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tv   Day 6 of Trial for Derek Chauvin Accused in Death of George Floyd Part 1  CSPAN  April 5, 2021 8:01pm-9:26pm EDT

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>> week two in the trial of derek chauvin the former minneapolis police officer accused in the death of george floyd begin with testimony from an emergency position he tried to revive him that mr. floyd likely died of a lack of oxygen. the police chief who fired mr. chopin in three other officers involved in the incident took the witness stand. here is judge peter with the start of the proceedings granting a motion by their children's defense attorney to allow them to see the entirety of the officers body camera footage of the incident.
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>> you can please be seated. it is 9:00 o'clock, we have a motion that we have to deal with dealing with them this ability of various video mr. nelson i think this is your motion. >> in morning your honor, thank you. >> the body worn cameras from the three officers involved excuse me the four officers that were involved i'm amending my motion only to include the entirety of mr. children's body one camera in connection in the totality of the circumstances based on a reasonable police officer would've done in similar circumstances, i believe after the state presented is a lot
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more that happened after that affect and certainly mr. chauvin's thinking and process continues to investigate the original forgery, it is showing his actions and also showing what is happening with the civilians and bystanders at the same time similar to what was happening at the time when mr. floyd restrained. i think it ultimately goes to a totality of the circumstance analysis and shows his reactions, you can hear his voice and ultimately becomes an important piece to present to the jury. i believe with respect on camera your honor, we are reserving that at this point. >> i reviewed all the video that the defense provided and i think the milestone party let's get together and figure out what is rdn and what is not before we go any further, we will deal without tomorrow or wednesday mold under most likely on
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wednesday because tomorrow we have to deal with mr. hall's indication of his rights. what is the state's response to this motion? >> good morning your honor, thank you, i will try to be expedient but i do want to be precise and thorough we had mr. schober chauvin's body camera and there was four videos that came from chauvin's camera, each one is labeled with a distinctive number that represents the time it starts, first will be put in was 2011 that's essentially a drive
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there, we put all of that in. 2017 is the next video and i believe he put all that in and 2034 we put in through the timestamp on the video of 203642, it is my understanding that the defense is asking them to put in the remainder of the video from that point forward and to describe a little bit what happens then officer king comes up for an envelope, he discusses with mr. chauvin some information that he learned from somebody in the store presumably the manager investigating the bill, he has the bill and officer chauvin confirmed the
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goods and services provided officer king indicates that was our guy and that obviously all presents two levels of hearsay from the store manager through then officer king, they then continue a discussion about the car keys, officer king talks about getting the security camera videos or noting them and then there's a discussion about the vehicle. in addition to the obvious hearsay problem i think there's also a relevant problem the totality of circumstances is judged from the view of a reasonable police officer at the time of the force. this is all subsequent investigation. that of course could've been done before trying to force mr. floyd in the backseat about it now loses its relevance because it does not have any bearing on what the officers
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knew or believed at the time is used. it is all relevant whether mr. floyd actually knowingly passed the bill is simply irrelevant to the officers use of force that's why we rejected the main remainder of the video in the fourth video is 2045, we put in our a short piece about video and the remainder of that video is a conversation in which sgt hoover talks to wayne and king and mr. chauvin with a rerun of what happened, this is them speaking and chauvin standing there not making any
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corrections or additions. obviously again a very real hearsay problem is not aware of any hearsay exceptions that would allow the statements by the non-testifies to come in, also to the extent your honor it is admitted, we would argue it's an adopted admission, we want to be clear about the on the record that there is obvious hearsay problem there, it is essentially this court has seen this in service as a judge that is simply trying to get in a defense about having to testify in very clearly of the intent and what's not permitted to do that through hearsay. so we think that is irrelevant
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as well and prohibited by the hearsay rule. >> let me ask you on 2045 video that discussion is primarily about what happened with mr. floyd, the use of force, is that correct? >> correct. >> is anything beyond that in the 2045 or is anything on the 2045 beyond the discussion about what happened as far as use of force. >> there is discussion who's gonna go to the hospital and who's going to stay behind and things of that nature. >> that is correct. >> as far as a 2034 you put in through 2036 and 23 seconds, is there anything beyond the on the 2034 video that relates the use of force or dealing with
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mr. floyd? >> not that i recall. >> thank you. >> were going to reserve argument and decision on a milestone camera until later probably wednesday until we have another legal issue to deal with tomorrow morning as far as the 2034 video i'm going to allow that because the defense is not really offering the defendant statements or anybody statement for that matter for the truth of the matter and is not hearsay. it is being offered more to show it is relevant because mr. chauvin's demeanor and actions immediately following mr. floyd being removed to the hospital, i think that is relevant for the jury to see his demeanor and what actions he took "after words".
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the remainder of the 2034 video will be put in, on the contrary the 2034 video will not be allowed because it is hearsay and i reviewed in its entirety and it does appear it's primarily officers lane and king giving their side of the story so to speak it is not followed to any of the 804 exceptions for unavailable witness to allow the hearsay and i do not find it was an adoptive omission by the defendant, he is there but her presence at hearsay statement does not constitute an abduction of what is being said. accordingly, 2035 video will not be allowed. >> will those be allowed. >> what remains after the conversation specifically, why don't you go over here so we can
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go over that. >> again specifically after the commentary there is additional conversation amongst officers who's going where and what's happening, who's going to the hospital. >> any objection to that? >> again is the truth of the matter the decisions on why some people want and some people do not. >> we will allow that. >> recollections that are being reported about what happened with mr. floyd. >> i think that takes care of that, the jury is here so i think we can bring them in just for the record the next hearing is going to be on the record with spectators present but we are going to go off audio and off video so it will not be broadcast outside the courtroom. i will make a record as to why
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we are doing that when the grand jury ends. >> with the members of the jury we have a handout today, we're going to be doing this hearing entirely off the record or on the record but off audio and video. i'm going to ask you several questions but first of all i need everybody to raise your right hand. >> we will do that immediately after. >> we are back on audio and video the clerk has just conducted a hearing with the
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jurors regarding manner, the court makes the final that there's no misconduct in the juries were credible in their responses and accordingly no action will be taken. anything else, mr. nelson if you can make the record all note that you made these objections before lieutenant zimmerman's testimony and we said you could preserve with an objection on the record later. >> certainly your honor, for the record last thursday we had a hearing with sgt outside of the presence of the jury to note amid objection to ask of his assessment of the use of force in this particular case, i made that friday morning in chambers during a chambers discussion and i made the objection with
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reference to the motion that had been filed prior to prevent every single officer from coming in and giving their 2 cents over reasonable use of force i made those same objections to lieutenant zimmerman's testimony and i just wanted the record to be clear about objection that continues for that testimony. >> given the involvement with the testimony and based on the training and experience it was a limited opinion that the amount of restraint that lieutenant zimmerman was uncalled for but it was not appropriate and i denied the defense motion for those opinions. >> i just want to know today your honor we have at least three officers that are coming into testify, i understand that
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she will be testable into testify in his policy decisions for employment purposes, however, there are two other officers that will be trained while he's in charge or overseas of training, i would note again she is opinions as well as sgt who is in charge of the crisis intervention program. i am concerned and these are coming in, i'm concerned the state is pigeonholing expert testimony through the officers were these officers are allowed to testify in these are training material and training policies. >> i am allowing the chief testimony.
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>> i am allowing that opinion but why crisis intervention, are we trying to get in mr. floyd state of mind to the back door here? >> no your honor the proper testimony of sgt who will dispute regarding the minneapolis police department crisis and even invention training the 40 hours based training course in which paid actors come in and they go through various scenarios such that officers would be able to recognize people who are emotionally and behaviorally disturbed and to be able to
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understand that some people are unable to comply with the man and being willing to comply with demands and also the reasonableness of the police officer and the actions that they take. >> sgt is not offering any opinions per se? >> he's not he's only going to describe the training. >> you have evidence that mr. chauvin took that training. >> yes your honor. >> that was my understanding of sgt yang's testimony into the crisis intervention program and training the officers go through it is within the policy and the part of the de-escalation policy. it would also include what officers are specifically trained to do to identify the different to resisting or intentionally resisting arrest of someone having an emotional.
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>> so to be clear there's not going to be any video shown in sgt yang and whether this person was emotionally distressed? >> it's a summary of the training that was provided in mr. showman in his personnel records show he took that training, that is fine. >> anything beyond that including videos we will not allow. >> i think this touches on something that was technically reserved, was the issue of which training materials would be admitted because inspector blackwell, both parties intend to introduce training records at the minneapolis police department that has prepared and introduce them, there has not been a determination as for the state or defense needs to prove
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officer chauvin experience that direct training or is this a general policies and training materials of the minneapolis police department. >> that's what we tried to work out and it's not that we have the conversation on the back burner. >> all this give you my thoughts and if there's any questions that you have, my analysis of this, we said mr. floyd state of mind is not relevant if the defendant state of mind in his acknowledge and his intent, part of his knowledge is based on training he's received a summary of the crisis intervention that he's received is appropriate. were not getting into the psychiatrist testimony about what was mr. floyd's, was not truly anxiety or whatever, i will not let a trainer say look at the video and give those
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answers. but evidence regarding what mr. chauvin new and what he was trained on in the may 25, 2020 were irrelevant and allowed. i guess one of my missing mr. nelson that still needs to be forward. >> before we get into problems in terms of a connection does mr. chauvin actually go through this specific powerpoint presentation. and this goes how to the disclosures were given to me. >> let's switch places here. >> thank you your honor. >> against into certain issues, officer chauvin a 19 year veteran with the minneapolis please department has committed 940 for some odd hours of
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training, and aware of our continuing education i go on the co e and report i attended this all day long seminar but with all day long seminar there is 5 - 6, seven presentations and that's ultimately what we see we look at mr. chauvin's workforce records and eisai he attended the 2020 use of force phase one defensive tactics presentation, what does that consist of has been virtually impossible to reconstruct and it goes to primarily how it was original disclosed to the defense, how it was disclosed from the police department, the b.c.a., the b.c.a. to the defense and that formed the basis in my earlier motion in earlier proceedings to get a copy of the b.c.a. drive,
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when i originally received the training materials for example the training materials are 20 - 30000 pages of pdf format and you can look at pdf of a powerpoint presentation and it says use of force academy, whatever the topic, no frame of reference as to when this was given and there is no title, no dates and no information, who talked of the course and who attended the course, some of the information contained very important statements on part of the minneapolis police department. when i received the b.c.a. drive much later and i look at them in their native formats, the reason i was not seeing the title of the presentations were the dates of the presentations is because that's how they were saved on the drive.
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so let's say 2018 phase one defensive tactics, you know that is the training material from 2018 from the defense tactics course or it will say 2018 crisis intervention training, whatever to thousand 18 human factors of force training, the date and title of these courses were given on that drive. now again you can look in sienna's workforce director program that he got credit for the eight hour day but again which presentation were given on that particular day, there is literally no way to put this together, i don't know if the state would disagree with that. >> if they do can you type a specific training module to the date that mr. chauvin actually
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attended? >> your honor, what we can do is first show the workforce director training which memorializes what particular trainings in-service trainings the defendant has attended in the titles of those different trainings. >> then we can have the trainer specifically talk about the materials and curriculum that they developed for those blocks of training. >> for example if it's going to be the fall in-service there is a powerpoint presentation that is developed from the curriculum from the fall service and they can say that powerpoint training was in fact presented. in these materials get recycled from year-to-year and there's nothing markedly different in my view from one to the other they cover in the same generalized
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concept so from a foundational standpoint i think is pretty clear the training and the content was imparted in this particular class and the defendant attended that class. >> and unnecessary foundation we agreed that this is the training provided on this date as the defendants records show he attended. even if it's embedded with eight hours of over training i think that would make it relevant, if your training where you cannot connect to the training that mrt say you lay the foundation. but it sounds like you have the foundation, am i correct. >> i think it's pretty clear your honor despite the other issues mr. nelson identified, you can cross-examine and say this is a powerpoint in the midst of eight hours training on other topics and that's plan
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because it goes through the evidence as opposed to invisibility. mr. nelson one last comment. >> i guess your honor i'm not objecting to the admissibility of this training, the question becomes -- i think i don't think it's as easy as presented it's because some of the things that they said that they intended to introduce that are clearly from the academy, from the police academy there not from in-service records but it contains the information that may have been a part of some other training, there is a powerpoint presentation from the minneapolis police academy about nerve manipulation and basically joint manipulation nerve ending and how to gain compliance
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through crossing someone through marriage. it's clearly a training material from the police academy from 2017 or 2018 officer chauvin was not in the police academy in 2018 will ultimately it is part of their training, where did that come from when was it presented to him, i do not know and i don't think there is no other record of that type of training, the training materials into levels the minneapolis police department comes in and says we never trained our officers to do x. insert ask. but there are training materials that contradict that testimony that undermine that testimony and i'm not questioning the foundation for these records, these records exist they all come from minneapolis police department, whether or not i
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need to show that mr. chauvin had that specific training is one question. >> it seems like there's two levels and i think the foundation for this training material is one level and in certain training and the defendant has been exposed the part about training for the certain knowledge, that seems admissible. if it's training provided by mpv but no indication that mr. chauvin took it and this is not the version he was trained on that does not seem relevant all. the only way that i see training that he had not attended which might be relevant is to impeach, i don't know if this is true or not, i just know that lieutenant zimmerman said in his 40 years roughly on minneapolis police department the use of force training every year, he was never trained to do x.
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as you have use of force training that impeach is that statement i think that is appropriate impeachment but aside from that i don't see why testimony that the defendant has not been a part of should be admissible at all. >> that was a concern that i had and raised in terms of why i thought it was important that each side identified the training materials that needed to be or intended to be introduced. again i agree with the court's analysis, it's an impeachment question on one hand and lieutenant zimmerman says we were never trained to put our knees on the neck but there's a minneapolis police department policy this is otherwise an ample training materials that will contradict that statement. that is impeachment of testimony and certainly should be admissible for those purposes.
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>> and this is training the defendant didn't have, is not admissible. >> i think that goes to some of the broad problems that i raised you can have every single officer common and say this was wasn't the using entered reasonable use of force in the training that he had may be different than the training that zimmerman had. >> from lieutenant singerman and use of force we're going to hear from the commander or the then commander of the training unit about it and beyond that we have a expert witness from the state and the defense, is that correct? >> to expert witnesses from the state your honor. >> we are getting to the point of being cumulative, were not asking every officer because that is accumulative. by having to that might be
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accumulative all the without leader. when a be able to ask every officer what would you have done differently, when i go through that i give any good leeway of the lieutenant that was involved in this case in a peace officer for 40 years in his opinion nygren of the training unit and the two experts, that is it, we're done with it about the use of force. >> you can ask about the intervention. >> this is where i don't know if the state is intending to call any, inspector blackwell is a top dog in the training unit but there's actual use of force instructors, the people who teach these trainings and at
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least two of them have been repeatedly interviewed by the state i don't know if intending to call the actual trainers as well which is commander blackwell she's not as far as i could tell teaching these classes and administering and maintaining the training. >> she's a foundational witness to get the records in, i would've expected with the training people but maybe that's not what they intend to do with the state asking inspector blackwell regarding the use of force in the state. >> the state is going to be calling inspector blackwell to describe the training facility and how it's developed, how would set up, how it's administered, she will offer the
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opinion, i guess it's not an opinion, the fact that the mpd did not train its officers to play sydney on the subjects neck and strained on that position for as long as it happened. and mainly go through the records and describe the curriculum and the facility and the trainers and how it's staffed and the individual trainers will impart the knowledge from the disciplines. we had the crisis intervention and procedural justice training in the use of force trainer and probably johnny, i don't know if i need to have both testified on the tactic side in the medical training that the officers received from officer mckenzie and those are her trainers, will go into a practitioner level
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expert and the academic expert but not immediately. >> my main concern is the medical training that they received, again mr. chauvin what was his training and experience, will we start getting into the opinion how many use of force opinion do we have is accumulative possibly already but i think as you go through each of those it's gotta be talking about training that the defendant receives. here is training that we have because if he didn't take the training it doesn't go to his intent of knowledge. >> understood your honor, the work force records specify what in-service training the defendant has attended and then we have the curriculum of the materials that were presented during those training blocks. >> crisis intervention seems to
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be relative, use of force training is relevant to this case, medical training is relevant to this case. all of the summaries of the training that the defendant received according to his records and the curriculum. i think when we start getting into opinions about use of force, i think we should visit about that before we start blurting out opinions, we already had several and need to go carefully because whether our opinion is something that is an appropriate topic for expert testimony, some of the stuff within the jury's knowledge and they should be able to do without an expert. i think let's just go without for now. >> as for accumulative discussion, to add to that,
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first seen mr. nelson being able defense attorney, i would anticipate by words if you simply tried to prove my case with experts, he would say the state hired experts to say this is unreasonable but what do the people to actually do the work say in. >> and that is the reason, i need to cover the appropriate notice of use of forced from every angle from the reasonable officer, i understand that some point enough is enough. >> that may be a little bit more clear i think you have the right to somebody who has done the use of force training or whatever to give their opinion about this case. but not everybody, not every trainer and you can see who's done the training, and other curriculum and mr. chauvin participated in say give my opinion there. they were done with mpd people
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is. >> regarding the defense of tactic use of force. does that make a little more sense. >> it does, i think that was my plan. >> always good to have a plan that's consistent. >> of the court will let me know. >> let's go in the midst of all of this because everything is fluent. >> arete mr. blackwell. >> in morning your honor, counsel, ladies and gentlemen the state calls doctor bradford.
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>> raise your right hand. >> to swear and affirm and testimony to talk to the truth and nothing but the truth. have a seat please. >> before we begin a couple things if you feel comfortable taking the mask off we prefer you that you do that but as a doctor i tell you i've had both of my shots. but we would like you to state your full name. >> doctor bradford.
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>> we can just call you doctor lang and phil, did you provide emergency care to the body of george floyd who was taken to henderson county on the evening of may 25? >> i did. >> just for the introduction are you the physician who officially pronounced him dead that night. >> that is correct, yes. were you one of the physician to try to save his life. >> sustain. >> to do a minister care to george floyd on may 25, 2020. >> yes. >> what we tried to do. >> we were trying to resuscitate mr. floyd. >> to save his life? >> correct. >> why don't we learn a little bit about your background doctor
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langenfeld, where are you currently employed? >> i'm working at the clinic and hospital in grand rapids minnesota is my primary practice and i also work in laconia minnesota richfield medical center. >> laconia is in carver county. >> it several hours driving away from you. >> that's correct. >> by grand rapids? >> i was born there, that is my hometown. >> is also the hometown of judy garland. >> are you licensed in emergency medicine? >> i have a minnesota state medical license and practice emergency medicine. >> would you tell the ladies and gentlemen of the jury what is emergency medicine as a practice of not. >> it's a very broad practice but primarily it involves taking care of patients suffering from critical illness such as
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strokes, heart attacks, car accidents, other emergencies such as that but also less emergent conditions sore throat, urinary tract infections, things like that. >> when were you first licensed. >> may of 2020. >> would you tell the ladies and judgment of the jury a little bit about your educational background. >> i attended medical school at the university of matter under minnesota twin cities and residency at hesitance county medical center and when did you finish your residency? >> last summer. >> have you ever had any occasion to testify in a court before? >> no i have not. >> this is the first time? >> that is correct. >> let's go to monday may 25, 2020 last year memorial day.
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do you recall whether you were working that evening? >> i was, yes. >> where were you. >> i was in the emergency department. >> at the medical center? >> that is correct. >> what is your position or title there? >> it was one of the senior residents involved with direct patient care including critical care and overseeing some of the junior residents. >> to recall a time your shift again and ended. >> and began about 1:00 p.m. that day and ended at approximately 11:00 p.m. >> as a senior resident, what was your role. >> my role primarily direct patient care, i work underneath attending physicians as a resident. >> did you also oversee any other residents. >> yes.
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>> which residents would you have overseen. >> more junior residents earlier in the residency training. >> was care administered to george floyd on may 25 by yourself? >> yes. >> it was a person primarily responsible for george floyd's care in the medical center emergency department questioning. >> i provided the majority of direct patient care under supervision of doctor ashley strobel who is my attending physician at the time. >> were you the primary decision-maker. >> i was. >> were you the person responsible for the direct patient care? >> yes. >> was mr. floyd's body when it was brought in would you describe as an emergency situation. >> yes, absolutely. what was his condition in terms of his cardiac condition. >> he was in cardiac arrest.
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>> his cardiac arrest mean he had had a heart attack or what does that mean. >> not necessarily. >> what does cardiac arrest technically mean. >> cardiac arrest is defined in sudden sensation of blood flow to the tissues of the body when the heart stops pumping, typically as evidenced by absence of a carotid pulse. >> in late people's terms if we were to say cardiac arrest means a heart stop without the accurate. >> yes. >> what was your immediate objective when mr. floyd comes in when he's in cardiac arrest, what were you immediately trying to do. >> find a way to get the heart to pump on its own again, the primary goal in cases such as this is to achieve ross which means return of spontaneous
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circulation and part of that process involves trying to identify the cause of the arrest to see is there is any reversible causes and continuing cpr and other lifesaving measures. >> is time of the essence. >> yes. >> how did you first learn mr. floyd was being transported to the emergency department at the medical center. >> i received exhibit page and ems notification. >> first tell us what ems is. >> emergency medical services. >> exhibit is that a text message or how would you describe. >> it's sort of like an encrypted text. >> what time did that come in. >> i do not recall exactly maybe
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around 8:50 p.m. >> what information was provided to you for his care of treatment. >> the information was a 30-year-old unidentified male who was in cardiac arrest and that's as much as i can recall at this time. >> do you recall whether any information was given to you as to what may have happened to him ahead of time before he got there to explain the cardiac arrest? >> not at the time, not before he got there. >> did you know at the time that he arrived that the patient was in fact george floyd? >> i did not. >> so you learn that at some point later that it was george floyd. >> yes. >> did you also know at the time that there was a video or any videos that detected what it happened to mr. floyd before he was transported to the medical
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center on may 25? >> no. >> you can answer we aware of any existence of any videos what may have happened before he arrived at the medical center on may 25? >> no. >> did you subsequently learn about videos? >> yes. >> were you able to evaluate your assessment about george floyd in light of the videos questioning. >> yes. >> will talk about those a little bit later. when you received this zip it what did you do in response too? >> we prepared a bay and our stabilization room which is essentially a large room with a lot of critical care resources, we sorta prepped the teams and
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got ready to take care of the patient when he arrived. >> to recall what time mr. floyd would've arrived in the emergency room. >> approximately 8:55 p.m. >> when he arrived, had cpr been started? >> yes. >> any mechanical devices or other things being used to help to stabilize? >> yes there was a lupus cpr device which is basically a mechanical device that sits across the body with something that looks like a plunger and pushes against the chest to provide cpr and chest compressions. >> so this device was on mr. floyd when he arrived at the hospital. >> correct. >> did you ever observe at any point in time that his heart was beating on his own?
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>> not to a degree sufficient to sustain life. >> do you recall who brought mry department questioning. >> i do recall two paramedics and possibly one or two other people but i don't remember exactly. >> to recall whether there was any police officers also? >> i do not recall that. >> did the paramedics who arrive at the emergency department give you a report. >> they did. >> do you recall what they said for purposes of treating mr. floyd? >> i do, the report that they gave us they were called to the scene of someone who is suffering from medical emergency as i recall and this is what i was told at the time they were
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initially called for a lower type of acuity event of facial trauma and that was upgraded to an individual in distress, they reported on their arrival the individual did not have a polls and cpr was started. they placed a super quantic airway device basically. >> a super wet. >> a super quantic airway device which is the tube that goes under the throat and can ventilate the lungs and then they gave medications including epinephrine and sodium hi carbonate to try to resuscitate mr. floyd as cpr was ongoing. >> did they tell you that mr. floyd was in police custody? >> they did mention that he was being detained at the time.
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>> did you recognize either one of the paramedics who came in? >> i did recognize both of them and i've worked with one of them several times before. >> did you know a derek smith. >> i believe so, yes. do recall having worked with a derek smith before. >> i do. >> how often. >> several times throughout the course of my training. >> when the paramedics bring a patient in to the emergency department, is it standard protocol for them to tell you why they're bringing the patient and, what's emergency. >> yes. >> and what the paramedics told you in regarding to mr. floyd did they also give information when they brought mr. floyd in? >> they did they essentially
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gave the report that i just told you. >> did they say to you for purposes of carrying or giving treatment to mr. floyd that they felt he had suffered a drug overdose. >> not any information that they gave no. >> did they tell you in the information that they gave that they felt mr. floyd had a heart attack? >> no. >> did you receive any information or indication from the paramedics when they brought mr. floyd in that anyone had attempted cpr on mr. floyd at the scene? on may 20 for 2020. >> i did not receive a report that mr. floyd had received by
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standard cpr, no. >> did you receive a report that he had received cpr for many of the officers will nab it on the scene may 20 to 2020. >> no. >> is the administration of cpr right away important for you to know when you're dealing with the patient who was suffered cardiac arrest, is it important to know about that? >> it is in the sense that it informs the likelihood of survival. >> what you mean by that. >> it's well-known that any amount of time that a patient spends in cardiac arrest without immediate cpr it decreases the chance of good outcome of approximately 10 - 15% decrease in survival for every minute
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that cpr is not a minister. >> did the paramedics tell you anything that they had administered to mr. floyd? >> yes. >> and they tell us what they told you. >> that they had started cpr in place the airway device and started begging the patient in providing breast and ministering the drugs. >> when you talk about bagging the patient, could you describe what that is. >> is called a bbm mask it is essentially a device that is hooked up to oxygen on flow to simulate giving a breath or mouth-to-mouth as it might be more better understood. >> did the paramedics start something that is referred to as
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the acl s. >> yes. >> would you tell the ladies and gentlemen of the jury what is the acl s algorithm. >> acl s stands for advanced cardiac life support, it's basically a standardized way of taking care of patients in cardiac arrest. >> these are protocols or the checklist process that you go through when somebody shows up in cardiac arrest? >> correct. >> a little broader than that but a big part is for folks in cardiac arrest, yes. >> does it help you determine why the person might be in cardiac arrest so you know how to treat them. >> yes had the paramedics try to reset the tape mr. floyd. >> yes. >> you recall how long. >> the report that we received was for approximately 30
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minutes. >> you had mentioned to us a moment ago that they had sodiumcarbonate would you tell m what are those administered for. >> snf room is adrenaline, it's a drug that has been studied extensively in part of standard protocol for acl s, the evidence on it is somewhat controversial but as part of the standard protocol. sodium bicarbonate is a medication that may provide buffering of the acidic environment in the blood that occurs during cardiac arrest and that is perhaps more controversial medication. >> to the paramedics tell you whether they check mr. floyd's heart function.
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>> yes. >> let me ask a different way. >> i want to talk to you about to enter two different heart functions and if you can describe what they are to the jury and if they relate to mr. floyd will. the first when we refer to is pea, do you know what pea refers to? >> yes. >> pea refers to electrical activity, it is basically the situation where someone is in cardiac arrest and do not have a polls as we previously discussed and they do have some electrical activity on the monitor and that suggest certain underlying causes that are known to be more common the most common cause of
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someone being in pea arrest the most common cause or hypovolemia which are typically bleeding or hypoxia or low oxygen is. >> we will talk about those in more detail but was mr. floyd in pea status polls list electrical activity when you saw him on ma? >> he was. >> there is another term i would like to talk about and have you explain to the jury of sicily i think it's called, am i pronouncing that right. >> would you spell that for the ladies and gentlemen of the jury. >> and what is that. >> is probably best known as flatlining where there is no cardiac activity on the cardiac monitor and the patient is in cardiac arrest. >> was mr. floyd in this status
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also when his body was brought into the emergency department on may 25? >> at some point yes there was report that he was felt to be in that prior to arrival. >> and meeting flatlined was there any point in time during your treatment on may 25 that mr. floyd was anything other than flatlined during your treatment? >> there were times for the majority of his time and are emergency department he was in pea arrest and that did dissolve into asystole. >> is pulseless electrical activity pea arrest, are those conditions of the heart where you can simply apply a shock and potentially bring the patient back?
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>> no. >> what are as we refer to shock ebola rhythms, is there such a thing a shock ebola rhythm. >> typically these are either central or ventricular sacral ration which are abnormal rhythms of the heart. . . . rhythm. >> that mr. floyd didn't have ventricular cardia? >> correct. >> because his heart wasn't pumping. >> yes. in both situations, it's a little more complicated than that, but yes. he wasn't in defib.
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a. >> do you recall where there still handcuffs on mr. floyd when he was brought into the department? >> i do not specifically recall if they were on when he arrived, but it would be unlikely because he had the lucas cpr device on and i recall his hands being at his sides. >> do you recall with his hands at his sides if they were marks on his wrists? >> at the end of the case, yes. after he was declared dead. >> in terms of any indentations on his wrist or markings -- >> i inferred that it was from handcuffs. >> so, let's talk about then the care that you provided once the paramedics brought mr. floyd to the emergency department. what did you do?
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>> so, immediately on arrival, we took reports from the paramedics. mr. floyd, as we knew him at the time only as an unidentified individual, was transferred over to the bed in the emergency department. as i recall, multiple things typically will happen simultaneously in these cases, but we achieved additional access. i placed a lien in his bone in his leg. >> can you tell the ladies and gentlemen what this is? >> it's basically a type of iv in the bone in the leg and injects medication directly to the bone marrow essentially. it's a type of access easier to achieve in someone in cardiac arrest.
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>> and did you also go through the advanced cardiac life support protocol? >> yes, simultaneous to that and obtaining the blood draw and continuing chest compressions, et cetera, went through various different things that could be causing this. commonly in the acl protocol, these are thought of as [inaudible] algorithm. >> let's see if we can take a look at the h's and the t's. if you can pull up 900. i'm showing what is marked -- >> sidebar. >> sidebar.
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>> doctor langenfeld, going back to exhibit 900, on the h's and the t's, which were part of the protocols for advanced cardiac life support, could you briefly explain to the jurors what the ages and teens are? >> so, these are common reversible causes in cardiac arrest and individuals with cardiac arrest a lot of these are perhaps best done with an ultrasound based approach but i can go through all of these. hypovolemia typically hemorrhage or bleeding, so we would think
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of that war in a traumatic cardiac arrest. hypoxia is low oxygen, again the two most common causes of the arrest. hydrogen ions, acidosis can be from any number of causes but essentially where the ph in the blood gets so low that the heart cannot function. ipo hyperkalemia can be extreme and lead to cardiac arrest. toxins there's a lot of different toxins that can cause cardiac arrest. >> and that his plays and potentially through drugs. >> correct. tampa not his fluid around the heart, it can prevent the heart from filling and then lead to
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the heart stopping. tension pneumothorax is air around the lungs between the lungs and the chest wall. essentially it expands to the point where it prevents blood from returning to the heart and therefore leading to cardiac arrest. cardiac thrombosis specifically can refer to a heart attack or ruptured plaque in one of the coronary arteries of the heart. and then pulmonary thrombosis or embolism is a blood clot in the pulmonary arteries that prevents blood from flowing from one side to the other of the heart and therefore leading to the heart no longer functioning. >> you mentioned ultrasound. what is the role of ultrasound
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in studying or trying to assess the cause of the cardiac arrest? >> ultrasound can be used to evaluate many of the different causes. i think people would most be familiar with ultrasound in movies where they look at the baby using an ultrasound device on the abdomen but it is the same technology. so, we can look at the heart directly and see if there is fluid around the heart for example. we can evaluate for the right ventricle that might be suggested of the pulmonary thrombosis due to increased strain on that side of the heart. we can look for hemorrhage by looking in the abdomen to see if there is any bleeding or bleeding elsewhere. we can look for evidence of tension pneumothorax, for example, we can evaluate the sliding signs on both sides of
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the chest that would suggest the lungs are up and there is no air between the lungs and the chest wall. >> and the lungs are properly inflated. >> right. we can use it to evaluate for a large number of ideologies. >> so, you went through the protocols of the h's and the t's. did you have any kind of leading theories for treatment purposes as to what the most likely causes were for mr. floyd's cardiac arrest? >> i felt that i was able to determine some ideologies or causes were less likely based on the information that i had both from the paramedics and also the information that i was able to obtain from my exam and ultrasound et cetera. at the time, based on all the information i had, i thought that it was less likely the patient had suffered from, for
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example, cardiac tamponade. at one point in the case i was concerned he may have developed tension pneumothorax, but we did perform bilateral things where we entered the chest -- >> [inaudible] >> i will ask another question. >> you were explaining to the jury that you thought it wasn't likely a cardiac tamponade. explaining why you thought the tension pneumothorax wasn't likely and help the jurors to understand how you might have e. >> essentially used a scalpel to cut into the chest and create a hole between the chest and the space around the lungs. we didn't appreciate any large
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gush of air that might suggest that there was air in that potential space. >> was there anything that you looked at to determine whether or not the cardiac arrest was likely or unlikely to be related to mr. floyd having had a heart attack? >> a lot of that is based on the history that we received from paramedics. there was no report that for example, the patient complained of chest pain or was clenching his chest at any point or having any other symptoms to suggest a heart attack. that information was absent. also, the fact that he was in pe asystole as i was told on the initial rhythm check further decreases the likelihood of that possibility. at the time, it was not completely possible to rule that
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out but i thought that was less likely based on the information that was available to us. >> did the ultrasound play any role in the question of whether or not he did or did not or was likely not to have had a heart attack? >> no, not especially in this case, no, did not. >> did you consider the possibility of toxins, for example? being responsible for mr. floyd's cardiac arrest including potentially drugs? >> in the sense that it might have informed our care, yes. there was no report that this patient had, for example, overdosed on a specific medication such as calcium channel blocker or any other medication for which there might be a very specific antidote.
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and so, in that sense i didn't feel that there was a specific tocsin that we could give a medication for that would readily reverse his arrest. >> and what about hypoxia? >> hypoxia being again one of the most common causes of pe asystole, just in general, i did as i mentioned use the ultrasound to look in the abdomen and didn't see a sign of hemorrhage. there was no trauma that he had suffered anything that could produce bleeding to lead to a cardiac arrest and so based on the history that was available to me, i thought that hypoxia
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was one of the likely possibilities. >> and hypoxia has an explanation meaning oxygen insufficiency? >> correct. >> did you have any other theories why mr. floyd's heart we have stopped other than oxygen deficiency? >> yes. i also considered and acidosis in particular excited delirium which is a controversial diagnosis but it was in the differential in this case. >> and were you able to make any assessments about the so-called excited delirium based on your examination? >> again the patient had been in cardiac arrest in 30 minutes. it can be difficult based on the
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examination. certainly there was no report that the patient was ever very sweaty which is often the case when thinking about excited delirium. there was no report that the patient had ever been, that mr. floyd had ever been extremely agitated in my experience i've seen a lot of cases of mental health crisis or drug use leading to severe agitated states that is almost always reported by paramedics and so the absence of that information was telling me that i didn't have any reason to believe that that was the case here. >> so, how long was mr. floyd in your care in the emergency department? >> approximately 30 minutes.
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>> and at the end of the 30 minutes, did you pronounce him formally dead? >> yes. >> at the time that you pronounced him dead, was he still in some degree pea or a systole in terms of describing his heart? >> i think it is probably best to think of these as sort of a spectrum where it is some degree of activity running through the heart but the heart isn't pumping, and then eventually that will evolve into a systole where the heart isn't pumping and the electrical activity stops. at the end of the case, mr. floyd was still in pea but there was no cardiac activity and at that point, in the
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absence of any apparent reversible cost and because mr. floyd had been arrest 60 minutes, i determined that the likelihood of any meaningful outcome was far below 1% and we would not be able to resuscitate mr. floyd so i then pronounced him dead. >> and was your leading theory then for the cause of mr. floyd's cardiac arrest oxygen deficiency? >> that was one of the more likely possibility i thought at the time, based on the information i had, it was more likely than the other possibilities. >> and is there another name for oxygen deficiency? >> asphyxia is commonly understood. >> thank you, doctor langenfeld. no further questions.
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>> [inaudible] we are going to take our 20 minute midmorning break. thank you. >> we have the entire trial up to this point on the website and you can watch by typing in derek chauvin in the video library search box you can find on the homepage. also available are briefings, house and senate floor speeches
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and events all available at c-span.org. >> the trial for derek chauvin, the former minneapolis police officer charged in the death of george floyd continues tuesday at 10 a.m. eastern. watch live coverage of the trial on c-span2, online on c-span.org, or listen on the c-span radio app. and if you missed any of our live coverage, watch at 8 p.m. eastern on c-span2 and any time on demand on c-span.org. teachers are doing whatever it takes to connect with other students connecting over 140,000 eligible students with low cost internet. with the connect to compete program. supporting c-span as a public
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service along with all these other television providers. giving a front row seat to democracy. after a short break, the trial proceedings continued with of the paramedic who treated george floyd being questioned by defense attorney eric nelson. >> [inaudible] i forgot to plug in my head said. so it is a

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