension of the boundaries of thought in he kept it checked out of the indians of people like stephen douglas david who wanted to expend all of his
monday on agricultural schemes or project is and kept it ahead of the means of an andrew johnson, the president who wanted to rename the smithsonian washington in for the benefit of an indigent children of the district of columbia. perhaps his greatest achievement was surviving 30 years 1846 through 1878 as secretary. especially as during the civil war was is with the sothern's abilities but he stayed on and served a and say -- insert in the smithsonian thrives because of him. but also why i wrote the
book isn't what it means to me. i began writing this book as a young child standing up in the back of my father's studebaker as he drove from philadelphia to virginia end would come in on new york avenue i would be quite stunned then later i add a little bit of an argument with my a high-school teacher that the washington
people couldn't vote and said that does not make any sense because they are american citizens. and said they don't vote because there are not many of them and they don't really live there this did not sit well in the bottom me for many years. later in the eighties aged 90 cited a variety of projects in spent a great deal of time wandering the streets at night not just
centuries of washington's history in has endeared what has gone on in the united states and finally washington as the great symbol that it is of the democracy this may annoys some people epilogues to washingtonians but also belongs to indiana and it should. after all is our representatives and senators who control your destiny as washingtonians. and this is something i will be returning to taiwan in began washington and i like
to think is our city. not jazz the capital of the united states but a history of our national city. so let's talk about how we will do our job tonight. i have five principal images the you have received dacia about them but don't thank you have been cheated. as the evening progresses. so let's take a look at this picture of the al washington
[laughter] but yet but you can see it is extraordinarily symbolic portrait in duquesne's the washington with his heel and don the table this is of washington military meehan in he like to the four paintings but never mind i have fallen in love with george washington and in some ways is not the easy to do but it is very important
say. and you can see one of them as non to vernon. the there is george washington and his family looking down at the table where they used to rotate their breakfast. i do think it is a magnificent increase being in that is in extremely important because this picture represented what the country was.
and then into the bay vision of the city which was very different it was a federal town. yes. this is rock creek you can see the town that was to me 1500 acres, 1200 divided into the quarter acre lots in the remaining 300 would-be public buildings. in jefferson would take 20 dwelling houses for those belonging to the government and lodging houses. which i am not sure is enough for the time.
need that is important to. and that's the united states would be. and then l'enfant designed a city and washington went with l'enfant and there is another story that is in the book that tells how jefferson undermines 80 ted every turn and that ski with the lottery is not so read ticketless today. [laughter] is history and raising money.
without question it is james riley who was not one of washington's slaves in the artist captured in london where he worked on the painting and i say it doesn't matter. but that to this late is the noble but it is important. and did is captured in this work then it is very much a part of the structure of the united states. i cannot resist telling you after it was sold went to various places it ended at
the matter was by the 1840's when johnson arrived the slave trade weapons in full form with both washington d.c. and alex you andrea most especially. and it took the bottom of the diamond the way that alexandria is one of the major slave trades emporiums in the united states. there were plenty of slaves in feeling then hints of the slave trader. with federal capital prison
was also slave holding to be situated iran and the capital. those that were growing in congress by this time were sitting in in the center of the slave trade. and it was a rare blow not from though one that you just saw. and this is the view of the patent office about 1846. and a fake it is very important to see this
picture because it does show in now can return to the pitcher of a self end that painting of course, has these wonderful thing gets this man is having an interesting conversation the color of erskine speaks volumes about what is going on. end to this is the read gentrified house and is almost next door and to be sitting in a paul the repair.
with that ruth about to collapse with terrible disrepair and then the whites wanted though white alders house coming into the back of this house. has these people are interrupting you and intruding on their space just as there are other intrusions' as the color of skin and suggest from the house alone the right is in
the eric historical society and i urge you to go see a hint it is worth studying and thinking about. we have to move on quickly put to the washington monument. that was is designed in in 1836 and won a competition in but in that competition competition, he beat out other people in there were people that were unhappy about that.
and had just secure the patent office that he also designed rand also has secured the addition into a the treasury that destroys pennsylvania avenue. and he was not so responsible for that. is to put his case in into the road. and take a look into what is a tall obelisk it went up over 76 feet to surrounded
the statues of american greats. this is one of the stories that does not speak well for anybody except for one person at the end. but to begin with, but the washington monument society began raising money for this to put the structure on the amount it would not accept any more than $1 from any person. and i suspect that is not a good way to raise money. it took until 1848 when they have the ability to start the monument debate didn't have the death monday bet figure they would get it started july 1848.
but unfortunately the pope sent as stone and that didn't sit well with the new nothing party that was into a catholic and they would not have the people stoned in this building so they went in the middle of the night to smash the stone and throwing into the potomac and give people have been looking for it ever since. [laughter] but it is very important
city at that time. the monument had a troubled history and became the great monument during the civil war. [laughter] and that is because we have all of these troops in virginia end they had to feed them so there was an eagerness slaughterhouse. why not at though washington monument so they could slaughter the animals the blood drains down to the potomac school in everybody
is happy. so he essentially that is what happens in the civil war it was like an old chimney. if after that finally in 1876 in the fervor of patriotism the united states congress was spurred into action and voted to complete the monument eggs soon as congress got involved guess what happened? everybody started to attack proposals to come up with their own.
there were many, many proposals like this one pro proposals for a cuban deal or appear amid over just a bizarre number and unfortunately during the administration there was a million who was in charge of all of washington in civil engineering. you can see him here. at the top of this non approved osha project. [laughter] and is doing very well. and also another man, i was
looking over my notes in a deal and he gets a couple of sentences but george perkins marsh was appointed by lincoln to be the ambassador to the a italian republic gore states in 1861 and then he died in italy. the team was the brilliant classical scholar and figure out what the size of the monument should be n. those dimensions he figured with the size of the pyramids so where should be 10 times the with at the base.
with the coloration and. and he had the ability to ignore congress as he said in a letter to his father the monument is a football for? and it is exactly you what it was. but he persevered starting the october 7th come 8084. and his hair in the cherry blossom time and i chose that because it was so foggy
in then to get yours the the back but the tests. but then there was bad enough to chain themselves to the white house fence fred go but bin i was being slipped messages to those who are having a happy reporters in a ball of the indignities, in rand wilson was over a barrel and had to capitulate. and by november 1918 wilson
since own parents -- watson in his own parents in a diminished in this part of the picture of that dignified past to pose in the picture then double this brattling dash distress of his present circumstances and in the future for all of these children to me it is terribly important to tell us a lot about the racism not just from this city but also american life. i cannot close on a somber note to. [laughter] so i will talk about a wonderful painting.
>> by a great to every had talked about the aerial deconstruction in to a of the american and with that energy that washington exhibits in in looking at the various neighborhoods but i found the city with removal of energy. to compromise government-owned and situation and despised those racial difficulties that
reconsider this whole proposition that is for me in in your mind to create a place for the government the district of columbia, a federal government apart from the people of this democracy and you want to do it so those people can deliberate without pressure. no million man marches or martin luther king's speeches, and nothing like that to end may be a cook
i will tell a little bit about him. george washington testis was of bed but there were some letters he is not doing so well in school. high-fashion ted -- washington died without issue ended his chuckle but to whom in he created the mention on a hell of the -- overlooking the city. and i'm sure you have in their best bets in the face
this was called in 1846 and it was because of, as i suggested, there is some evidence at least that it is because of the great slave trade that was going on in alexandria, virginia at the time. and if alexandria were a slave part of a slave state and not part of the district where slave commerce was becoming illegal, then at that point you had to, you would be free to engage in your selling. that was part of what the retrocession was about. the other part of your question quite intrigued me because as a matter of fact,
there have been people who have been head of the senate committee on the district of columbia who have floated the idea that there should be a new exception in this sense return to the normal state. >> i have two questions. first, i was wondering about the name of the city and perhaps are there any alternatives, and the 2nd
question is whether for what you think the fact that says john adams is missing. >> while. well, let's think about that. first question which had to do with the naming was basically washington, not to be washington. congress was not designated that way at the beginning. they designated it just as the federal seat of government. that is the way it is stated in the residence act of 1790. but what happened was washington appointed three commissioners. i go into those commissioners in some detail in my book, and they decided along the way, it was
several years into the course of the city creation that it should be called washington, and they declared that it would be called washington. about your question about john adams -- excuse me? [inaudible conversations] >> i apologize. christopher columbus. columbia. zero, dc. that is in -- i believe that is an the federal act of 1790, that it would be the seat of government in the district of columbia. yes. it is as simple as --
columbus had great importance to this land at that time. there was a poet named joel barlow who wrote an extraordinarily long poem about this nation, so i apologize. the other part of your question was about john adams. i think you're right. john adams is over the years not been received very well for several reasons, to be sure. i think that david mccullough's magnificent biography of adams has begun to change that. he is very important to the republic. he is very important as one of the founders of the nation, and he was a person
who by all means we should be thinking of memorializing in the city. i would be hard-pressed to disagree with that, as a matter of fact. [inaudible question] >> a little bit. that might be the operative word. what i started, washington became in a way midway between the north and the south for the railroads. the railroads, of course, shuttered their trains across what is now the mall. the mall had enormous tracts