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tv   Politics and Public Policy Today  CSPAN  February 29, 2016 1:19pm-7:01pm EST

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>> the house committee on oversight investigations held a hearing on the nation's preparedness for biological threats. the hearing comes following the recease of 33 recommendations from the blue ribbon study panel on biodefense. during the hearing members of the panel and other experts stressed the importance of developing a comprehensive strategy to improve the nation's biodefense. one of the key recommendations from the panel called for a centralized leadership position within the vice president's office. good morning, we will begin this hearing and we want to make sure we move quickly through this. before i start i want to acknowledge that our good friend and ranking member of the
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committee frank pollone's father died and although i didn't know frank pollone's senior, i know he raised a good son. we thank him for that and we'll continue on from there. next, i am joined today also with my colleague who is wearing denver broncos orange and congratulations for the super bowl. they must be a good team because they beat the steelers. now on with our hearing. good morning, we're reminded on a nearly daily basis that those seeking to do us harm through a variety of means including biological attacks, the threats from attack and disease outbreaks are growing and ever changing and we're ill prepared to respond to the threats as rapidly as needed and simply we have been caught flat footed too many times in the past. we face a deadly enemy we cannot see, our methods to find it are woefully inadequate and we may
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not even know it's there until it's too late and this is frightening. the federal government's ambivalence toward biological threats must end. today the biological threats confronting the u.s. generally fall into three distinct categorie categories, one, naturally occurring, two, and intentional acts involving terrorism program we must respond to each of the threats appropriately. it's necessary to obtain the resources necessary to, and given the ease with which one can obtain and transport these resources it is differ cult for the intel jens community to collect, analyze and produce intelligence about biological threats. the threat of a biological attack is not as remote as one would hope. at the same time pandemic and other highly pathogenic diseases are occurring with greater frequency and spreading quickly throughout the world as human populations put increasing pressure remote areas and with ease of global travel we will see more and more infectious diseases emerge.
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since 2002 the world has seen outbreaks of sars, chick ungunnia, mers and now zika. it was a humbling reminder of the adage that everyone has a plan until they are punched in the face. we were not prepared for ebola and the actions were described with great confidence and to the next. this is what shakes the public's confidence and instead of ensuring that the u.s. had strong, central leadership and the ebola czar who served with three months and sadly, the ad hoc approach continues. a zika outbreak now threatens the continental u.s. where the world might have thought it was a mild illness, it brings increases in microcephaly, guillain-barre syndrome and problems in children. while the administration has submitted a $1.8 billion emergency request to combat zika its latest budget request continues to leave funding gaps of more than $1.8 billion in
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project bioshields and special reserve fund and pandemic flu countermeasures. over the last three years, the subcommittee has examined the impacts of in our preparedness for natural and accidental biological incidents and we've held hearings in the flawed response to the ebolais kroois and the need for better preparedness and beyond safe practices by the department of defense and the centers for disease control on the handling of live anthrax and the department of homeland security's broken biowatt system. in the coming weeks we will examine the federal response to the zika virus. each of these topic has a common denominator and for years, we have lunged from crisis to crisis reacting to what just occurred instead of planning for the next outbreak or attack. the subcommittee's oversight work has made a difference in each area, but i am very concerned and the federal government lacks an overall plan for biodefense and instead of being reactionary and we must be proactive with a new approach. last fall, the blue ribbon study panel on biodefense published
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the national blueprint for biodefense and the panel examined issues related to prevention, deterrence, and detection and response to name a few. this is not a book that should sit dust owe a shelf, but one the people should read and i am pleased that two distinguished commission members and secretary donna shalala and congressman jim greenwood are here to speak about the important work of this panel. we thank you. >> the panelist's findings that we are, quote, dangerously close to a biological event because we lacledership any an overall strategy are frightening. the panel made recommendation and those that fall within the commerce committee and the impact work that the subcommittee has done and will continue to do. the need for improved leadership echoes throughout the panel's report and it is a theme that we've heard far too often about the federal government. there is no coordination of biodefense research and preparedness and other issues and without leadership there is no strategy. the panel also makes the number
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of specific recommendations and we must improve the biodetection capabilities and we need to detect pathogens in the air in minutes and not days. agencies already collecting surveillance data should share it and not scroll it away. we need a platform that allows for diagnostic testing and vaccine development that can be applied to the pathogens we currently know about and also to the ones we have not yet discovered. the energy and commerce committee and the subcommittee in particular must take the lead in understanding and improving our biodefense capabilities. i thank our witnesses for being with us today and we look forward to your testimony and we recognize the ranking member of the sub commit. >> thank you very much. i do want to welcome our witnesses in particular, former congressman greenwood who sat in the chair you're sitting in for many years and who sat next to me while we had a lot of the hearings on these issues that you mentioned in your opening
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statement today, and i know he's just as frustrated as you and i are about the fact that we still continue to lurch from crisis to crisis in this country without any kind of unified or comprehensive response to some of these issues. when i was listening to your opening statement, mr. chairman, i thought to myself who said bipartisanship is dead? because my opening statement mirrors your opening statement to the point of talking about some of these very same examples that you discussed, so i won't read the whole opening statement because i do not subscribe to the adage that everything has been set and it has aren't been set by everybody. i'll put it into the record and i'll highlight a couple of the issues and we have the zika virus going on as you mentioned right now and were scrambling once again after the fact to deploy the appropriate resources to protect our citizens as this spreads. last year it was the ebola
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outbreak. we did finally organize to respond to that, and we're still trying to put the systems in place to make sure that ebola doesn't spring up again. this national blueprint for bio defense made a number of important findings on how to respond to these naturally occurring threats, but also how to respond to deliberate attack. as you mentioned, mr. chairman, the panel made 3,000 recommendations to better posture our government to respond to these emerging threats. for those of us through the fall of 2001, and we remember vividly the little few envelopes of anthrax that arrived on capitol hill and the chaos it caused within congress. offices were closed and buildings were fumigated and some congressional business was suspended and thousands of
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staffers and members of congress lined up to get tested for exposure and even worse, of course, some of the workers in the postal centers died. this was a relatively small attack. so imagine what would happen if we had a large attack in a major metropolitan area or some place else. that's why we have to be organized to deal with these things and that's what brings us back to the findings of this panel. you know, there are a number of really important recommendations, and i recommend that every member of this panel and every member of the audience that you read -- that you read the actual blueprint because it is sobering, but i think that the top observation that's made in this blueprint is that the nation is underprepared for a bioattack because we still lack centralized biodefense leadership. the panel recommends appointment of a single national leader in
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which preparedness and response for biological attacks can be consolidated. the panel recommends this authority be implemented in the office of the vice president of the united states and what the panel says is that this will, quote, ensure that biodefense will be addressed by every administration at the highest levels with adequate access to the president. i think this is a very unique recommendation and one that we should explore. and i just want to say one more thing, mr. chairman, one of the grand traditions of the oversight and investigation subcommittee is to shine light on issues like this and it actually move the dialogue forward, so i was gratified to hear you saying in your opening statement that you don't just intend to have this hearing today and let this go. i think if we really have a series of hearings, diving deeply into the recommendations of the committee and take their recommendation that we have some of these hearings, we actually
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can make a long-term difference in how this nation is prepared and that may be the very best legacy that not only this blue ribbon committee and also this subcommittee of energy and commerce can leave. with that, i'll put my full statement in the record, but i would also like to ask unanimous consent to put ranking member's pollone's testimony in the record due to his not being able to be here because of his father's death. >> any statements will be entered into the record and mr. chairman, you don't have an opening statement and given the rush we want to make sure that we hear everything and every member gets to ask questions. i will introduce the witnesses on the panel for today's hearing and the first witness on today's panel is the honorable donna shalala. welco welcome. an honor to have you here and a here on the blue ribbon panel of biodefense. secretary shalala has demonstrated a strong -- she's
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the recipient of the medal of freedom and currently serves as president and ceo of the clinton foundation. we appreciate your time here today. my colleague from pennsylvania the honorable jim greenwood. former congressman from the 8th district of pennsylvania and the chairman of the sub commity from 2001 to 2004 and he's a member of the blue ribbon of biodefense as president and ceo of the bio technology innovation organization. in this capacity, he's worked with bio's 1200-member organization to aid in the development of biotech solutions to major challenges inning a culture and health care and we look forward to your insights. next, dr. o'toole who serves as executive vice president as incutel between venture-backed technology start-ups. dr. o'toole, formerly served as undersecretary of science and technology at the department of homeland security and assistance
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secretary for environmental health and safety at department of energy and looking forward to hearing your expertise today for your hearing and thank you also for being here and now i will yield to mr. flores who will introduce our next witness from texas. >> thank you, mr. chairman and thank you for holding this hearing today and for the courtesy of allowing me to introduce one of my classmates and a former texas aggie. and he is at the texas a&m health science center. the largest federal public partnership and the research and development authority commonly referred to as barta, for vaccine development and manufacturer. dr. parker had a distinguished career in military service including serve as secretary of defense and in that position he was responsible for the military's readiness of many of the issues before us today. dr. barker also served as a
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principal deputy assistant secretary in the office of the assistant secretary for preparedness and response at hhs and in a similar role at the department of homeland security. thank you for allowing me the time to introduce dr. parker. his senior leadership defense at the department of defense and hhs and dhs are critical to the topic before this committee and thank you, dr. barker for being with us today. i yield back. >> if there's no more statements we will -- comments will proceed here. are you aware that this committee is holding an investigative hearing and has had the practice of taking testimony under oath. do any of your witnesses have any objection to taking testimonies under oath? seeing no objects the chair advises you that under the rules of the house and the committee you are entitled to be advised by counts snell do any of you agree to be advised by counts snell all of the witnesses say no. if you would all rise and riz
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your right hand. i'll swear you in. you swear the testimony you're about to give is the twuth, the whole truth and nothing, but the truth? thank you. >> and all the witnesses said "i do." you are now under oath and subject to the penalties set forth in section 1001 of the united states code and we will entertain each of you with a five-minute summary of your opening statement and we will begin with miss shalala. you are recognized for five minutes. turn the microphone on and pull it close to you. >> good afternoon, mr. chairman, congressman duget and members of the subcommittee. i've submitted a lengthy testimony for the record. thank you for inviting us here to present our views and recommendations of the bipartisan blue ribbon study panel in biodefense. i am pleased to be joining former representative jim greenwood. we are here on behalf of our
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co-chairs and former senator joe leashman and governor tom ridge and the other members of our panel, former senate majority leader tom daschle and former soemland security adviser ken weinstein. it is also good to see dr. jerry parker who is one of our ex-officials as well as dr. tara o'toole who constantly advises all offous this important subject. we are deeply concerned about the biological threat whether intentionally induced naturally occurring or accidentally release said. and i want to emphasize those three issues because this is not a report just on intentionally induced biological threat. it also covers the naturally occurring ones or the accidentally released. i want to take a moment to address the threat now, but let me recommend you get a classified briefing at the
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earliest opportunity. make no mistake. we've been told that our enemies are seriously considering the use of biological weapons. during the invasion of afghanistan and the united states uncovered evidence that al qaeda was trying to develop biological weapons. more recently, isil has gained control of enough land, physical infrastructure, scientific expertise and professional military personnel to potentially create and deploy biological weapons, and they have expressed their intent to use them. additionally, the verification protocols associated with the biological weapons and convention are weak and do not do what the world needs them to do, differentiate between legitimate and malicious activities. we are equally concerned about the threat of naturally occurring diseases with catastrophic pandemic potential. it's often very difficult for our scientists to guess the correct combination of viruses
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that will even make up the strain of influenza that will circulate the following year. nevertheless, diseases do not have to kill millions to produce impact. there are a number of disease that have affected my own state of florida and new york and puerto rico and the u.s. virgin islands and american samoa over the last two years and now the zika virus is on the move, as well, in some cases resulting in microencelopathy contracted by their mother. the first case of local transmission has occurred in the united states in dallas which, of course, was the first city with an ebola case. this transmission did not occur from mosquitos. it was sexually transmitted. imagine the devastating societal consequences if we cannot stop the spread of this disease.
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they also contribute to biological risk and i am sure you're aware of the recent biosecurity and biosafety mishaps at a number of our high-level laboratories. the organisms in which these laboratories work are too serious, too infectious and too deadly for us to react in indignantly only to forget after a few months and move on to the next challenge. our change must be institutionalized and sustained and that is our fundamental message today. our attention span tends to increase and decrease cyclically as different events occur and their impacts fade over time. since i was secretary of health and human services i've seen three administrations increase and decrease their emphasis on biological threats usually in response to and after recovering from incidents such as the anthrax events of 2001, sars,
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h1n1, mers and ebola and now we are gearing up again for the zika virus. we need a leader at the highest level of government to take responsibility and develop a com pro hencive strategy and a unified budget and lead the whole of the government along with non-governmental partners to improve our national biodefense and to do so, attentively and consistently. we recommend that that person be the vice president of the united states, one of the few who can get the government agentses and non-governmental partners to work together. we are not necessarily talking about new programs or funding. instead, we believe we can build on existing programs anden fra structure and let me give you a few examples. we ought to be able to take an environment alibi owe detection system that was originally designed for the battlefield, for example, evaluated and if it seems useful, then modified to
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fulfill our needs domestically. we should see how we can build on our pre-existing, per i havesive and familiar system of community pharmacies to get pharmaceuticals to localities in the midst of a biological incident and maybe create smaller caches in advance. we cannot depend solely on a federally driven, public point of dispensing model or take our hospitals which meet accreditation criteria associated with funding provided by the centers for medicare and medicaid services. we can use that to address various special leads like trauma, for example. doing the same for biodefense would cultivate better hospital preparedness for major infectious disease events. in doing so we could create a stratified hospital system in advance of a biological event knowing exactly which facilities
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are best positioned to handle cases. >> could you -- >> miss shalala. >> it is far greater than what is currently available through the hospital preparedness program. while we support this grant program, is simply never going to be resourced enough to meet the need. >> could you just give a wrap-up because you're over a couple of minutes. i just want to make sure i have time for everybody. >> i'm closing. >> okay. >> in closing, i just want to note that congress plays a critical role in providing necessary oversight and legislation. we need all of you to consider these recommendations and hopefully to move forward and now after you've heard from jim greenwood, we'd be happy to answer any questions you have. ? thank you very much. mr. greenwood, you're recognized for five minutes. >> i'm tempting to ask unanimous consent to insert your opening statement and the ranking member as a preface to our report because it's gratifying to see how aligned you already are with
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our recommendations. thank you for inviting me to discuss preparedness for biological threats. on behalf of the bipartisan blue ribbon study panel on defense. as former chair of the subcommittee i am incredibly honored to be testifying here today. this hearing is quite timely not because of a catastrophic, biological event has recently occurred, but because one has not occurred on u.s. soil. whether it's the reintroduction of smallpox by a terrorist, a dirty bomb in an urban center and another pandemic influenza outbreak, as the panel notes in our report, we are underprepared to respond to these threats and we must take immediate steps to be better prepared. there's been a great privilege to serve on the study panel with my esteemed colleagues. the report starts with the premise that the biological threat is real and it is growing. we are better prepared today than we were a decade ago, due to federal and private sector investments and the fact is that we are still dramatically
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underprepared. our report outlines 33 recommend dakzs and as secretary shalala stated, we as a panel strongly support the first recommendation calling for the centralization of leadership over biodefense in the office of the vice president. >> i would like to further focus involved in strengthening the public/private partnership as industry plays a key role in protecting our nation. consider a company with the novel technology applicable to the biothreats of emerging diseases identified by hhs. this company wants to partner with the govern, but there are so many unique market challenges. unlike products with the viable commercial market, the market for most medical countermeasures are mcns is to find and support it solely by the federal government and making it a major source of research finding and the primary purchaser of vaccines, therapies and diagnostics against these unique threats. >> many companies begin research
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at their own risk, conducting rnd even before receiving federal government funds. over the last few years, a government funding for mcm and government funding for mcn rnd has been decreasing just as the number of threats have been increasing. the investor community views these products as risky and as a distraction from similar products that have a clear, commercial value, making it difficult to raise the necessary rnd funds for mcns in the private capital markets. the regulatory pathway is not always clear. lastly, industry has seen a precipitous drop in the level of funds for the purchase of the final mcns. for many companies, the biggest risk is that they will invest significant internal funds and time, developing a product only to find there is no clear procurement strategy from the u.s. government due to sudden shifts in priorities or dearth of funds. given this, we support the need
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for a comprehensive, multiyear strategic plan and unified budget that clearly has the procurement of medical countermeasures of pandemic influenza products. such a document would provide much-needed transparency on governmental priorities and thus helping companies determine what products to pursue in this partnership. the mcm enterprise must be fully funded. the project bioshield special reserve fund and the srf was created to provide companies with the guaranteed market for mcns by establishing a ten-year advanced a prpproacpriation of billion. it has proved successful to attract companies to invest in mcm rnd. 12 mcms were procured over the ten-year period and there were over 200 mcns in the pipeline and it was due to congress's $5.6 billion investment in is in
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jeopardy. it was authorized for 2.8 billion for fy-2014-2018 and rather than set aside money the program has been funded through annual appropriations and much lower than the authorized amount. unless funding increases, we are risking a $600 million to a $1 billion shortfall. such a sustained deficit endangers the progress we have made and puts the 200-product candidates in the pipeline at risk. similarly, pandemic influenza has been woefully underfunded the last few years. pandemic influenza is a known threat that is very challenging adi due to its persistent nature. it includes advanced development for vaccines, antivirals and diagnostics and rapid response capability building and the replenishment of vaccine and antiviral stockpiles and our plan calls for congress to provide a legislative authorization to define and
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guide pandemic influenza programs in order to ensure that they receive the funding needed. novel incentives could demonstrate the government's commitment to mcn development. one of the most important incentives in the report is the priority review vouch you aervo the prv. it is an innocecentive that spu neying lethed areas such as neglected tropical diseases. an extension of the prv program to include material threats is viewed by many as a way to offset the dramatic decline in procurement funding for mcns. adding mcm targets to the prv program may help convince investors that the government is committed to this endeavor and provide increased certainty with mcns of value. >> improvement, one minute, improvement must be made in the contracting process, as well and in addition to robust, sustained funding and the public/private
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funding through the contracting process within barta to make it more efficient and predictable. streamlining is key to ensuring that there are not excessive delays in the implementation of vital research. and i therefore call in congress to pass hr-22 the 9 and strengthening public health emergency response act of 2015 and this bill focuses on many of the issues that i've raised today and a strong, initial step toward implementing the strong initial panels. this plays an integral role through the biodefense programs and i commend the recent attention to pandemic influenza preparedness and the letters that the committee sent to the administration about flu vaccine supply and development in the strategic plans and i hope that the energy and subcommittee continue to examine the issues of biopreparedness further. the threats facing our nation are real and many. having productses to support our national preparedness relies on the work of a few dozen
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biopharmaceutical companies. the only way these companies can continue vital rnd and capacity building is if the u.s. government demonstrates a strong commitment to them by providing clear priorities, sustained funding and real incentives. if we invest well now in the broader set of known threats we will be better prepared to pivot and respond when faced with an unknown threat. thank you again for the opportunity to testify, and the work of the blue ribbon study commission i commend the committee for the preparedness of biological threats and i look forward to your questions. >> dr. o'toole, you are recognized for five minutes. >> thank you, mr. chairman. how's that? is that better? >> thank you, mr. chairman, ranking member -- no? >> technology. yes. thank you, mr. chairman. i am very happy to be here today
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just to discuss this topic which has been a preoccupation of mine for most of my professional career. i want to thank you for your kind introduction and emphasize the views i express are my own and not those of incutel. i i want to start by congratulating the blue ribbon study panel on their excellent report which i hope will be highly influential. i especially endorse the urgency about repairing the vulnerability to highly consequential bio events. i want to address three issues. first, i want to emphasize the nature and the significance of biological weapons threats and explain why it's a first tier national security problem. secondly, i want to describe why naturally occurring epidemics almost certainly will increase in frequency and impact in the coming years. natural epidemics, it's important to understand, are different from deliberate bio attacks. the latter would be faster,
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fiercer and it may be that many victims are beyond rescue. but if we cannot handle natural outbreaks more effectively and efficiently, we have no defense against biological weapons. thirdly, there's a major revolution in our understanding of how the biological world works and our ability to manipulate it. the advances in bioscience and biotechnologies should be part of the foundation of u.s. biodefense against both natural and deliberate epidemics. these advances are going to be extremely beneficial to humankind across many different fields that go beyond biomedicine. but it also means that we now have created a world in which there is wide access to advanced biological knowledge and the materials needed to build and disseminate biological weapons. as the defense science board
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said in 2001, an age ago in terms of scientific advances there are no technical barriers to non-state actors, including terrorist groups and lone wolves, carrying out devastating bioattacks that could kill millions and cost billions. but these advances in science and in biotechnology also for the first time give us powerful tools that could allow us to prevent and to rapidly detect and quench epidemics, whatever their cause. i'm going to give you some examples of critical technologies which might help realize the panel's assertion that innovation is a key ingredient and that dramatic improvements in biodefense are within reach. first of all, the potential destructive power of biological weapons is akin to that of nuclear weapons. in 1993, the congressional
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office of technology assessment estimated a kilogram of aerosolized anthrax dropped on washington, d.c. in ideal weather conditions would result in 1 million to 3 million deaths. that's about the same toll as one mega ton hydrogen bomb. the statements are not base on speculation but on decades of development and field testing by the u.s. military during the offensive biological weapons program of the united states which was ended by president nixon in 1969. we also know that the ussr had a massive secret offensive bw program created after they signed the biological weapons convention in 1972. secret program created after they signed the biological weapons convention in 1972. these were both ambitious and at least in the case of the u.s. highly successful programs. during the cold war, the u.s. field tested many different bioweapons in realistic conditions including release from air, boat, ships and subways. declassified documents from the
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'60s clearly recognize the strategic power of bioweapons. we do not now know the fate of the soviet effort. in the half century since the u.s. ended its offensive bw program, there has been a revolution in bioscience. advances in many fields, including pharmacology and aerosol biology and our ability to read, write and edit dna, the code of life, have resulted in tremendous beneficial achievements. but these advances wihave also meant the spread of bio knowledge and access to sophisticated biotechnology. the materials and know how needed to build a weapon have many legitimate uses. these are dual used technologies. as the chairman said, this makes the task of collecting intelligence about covert bioweapons programs exceedingly difficult. we are going to see an increase in the tempo of naturally occurring epidemics which we can talk about in the discuss.
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i want to end by saying that there are two critical technologies that have not gotten sufficient attention in our biodefense program. the first is rapid diagnostics upon which we have spent very little money and for which there is a very big market problem that makes it difficult for private companies to pursue diagnostics. the second is vaccines. i see i'm out of time. i will await your questions. >> thank you. we recognize dr. parker for five minutes. >> thank you. good morning chairman murphy and ranking member. >> pull your mike close. that would help. >> thank you for the invitation to appear before you today. it's an honor to be here. and under secretary o'toole is one of our nation's highly regarded biodefense leaders. i will put an exclamation point on the bioterror threat. for my part, i have been involved in biodefense since 1982 to the present.
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from the cold war to the rise of violent extremism and the rapidly growing risk of nationally occurring transboundary infectious diseases. i have been at the eye of the storm witnessing the biological threat over my career. today, i am more concerned than ever about the risk of biological threats, including biological warfare, bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases. biological threats are serious, whether naturally occurring from an attack or accidental release. the american public is starting to realize the threat of emerging infectious diseases following ebola and now presumably zika. although the threat of biological warfare and particularly biological terrorism is very real, too, it is less well understood. if there's any good news here, the number of countries thought to be conducting some type of elicit biological weapons activity, it has gone down from the end of the cold war from
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about 12 to five. but those countries include china, iran, russia, syria and north korea. their operational scenarios for use are no longer limited to military targets. today, the risk from a bioterror attack from non-state actors, violent extremist groups or individuals on civilian populations is a reality. biological weapons are sometimes called the poor man's atom bomb. a term first used during the cold war because biological weapons, as we have heard, have the potential to cause mash casualties on the scale of a nuclear weapon. even a simple bioterror attack as we herd earlier today can have devastating consequences such as occurred from the anthrax letter attacks in 2001 that took five lives, sickened 17 more and over 32,000 people took antibiotics because of potential exposure. it could have been much worse
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from that simple attack. some question the seriousness of the risk today because further bioattacks have not followed. fortunately, additional attacks have not occurred, which i partially attribute to successful counterterrorism strategies. why further attacks have not occurred? given the relative ease of mount be such an attack? coupled with our vulnerability is up for debate. i do not want to overstate and stlarl under -- tlafrl underestimate the threat of an attack. i cannot predict the future. but we cannot ignore that attac. i cannot predict the future. but we cannot ignore that extremists intend to do us harm by any means and they are not morally constrained in the methods they use. the intent to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction by the likes of al qaeda, isil and others is known. intelligence gathering is extremely difficult to detect a biological capability and imminent threat. but we should not take the lack of intelligence as lack of
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threat. the discovery of an isil computer containing plans to develop plague as a bioweapon should give us pause. just this week the director of national intelligence confirmed reports that the islamic state used a chemical warfare agent in iraq and syria. the islamic state is growing rapidly, has resources, controls necessary infrastructure and safe havens and is recruiting scientists that could be capable of developing connectihemical a biological weapons. it may also be only a matter of time before biologists becomes a self-inspired violent extremist. we must assume the threat is real and serious. in addition to bioterror attacks, naturally occurring emerging infectious diseases continue to happen with greater frequency. pandemic potential influenza, sars, ebola and zika are real experiences that tell us we may be on the verge of a global pandemic any time. our biological threat
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preparedness response enterprise must also be ready, any time. biological threats are not new. but we seem to pay attention only when an outbreak occurs or an attack occurs. and ignore it between outbreaks. the time between outbreaks are the interepidemic period though is precisely when urgent actions are needed to optimize resources to hone our preparedness and response systems. before closing, i would also like to add that initiatives in global health security and one health are critical, too, and they enable work on the prevention side. i would like to thank the members of the subcommittee again for this opportunity. i'm happy to answer any questions you may have. thank you. >> i thank you, dr. parker and all the panelists. it's sobering testimony. let me start off i recognize myself for five minutes. dr. o'toole, you referred to this as a first-tier national security problem.
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bioattacks are faster and fiercer. it seems like these natural outbreaks, they really are a test run to prevention, how we handle ebola, how we handle sars, how we will handle the zika virus. gives us an opportunity to work on prevention, detention and responding. i don't think we are at all where we need to be. given that, is there reason to be more concerned or less concerned about the threats of bioterrorism? >> mr. chairman, i think you are right. i think our response to naturally occurring epidemics should be seen as test runs. everyone here has lived through a lot of natural epidemics at this point. and we have gotten better. again, i think for the first time we can actually contemplate the strategy of creating a foundation such that we could rapidly design and build, for
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example, a vaccine suitable for a particular threat in a much shorter time than there is now the case. and i think we do have to prepare for a whole array of threats which we're not going to be able to predict. the other issue that dr. shalala mentioned is that a lot of our response depends on the state and local public health departments. they have lost almost 50,000 people since 2008. and so one could argue that our capacity to respond to an epidemic today has diminished compared to them. and that's a problem. >> secretary shalala and congressman greenwood, would it be fair to say your bipartisan panel's general concern is that biological threats are increasing while important aspects of the u.s. biodefense preparedness are actually declining or inadequate? is that a proper conclusion? >> yeah.
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i think that's fair. i echo dr. o'toole. our infrastructure for dealing with these has gotten weaker. starting with the state and local response. one of the things that we forgot in the ebola discussion is the states are our first line of defense. we have been putting resources and building the public health infrastructure for years with essentially block grants from the cdc. those have been weakened. and if you don't have a state and local response -- think about the outbreak of diseases caused by food poisoning, for example. it's that infrastructure that is the first line of defense for these biological issues that we're talking about. if we don't have a strong state role with their laboratories, with their tracking systems, then it's very difficult for us
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to pick up something that's going to recur that we know that's going to recur over a long period of time. that's why we talk about the vice president. because it's very difficult for anyone else to pull in all the actors, the private sector actors as well as the public sector agencies. >> chairman greenwood, as we have increasing number of these naturally occurring and accidentally occurring bioattacks, is our diminished capacity just because we're strained or because we have actually lost ground in dealing with these issues overall? >> i think your original question is the threat growing while the capacity to defend against it is decreasing, the answer to that question is absolutely, yes. if you think about the bioterror threat and isis and you look at what they have been able to do with rifles and assault weapons and so forth, it's clear and it's obvious that their
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intention is to kill as many infidels and apostates as they can. you can do a heck of a lot better job at that using chemical and biological weapons than you can with conventional armaments. they want to do that, and there is evidence that's been cited already that they are trying to figure out how to use bubonic plague. they are trying to -- they tried to have a plan to poison the turkish water system. the intention is clear. while that's happening, the same technology, synthetic biology, gene editing, that's is enabling our companies to do amazing things in terms of developing new drugs and new products, is also making it easier to formulate these new weapons. the threat is growing. to see that in the face of all of that the federal government's commitment to funding barta, to funding our ability to develop these countermeasures is diminishing is frightening. i'm glad you're having this
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hearing now, because the hearing you don't want to have is the one that happens after tens of thousands of people have lost their lives and you're sitting here asking yourselves and government officials why we weren't ready. >> thank you. that could happen at any time. my time is up. >> thank you very much. mr. greenwood, you are exactly right. this is what keeps me up at night is the responsibility that this subcommittee has to actually move this -- move the ball forward, not just to have these hearings every so often. the chairman will tell you, every year like in about july i start nagging to have a hearing on pandemic flu before we're actually in the middle of the flu season. but i think what the blue ribbon panel is saying is we need to go even further than that. we need to have a system in place that's not based on
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response after the fact. would that be your assessment, too? >> absolutely. if i may, let me describe to you what that system is. the only thing that stands between these pandemic viruses and intentional bioterror attacks -- the only thing that stands between those things and the safety of our people is a handful of private companies in this country who are willing to take the risk of developing countermeasures. as has been said, this is unique. you don't sell those countermeasures at walmart. >> right. >> the only potential procurer of those is the federal government. those companies, like every little biotech company, rely on investors. those investors can put their money into a conventional biotech company, into an i.t. company, anywhere they want. they are looking for return on investment. if they see a system that's uncertain due to lack of
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certainty that these products will be procured, they will put their money elsewhere. >> we have seen this in the pandemic influenza program and trying to prepare for that. and with these cuts -- i'm wondering, maybe secretary shalala you can talk about the how the funding cuts have hampered a response to the potential pandemic flu outbreaks. >> i wouldn't underestimate in addition to the private sector those very fragile biotech companies, the importance of the national institutes of health and the fundamental science that we're doing. because if you don't have that, you wouldn't have the companies. it's a combination of things. >> the problem is you need to get the basic research. and then you also need to have the robust pandemic flu program so that you can support development of the vaccine by
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the private company. >> exactly. >> it really is a partnership. >> vaccines have not been a major priority of the multinational pharmaceutical companies. they don't make enough money from them. particularly when the government is the only purchaser as was pointed out here. they don't have a lot of confidence that we will give them the kind of margins they can get from other kinds of investment. this is a real challenge. let me make one other point. health as a national defense issue is relatively new. 20 years ago, no one was thinking about a national security issue related to some aspect of health. so think of this as the cutting edge of a dramatic new conceptualization of our defense. we are actually talking about the defense of a nation and about the health aspect of that. >> let me ask you, why is it that the panel recommends centralized leadership in the vice president's office to
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coordinate all of this? >> well, since i sat in the major agency responsible for many of these issues, and since we now have the homeland security agency, the fact is that the responsibilities for different aspects of this are spread across the government. and even the lead agency concept will not solve that, or in my judgment, a czar sitting in the white house. the czars work best when there's an emergency. if you really want to build up the infrastructure, you have to have a powerful person and you can't have that in a cabinet agency which is a peer of all the other cabinet agencies. so the vice president is the only person that can cut through that, talk to the private sector and simultaneously talk to state and local governments. and put all those pieces together. he's also the only person that
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can demand a unified budget out of the omb and across the government. >> this was a bipartisan recommendation. >> it was a bipartisan recommendation. i have to tell you, i hesitated as someone who sat in a government agency, a powerful government agency, i hesitate to transfer power to a vice president or to the white house in general. as you know, cabinet agencies have a certain amount of tension with white houses. at the end of the day, this is one of the areas where you need a unified budget. the only other place we have a unified budget is actually in intelligence. so this is a parallel to that, to pull all the pieces together. and it's important enough to identify the vice president and vice presidents always have some time to take on other responsibilities. >> thank you very much. thanks. >> with all due respect to our very nice vice president. >> i'm sure he will be pleased you said he had lots of time on his hands. we now recognize --
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>> we have discussed this with the current vice president. it's not he particularly that we identified, but the office itself. >> we will bring him in here and ask him about that. recognize mr. flores for five minutes. >> hard to follow that. doctor, you emphasized in your testimony we should be urgently preparing for biological threats in the time between outbreaks. in 2006, congress created brta to do exactly this. as you explained, we continue to seem to go in crisis mode only when we have an outbreak. what else should the government do in these inter-epidemic periods? >> thank you, congressman flores. actually, in answering your question, i'm going to come right back to the centralized leadership and how important that is. i will answer it actually with an example. in my own experience, my own career, and that very same time in 2006, as the pandemic and all hazards preparedness act was passed, we got very concerned about pandemic influenza to the point that an emergency supplemental was appropriated in
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that time, $6 billion, $7 billion. it was accompanied by a very strong white house-led pandemic influenza strategy coupled to a pandemic influenza implementation plan. this is the closest example i think that has happened to date that kind of reflects the centralized leadership biodefense strategy that we actually did for pandemic influenza that accompanied an appropriation that really covered almost all the department agencies, state, local, private sector. they were involved in pandemic preparedness back at that time. this implementation plan
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contained over 300 action items. it identified lead department agencies and supporting department agencies. it was very detailed. in fact, in my own department at the time, hhs, there was a lot of complaints that it was micromanaging and maybe superseding department authorities. maybe it was. but we got stuff done. it allowed us to accomplish things that otherwise we would not have been able to do. so i just offer that as an example of something that we have already done -- let me also add that we had -- we were very responsible for meeting our milestones of metrics that were part of this implementation plan, both in the executive branch and to congress, because all congressional committees that had the appropriate oversight for their department agencies were regularly being
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updated, hearings were happening on progress of that plan. so i just offer that up as an example of something in the past that i think is in the spirit of what the panel has recommended that would drive us a long way forward to doing what we need to do in that inter-epidemic period and before an attack occurs. >> thank you. i think that's helpful. i also want to compliment you on the great work you are doing in the public/private partnership. dr. o'toole, the world health organization recently assessed the impact of synthetic biology on smallpox preparedness and control, and the scientific group found the risk of re-emergence of smallpox is increased due to the low cost and widespread availability of technology and know-how on how to create the smallpox virus. so the brsp relied or focused heavily on the threats that we face today. can you tell me what's possible given the rapid advances in
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synthetic biology and how have these advances in synthetic biology escalated the threat? >> virtually anything is possible today, theoretically. smallpox is an ancient huge virus. it would be very difficult to create synthetically. a functional smallpox virus. there are many other choices available. we know, for example, that the soviets created a vaccine resistant plague strain. new gene editing techniques make that kind of creation of resistant viruses quite straightforward, although non-resistant pathogens can do a great deal of damage, too. i'm not sure it makes sense to go to the trouble of making a synthetic bug. but what we are missing is the opportunities on the upside that
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synthetic biology and other advances allow. okay? i mean, we are in a revolutionary fight as a biological science and virtually none of this is being leveraged against our biodefense needs. we need a lot more than improved contracting procedures in barta. we need a commitment to revolutionize the way we make vaccines. same thing with diagnostics. we can do this. we can shift the advantage to biodefense but we can't do this with incremental tweaks on the programs we have now, in my opinion. we need a much deeper investment in bioscience and biotech. >> thank you. that's helpful. i will be exhausted by the time i yield back. thank you. >> thank you, mr. chairman. welcome to our witnesses. dr. o'toole, in your testimony, you speak of the need to take advantage of recent developments in bioscience to rapidly develop
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tests and manufacture vaccines against emergent infectious diseases. can you speak to the role that the centers for innovation and advanced development and technology play in this process, and is this program indicative of the types of public/private partnerships we should be pursuing in this space? >> i'm sorry. >> centers for innovation and advanced development in technology. >> yes. they can play a very critical role. for example, new diagnostics have a very difficult time getting approval to be paid for. so that discourages innovative biotech companies from making them. imagine the difference it would make if we had a rapid diagnostic test right now for zika and we could very clearly say you're infected, what is the outcome of your pregnancy or you're not infected.
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same thing for ebola. imagine if we were able to tell within minutes if somebody was infected with ebola. preferably before they're symptomatic. the technologies for a whole host are out there. the path to making money on them is very, very troubled both from a regulatory point of view, it's almost as hard as it is to get a new drug through, and the return on investment is not nearly as great, and also, from the payment mechanism. so yes, the centers have a tremendous role to play. >> thank you. and secretary, how does the first recommendation that you have shared with us today get off the ground should there be a congressional mandate to have the executive branch explore and implement if experts agree it's needed? what are the next steps to take us forward? >> you know, i'm not sure what
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the answer to that question is, whether congress can designate the vice president of the united states since it is a different branch, you certainly could make a recommendation in this area. i think the fact that this committee would make a recommendation as part of a more integrated piece of authorizing legislation would have an effect. it is a new recommendation. if you look through all the other commission reports, this is the first time this has been elevated to this level so i think both a combination of the visibility and some enthusiasm from congress from this committee in particular would convince the next president of the united states to look at it very seriously. and of course, there are budget implications in that, particularly tying it to an integrated budget approach, which i think we all think is extremely important, and in
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which there have been very few examples at a very high level of probably intelligence is the major one, the defense kinds of ones, you know, the defense agency itself usually leads. so it would take some identification by this committee, i think that would make a difference. >> congressman, can i get 15 seconds on that? >> sure. >> i'm not a lawyer, let alone a constitutional lawyer, but i think the congress can provide the authorization to the vice president and then perhaps it's up to the president and vice president to decide to utilize that authorization but i think that's probably the way it would work. >> thank you. thank you to both of you. secretary, given the complications created by transferring technology from an innovator company to the centers for innovation and advanced development and technology, do you believe it would be beneficial to establish a single location wherein the complete process from innovation to manufacture can take place
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quickly and nimbly in order to rapidly respond to the various emerging threats? >> you know, periodically, the leaders of government both parties have looked at that process and seen whether we can fast-track it so that we can get products faster to market. there are so many jurisdictional issues if a product has to go through the fda process, for example, if it's exempted from the fda process. so i think that that's an example where a vice president looking at the process and making recommendations about the integration because it's a piece of the larger strategy where that would make a difference. we certainly did that when we looked during my time, when we looked at fast-tracking aids drugs, for example and we were
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able to take different elements and put them together in a way that protected safety but also moved the needle very quickly in that area. but that's why because there are so many agencies of jurisdiction, you need someone to think it through. >> thank you to each of you. mr. chair, i yield back. >> thank you. i now recognize miss brooks for five minutes. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thank you to our esteemed panel for being here today. i was a u.s. attorney in 2001 and was part of the response in the anthrax attacks, and actually had an office where that powder was sent to multiple government offices were receiving powder which terrified that employee who opened the mail, not knowing if it was actually anthrax or if it was just powder, and i have to tell you, i thought, i was in federal
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service until '07 and felt like we were moving forward but i have to tell you, until this report came out and until we have seen kind of the lack of adequate response to ebola quite frankly, i really do believe we have stepped back and that we have just moved from crisis to crisis. but i just encourage my colleagues, this is an outstanding report with 33 recommendations. it is a road map. it is a blueprint. and it is in part on the basis upon which the congresswoman and i introduced 3299, the strengthening public health emergency response act of 2015. i want to talk about that, because i really appreciate all of these recommendations. i encourage my colleagues throughout congress to read this book, because you as experts talked to experts around the country as well. it's not just the people on the panel. a lot of work went into this. i commend your work. mr. greenwood, can you please share with us the merit that you
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see in returning the contracting authority to barta, back to barta, which is in my bill, and can you talk about the importance of that and what has happened and why we're not able to get vaccines and medical countermeasures through the pipeline as fast as we need them? >> thank you. originally, the contracting authority was with barta and it was changed. it was moved, i will refer to my notes here, it was moved to the office, an office called the acquisitions management contracts and grants office. the problem is that the technical experts are not there. and they are in fact at barta. in fact, because of certain regulations, there's a firewall between the two and sometimes they actually cannot speak to one another. so this is -- imagine how frustrating it is for a company trying to get a contract and it's talking to the folks who know a lot about contracts but they don't know a lot about this issue, about medical
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countermeasures. so i think it makes all the sense in the world to eliminate that level of bureaucracy, put the contracting back at barta where it belongs so that the experts in the field can talk to the experts in the company with whom they are attempting to create contracts. >> thank you. with respect to the companies trying to get vaccines into our stockpiles, can you please talk about the fact that we don't have a sufficient coordinating mechanism in our national strategic stockpile also identified? so we don't even have, if i'm not mistaken, the right coordination between cdc and barta to have the right vaccines in our stockpile. can you talk about that? >> yes. we made recommendations in that regard because the system is weak now and needs to be strengthened. thank you, congresswoman, for your leadership on this issue as well.
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>> thank you. mr. greenwood, any comments with respect to the stockpile? >> it goes to the central point which is that we are -- that we are not organized as a government to effectively and quickly respond to either pandemics or bioterror because the authorities are diffuse, they don't always talk to one another and that is exactly why a central unified plan, strategic plan, a central budget and giving the authority to the vice president makes all the sense. >> i think citizens believe and know we have these stockpiles and believe that they are adequately filled with the proper types of vaccines. would anyone else like to comment on our national strategic stockpile? dr. o'toole? >> i'm the chair of a national academy committee on the strategic national stockpile right now. they have made tremendous @4-hñ progress in the last 20 years. the problem with the stockpile
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is that the new drugs that are going into it are largely biologicals and they are very expensive and they expire in two and three years. so there's a pipeline of new countermeasures coming in that increases the cost of the stockpile and everybody's budget is staying flat. so the limitations on the countermeasures we have in the stockpile first of all are budgetary limitations. this is an expensive proposition. the stockpile already hold about $7 billion worth of stuff. but we are talking about having to cover multiple cities with these sometimes very expensive drugs and vaccines. we need a cheaper way to do it which is why i say you are never going to be able to create a stockpile that has everything you want in it against every contingency. we have to move to a strategy of being able to quickly design and manufacture and scale what we need. >> thank you all for sounding
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the alarm. appreciate your leadership. i yield back. >> i recognize mr. mullen for five minutes. >> thank you, chairman and thank you for the witnesses for being here. i first want to thank the secretary and mr. greenwood for this report. i will tell you the more that i learn about it, the more i wish i wouldn't read it. i'm serious. it's very troubling when you understand the false security that we have, even from something as simple yet dangerous as the flu to the most serious threats that we're facing today, and in a previous hearing, i was talking about our cdc's national stockpile, strategic stockpile that we have, and in particular, the weaknesses that we have there,
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and to follow on miss brooks here, i want to get a little bit more in depth about what you see as maybe our biggest weakness, maybe the biggest two weaknesses, some of the most -- some of the biggest threats we have with the stockpile, some recommendations. don't get into it too deep, just maybe one or two that we can start working on in the committee here. >> well, i actually think dr. o'toole is the expert on the stockpile issue and we have outlined what the challenges are in the stockpile. it doesn't cover everything. it's expensive to maintain because they have a short shelf life. it was a good idea at the time but constantly having to renew it is our biggest challenge. i think that most of us think there are other issues we can address. we certainly -- and certainly scientific issues that would
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give us a longer life in some of these areas, and i think on the production side, our ability to produce something faster and not being totally dependent on the stockpile is probably where your iom commission -- >> yesterday i had a meeting with some biodefense individuals and they were telling me that there is technologies they are looking at that would extend the life of -- the shelf life through maybe a dry freeze, is that correct, and then also, they are retesting it, and some of it was designed to go two or three years, has lasted as only as 15 years. they are constantly retesting it but how do we dispense it? how do we get it out? having it in a stock pile is okay but it doesn't do any good if it's housed in one place and doesn't get to where it's needed. >> one of our recommendations was to use existing community pharmacies. the original idea was using vas because they're spread across the country and do keep a
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certain amount of supply. they are well located, the va hospital system, and warehouse system. the government has also contracted with i think fed ex to move pallets around the country. the reason for that is the military is not well situated to do that kind of thing. there has been extensive discussions in the government and a strategy for moving pallets of drugs very quickly using i think the contract was with the fed ex system originally to move pallets around the country when there are outbreaks. >> miss o'toole? >> the big problem with the stockpile is traversing what's called the last mile. it's not about delivering the stockpile to the state public health departments. it's about getting it into the hands of people. as you can imagine, that dispensing function is very complex. washington state is going
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through pharmacies. that won't work in every state, particularly rural states. although most americans live within reach of a pharmacy. advanced deployment is also being used in those very few states that can move very, very quickly to dispense such as new york city. one thing that would definitely help is more money for state health departments and local health departments to do drills on dispensing. these are invaluable but they are very time-consuming and expensive. they simply don't have the money to do them. new york city does them, some of the big municipalities do them, but making those a more viable way to practice would i think make an appreciable difference. >> that's a great recommendation. mr. parker? >> everything you're asking really comes back to centralized leadership. we have been talking about this for 15 years or more. the last mile of dispensing medical counter measures, that is the hardest challenge. in fact, there was an executive
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order in about 2009, 2010, and i was just discussing this with one of my colleagues from public health from chicago yesterday. it seems that that work has just disappeared. but with centralized leadership, focused work on how to solve that last mile of actually dispensing the medical countermeasures, would go on. we need that, because it's one thing to have a stockpile of cipro and tetracycline, and it's one thing to be able to get it to fedex to an urban center. but actually getting it into people's hands is a huge unsolved problem. >> thank you. i'm out of time. appreciate it. >> the chair recognizes miss castor for five minutes. >> i'm going to scoot over. good morning. thank you to the panel for your terrific work on this important subject. miss shalala, the folks at
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university of miami were so appreciative and everyone across the country for your service. i know they miss you there. but it's great to see that you continue on in your service. i wanted to focus on hospital preparedness. during the ebola outbreak in africa, in 2014, we took a critical look at hospital preparedness and its important role in our nation's response to biological events. at that time, in response to that, the president requested emergency supplemental funding for ebola. the congress responded. now with zika we are having to do that again. this doesn't seem to be the most efficient way to prepare for emergencies. i would like to ask a few questions about this, about what we can do to assist hospitals throughout the country in their response. you know, we had some that were very well prepared like emory university, what a terrific job
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they did because of their association with the cdc and nih, of course, was at the forefront in that ebola response. but some did not do quite as well. and there's no mystery that if that had been more serious, that a lot of hospitals across the country would have struggled. so what lessons do you think we have learned from this, from the ebola outbreak in africa and the few cases that were -- that came to the u.s.? i would like to ask maybe miss o'toole first. >> hospital preparedness is very important. i think between 2002 and 2008, it did improve. two reasons. first of all, disaster response drills are required by the hospital accrediting facility. again, for hospitals doing those kinds of drills is expensive and
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difficult. there also was a cdc/hhs flow of money to hospitals to help them with bioterrorism and pandemic flu preparedness. and what happened with that money is the hospitals started forming coalitions. in my city in 2001, baltimore, the mayor for the first time got all the ceos of the hospitals together in one room. this is a private sector competitive industry. they don't necessarily cooperate, let alone collaborate, and those cdc funds made a real difference. these regional coalitions of hospitals were used to figuring out how they were going to share resources, share information, et cetera, et cetera. that funding has been cut in half since 2010. that makes a big difference. >> secretary, the panel's report mentions that disease-specific
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preparedness funding is the most inefficient and costly manner in which to fund preparedness. what are the alternatives to disease-specific programs, especially since many states have frayed their public health infrastructure? how can we respond better and give our hospitals in local communities the tools they need? >> we have specific recommendations in this area, including steady stream of funding. we recommend that it be done through the accreditation system and through cms. in addition to that, we have recommended a tiered system. every hospital in this country cannot be prepared for every complex disease. so both the regional coordination but more importantly, identifying those hospitals that can have special rooms set aside. in florida, for example, all of us looked at particularly at the great public hospital in miami,
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whether we could build separate rooms with separate access to handle ebola patients, and in fact, went through an exercise to make that possible. a great public hospital that sees all sorts of diseases probably is the best place to do that as well as academic hospitals around the country. so creating a tiered system in which we know where we would send patients once they're stabilized, obviously, that would have the capacity and the separation to be able to handle these diseases is certainly the way to go. we have some specific recommendations both on funding, on the accreditation process, but in particular, on creating a tiered system in this country that would give us coverage across the country as there are outbreaks. >> i think that's a very important recommendation. i would encourage the committee to act on it as soon as possible.
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thank you very much. >> recognize mr. cramer for five minutes. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thanks to the panelists. i want to focus on this incentive issue, congressman, that you raised. i will admit up front that what i'm about to do is very dangerous. i'm going to think out loud for a little bit and admit you are not going to adequately inform and educate me in five minutes. so you have to come to my office and help me work through this idea. you have all done a great job, as has the panel, the blue ribbon panel, in scaring me to death. i'm adequately prepared to understand the threat and i think that's very important. but in our political world, of course, when it comes to the appropriations process, part of why i think you don't see congress acting or the government acting proactively is because we respond to the people
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we represent and they will blame us when we are not prepared and they will blame us when we spent money foolishly and of course, we are talking about finding a way to invest in something that we hope is never needed. so that's our political dilemma. starting with congressman greenwood and others, maybe elaborate on the srf, the prb, how we could help sector, feel comf5chz the investment and the innovation and we have talked a fair bit about it, but if there's a way we can elaborate just a little more to help me better understand how we are going to do this. i might also emphasize, is there a way to put a cost benefit analysis on this? for example, miss castor was talking about emergency responding. that's a cost. that's a cost that could be avoided perhaps if we are better
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prepared. so has there been some work done in that arena that helps me assure my constituents that we are not just appropriating but that we are efficiently and effectively governing? >> well, thank you for admitting that we frightened you. obviously, our constituents, your constituents are not clamoring for this because it's a sleeper e. >> yes. >> no one is thinking that this is going to happen. as i said earlier, the hearing you don't want to have is the one about why we were unprepared for the event that was so tragic. so i think to some extent, leadership involves informing your constituents and this hearing is an important part of that. that this threat is real. i calculate when it comes to bioterror, terrorists have the motive, they are trying to
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acquire the means, and despite our best efforts to deflect that, over time, the likelihood of that happening is one over one. it's going to happen. we have to be -- we have to believe that. we have to believe that the threat is real. in terms of what works, to be prepared, we talked about the contracting reform which is a minor thing but an important thing. congresswoman brooks is the leader on that. we talked about the need for there to be sufficient funding to actually procure these mcms when they are developed. the secretary was completely correct when she said not to underestimate basic research at the nih. that's critical. but when it comes to just like in every other medical -- medicine that we develop, when it comes to actually developing the product and manufacturing the product, that's private sector is the only place where that is done. to invest money in that, the companies are willing to take the risk that maybe they will fail at the science, but the investors are not willing to take the risk that if they
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succeed, the federal government's not going to be prepared to reward them by procuring the product. so that's critical. you need enough money and money over time to be certain so there's a certainty that when you get to the end of the road and you get your product approved, that congress hasn't moved the money around and it's no longer there. >> secretary, i can see you may want to weigh in but one of the things, i appreciate that your national defense analogy. i was thinking we spend billions of dollars on weapons we hope we never use, right? they do have the benefit of being a deterrent understandably, but it isn't dissimilar. we have to constantly make this case. thank you for that. and the centralized leadership as well, i'm still struggling with the whole vice president thing myself. the more you talk about it, the more sense it makes. so i appreciate that. is there anything else anybody would add to what the congressman just said about the
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investment? >> i would like to add a little bit and perhaps maybe just pull on the contracting itself as well. as we have heard, many of the companies in this space that are really contributing to biodefense and particularly those that are bringing the more innovative solutions are struggling themselves. and the typical far-based government contracting is really contrary to the biotechnology industry in and of itself. so i would think, i have actually been encouraged recently with some pronouncements by dod to begin to start using some authorities they already have like other transaction authorities. i think also taking a look at what other things in just the basics of contracting that could make it more readily accessible that the innovative biotechnology companies would actually do business with us and the government is something to look at as well. >> thank you very much. if we could solve dod contracting in the context of
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this, that would be a bonus. that would be a cost/benefit analysis right there. >> recognize mr. green of texas for five minutes. >> if we could solve the dod contracting we could probably have them audited. i want to welcome our panel here. the blue ribbon study panel in biodefense highlighted vulnerabilities in our ability to combat emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, particularly drug resistant infections which could cause catastrophic loss of life and have already started to make even minor infections fatal. without greater investment in antibiotics we face a future that resembles the days before these miracle drugs were developed, one in which people died of common infections, many medical advances we take for granted become impossible including surgery, chemotherapy and organ transplantation. the challenges are representative of the challenge facing medical countermeasure product development. the market forces simply do not work and fail to foster the kind of pipeline we need.
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in 2012, this committee passed and congress passed the gain act and again, in this current session, in the 21st century cures act we worked to remove the financial and regulatory barriers to antibiotic drug development. secretary, can you elaborate on the study's recommendation for incentivizing the development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious diseases with pandemic potential, specifically please explain why there is such a need for the government to play a leadership role in this space. >> well, i think it's pretty straightforward that the only purchaser will be the government. there's not a private sector market for these particular biologicals. and therefore the government
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both has to incentivize the companies financially so that -- and i think the other thing to understand, jim can explain this better than i can, these are relatively small companies. often with a small number of products. we have known a lot about the biotech industry. they are fragile, i like to use the word fragile when you talk about them so that unless they know that they are going to be compensated and reimbursed for the cost of development, not just the cost of production, but the cost of development, unless there are financial incentives, i don't know how we are going to move very quickly in this area. we have had some experience. congressman waxman and the orphan drug act, we had a lot of diseases in which there were very small markets at least initially, and the congress in its wisdom passed legislation that encouraged companies to invest in creating drugs and treatments for a very small part of the population.
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our problem here is we start small but we may need a production line that's huge at the end of the day. i don't know any other way to do it except with financial incentives. i just don't know, i think everything that we have learned, it's not just that i'm a capitalist, it's just from our view at a public policy issue, when the market is going to be the government, there is no other way to get a very small number of industry people to invest unless they know there's going to be a market at the end of the day. >> jim, welcome back to your committee. so nice to see you. one of the proposals we have is the priority review voucher, prv.
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and the beauty of it, if you look at neglected tropical diseases, we knew that there's no financial pull, that these diseases that occur in places like africa, the countries are when congress created the priority review voucher, it works beautifully, because what it does is it says to a company if i can get a drug approved, even if i don't make enough return on my investment from the procurement of that product, another maybe large biopharmaceutical company will pay me and these things, there are only two or three of them sold but they have gone for $200 million. doesn't cost the taxpayer a penny. which simply gives them a shortened review period for some other product. that doesn't cost the taxpayers any money, either. they pay their fee, they get their product approved and sometimes they don't, but if
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they do, it gets approved a little faster, gets on the market and by the way, then it goes off patent sooner so it still doesn't have any cost to society. >> mr. chairman, i'm out of time but we have legislation in the senate and it would fast track because we recognize the government's going to be the one that has to do it because free enterprise can't invest that money for something, but there is legislation and hopefully the senate will deal with cures and the complete package that our full committee approved overwhelmingly. thank you, mr. chairman. >> recognize the vice chair of the full committee. miss blackburn. >> yeah, that woman from tennessee, tell you what. dr. parker, i am so happy to see an aggie on the panel. i have got aggies in my family and they always bring good common sense seasoned wisdom to the table.
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so happy to see you there. of course, mr. greenwood. how much we appreciate your insights on this and your dedication to the biotechnologies and the work that you have done there. just a couple of things that i want to touch base on. in talking with some of my research centers and in tennessee, we have such an aggressive biotechnology group, and when i was in the state senate, i helped to formulate that group and so they have got a good underpinning and it doesn't matter if it's vanderbilt or st. jude's or whatever. they talk to me a good bit about the right balance between government and regulatory oversight and then the ability to incent. mr. greenwood, i'm so pleased that you just mentioned the priority review voucher for the mcms.
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i just think this is, when you look at these medical counter measures, that is just so important that we have that. and it doesn't matter if it is a material threat, if it is something like zika, we have to have a way to go about this, but i want to come to something that dr. o'toole mentioned, and then congressman greenwood, if you will kind of answer to that. basically, her point was you move products to a point of scaleability and then if you need something, you are ready to move with it. and it can push that scaleability quickly. so let's go back to that voucher. mr. greenwood, if you will continue that conversation and kind of build that out, the
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importance of that, how you would address these for something that is a material threat, or like the zika virus which right now, there is not a vaccine and people are saying what are you going to do, why didn't you know this was a problem. the olympics are coming to brazil, people have been vacationing for months in the zone that is affected, et cetera. so let's go back to the importance of having that priority review process for such -- for this type of occurrence. >> so there's great uncertainty for a company -- we have seen our companies and proudly jumping into this zika issue and trying to do some research on it very quickly to develop products. but i remember a company, member company of bio that was involved, looked like it was close to having something on ebola and they almost didn't want to talk about it because their stock was fluctuating like this. all of a sudden everybody would invest in that company and another company was doing something and people would pull
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out and it created unpredictability and volatility. it's an example of how the norms of economics don't work in this field. the priority review voucher takes away one of the uncertainties. that uncertainty is that it doesn't take away the uncertainty of can we make this product and will it be safe and will it be effective. that's always a risk. i will tell you that doing that is harder than putting a man on the moon. most companies fail and most projects fail. so it's hugely risky to even bother trying. but if you do try, and you do succeed, the only reason your investors are giving you the leeway to go and do that is because they think that somehow, they will get a return, fair return on that investment. one way to do that is to have enough money in the reserve fund so that -- and have it there not
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just year by year but have it there multiple years so companies can know and investors can know if we succeed here, they will buy the product and we will get our investment back. but the priority voucher review is an entirely different way to do that. and because they have become so valuable, it is a huge driver, a huge incentive because if you can succeed, say right now where you had a priority review voucher for zika, companies would know that if they could succeed, and if they not only would they have the great satisfaction of being able to spare people from this disease and god forbid, more children born with microencephaly but they would have this product they could sell to the marketplace at a very nice return and use that money to countermeasure. i think it's a no-brainer to me. i know there's some political questions about it but i don't
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think there should be because it costs the tax payers nothing. it costs society nothing and provides nothing but benefit. thank you. >> thank you. yield back. >> i now recognize dr. burgess of texas for five minutes. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thanks to our panelists for being here today. i apologize for missing part of the hearing. we are having our budget season. mr. greenwood, you will remember what that is like. so never a dull moment around here today. dr. o'toole, i just want to ask you because we have had several hearings over the past several years, just for context, my congressional career goes from sars now to zika, long enough for people back home to say term limits, but on the other hand, there may be some value in seeing some of this stuff over a continuum. but you referenced in your
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testimony about what are called laboratory developed tests and zika comes into focus because okay, you got a chain reaction but only a few places can do it, it's pretty valuable, pretty accurate but it's hard to get, you got to go through a health department to get it. there's an igm antibody but it will cross-react with some other viruses so you are not really sure if your result is accurate. would you just speak to the regulatory hurdles that you describe in your testimony and laboratory developed tests, because we in this committee have been studying that. there is a movement, as you may be aware, to move the regulation of laboratory developed tests from clia, the clinical lab
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improvement amendment, which is administered through the center for medicare and medicaid services over into the food and drug administration and requires basically the licensing of laboratory developed tests just as if they were a new drug or device and we know the problems with the timeline of those things. so could you just speak to that, briefly? >> yes. thank you for the question, congressman. first of all, the reason fda is so concerned about diagnostics is that they can have life or death consequences. we might want to think about different standards for diagnostics during public health emergencies. >> i'm going to interrupt you for a minute. that is called clinical judgment and you and i understand that because we trained as physicians and that has to be part of the equation. it took me three years to get from the doctor at the fda a list of the problems that he was worried about with the development of laboratory developed tests. where are the outliers, where are the problems? to his credit, the last time he was in here, a few months ago,
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he did produce a list of 20 tests that he said these may be problematic. but there are 11,000 laboratory- developed tests out there and they are useful every day of the week in a clinician's office. so i'm sorry, but continue. >> so let me narrow the problem down to tests that we need for infectious disease and particularly during epidemics. okay? we need a variety of different kinds of tests. as you know, you want a very sensitive test when you have a low prevalence but you don't want that same test when you are in the middle of an epidemic so it gets tricky. however, here's the problem. it's very difficult to validate a new diagnostic against ebola or even zika if you don't have curated samples of those diseases. in my view, the government can put this in dod or hhs or fda. the government should develop a curated bank of diseases about which we are worried so that
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companies, especially these small, fragile companies could come and test their diagnostics against them so that they could much more rapidly give fda usable data on how well their test works. that's one. secondly, i think just as fda has emergency use rules for medical counter measures, during public health emergencies, we ought to think about emergency use schools for diagnostics which i think we can actually create rather rapidly and manufacture quickly during public health -- >> i would just tell you, last year or 18 months ago during the peak of the ebola outbreak in september, i went to a hearing in the foreign affairs committee where we heard that the fda had actually put a clinical hold on a drug that was at that time in use in treating patients with ebola. i didn't want to hear about clinical holds. i wanted to hear about clinical trials.
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it really did seem like they were an obstacle faced with this worldwide scourge. i just need to ask a quick question and i appreciate your listing the recommendations of the blue ribbon task force. in my political training which granted, was a street level course, i was sort of taught that you only do three things, if you produce a list of 33 things, no one listens to you after the third one. but i did read through your list and it is a good list. it's exhaustive. i hope it's not static because one of the things that we have worked on on the 21st century cures bill is electronic health records and if we do not address that fact in this -- in the recommendation that you have, i think that's actually going to stymie the ability for researchers and clinicians to communicate rapidly, to identify data, respect patient privacy rights but at the same time we need to have that ability for
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rapid learning within the system, whatever develops. >> as you know, there's been a lot of progress on electronic medical records in this country and continues to be and you are absolutely right, it's the touchstone piece. i should say that even though we have 33 recommendations, we have actually staggered them to identify those that we think congress should do immediately that have more of a midterm value and a longer-term strategy. so we very carefully laid out a strategy that would be workable for congress. >> thank you. >> and the federal agencies at the same time. these are not just recommendations for congress. >> i yield back. >> i now recognize mr. bilirakis for five minutes. >> thank you for allowing me to sit in on this very important hearing. as a former chairman of the
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emergency preparedness response communications subcommittee for homeland security, i recognize the need for the country to be proactive, not just reactive, to a host of biological threats both natural and man-made. i'm glad that i can continue to be involved in the energy and commerce committee. i appreciate being given the opportunity to sit in on this subcommittee. secretary shalala, earlier you mentioned that the state and local agencies are the first in line of defense against outbreaks and attacks. you also said that much of their funding through block grant programs has been weakened. what should we do to enable state and local entities to be prepared to respond to outbreaks or attacks? is there enough of a focus on medical surge capacity and mass prophylaxis capabilities? do we need flexibility in our grant programs? >> [ inaudible ].
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-- the funding has gone down over a number of years. the cdc is pretty flexible but the states are really underfunded in terms of their infrastructure, as was pointed out by public health experts across the country in the states -- >> could you turn your microphone on, please? >> yeah, the microphone. >> turn your microphone on, please. >> we have lost 50,000 public health employees in our states and local governments as well, and that has to be properly funded. the tradition has been to have almost a block grant that goes
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from cdc to the states. i believe in that tradition. i believe in the relationship between the cdc and states and local governments to build an infrastructure, because the cdc is not a line agency. when we are in an emergency, we think they are, but it's really the states and the local governments and their public health departments that are responsible for both the tracking, the identification for all of us in this country, and we have to make sure that infrastructure, the states are under great fiscal pressure in this country and we have to make sure that infrastructure is beefed up, that stays in place. >> thank you. next question is for the panel. you all mentioned the lack of comprehensive biodefense strategy and the need for centralized leadership. what, if any, protocol is in place now to enable coordination between the agencies such as dhs, cdc, hhs and various state
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agencies when there is a disease outbreak, and what capability gaps exist in coordinating efforts between agencies, what makes coordination a challenge? we can start with the secretary. >> well, i think earlier, i talked about the fact that there were multiple agencies that were involved when we have an outbreak like this, and while hhs has very strong responsibilities and has the scientific and public health expertise, homeland security, the defense department, there are all sorts of agencies across the board, and we have made a very strong recommendation that the vice president be the ongoing coordinator in this country. because the lead agency concept no longer works when you have various jurisdictions involved, and, in particular, when you need to work with the private sector, with state and local governments. unlike fema, which basically can
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order people around, it's very difficult for one agency and i say this reluctantly, because as a former hhs secretary, i wanted to own the world, but when you don't have proper jurisdiction, when you don't have the leverage, then you have to elevate it, elevate both the responsibility, and we are much more sophisticated about the role the private sector, the development of diagnostics, and that this has to all be part of our overall strategy in this country. >> i just want to add to that, the need to be able to elevate it. that centralized leadership not only is needed at the federal level and to try to close these gaps between each individual department and agency, because they want to exercise their own authorities, but there are gaps between them. but this will transcend all the way down to the state, local, private sector level.
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that will help transcend that leadership. as an example, you mentioned surge medical at the local level. it's going to be more logistics. that's why emergency management and other disciplines are going to be so necessary to effect in your example surge medical dispensing of antibiotics, it's more logistics. public health done do logistics. the centralized leadership concept is so critical. it transcends, the federal, state, local and private sector levels to close these gaps between the multiple disciplines and agencies that have to contribute to bio defense. >> thank you, mr. chairman. >> i'll yield back. >> recognize mr. griffith of virginia for five minutes. >> thank you very much, thank you all for being here today. dr. o'toole, during the ebola out break, mr. were weaknesses
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identified in the system that we are now witnessing again with zika, surveillance, detection, diagnostics. overall, how would improved surveillance of animal outbreaks strengthen our surveillance of human outbreaks and make us better prepared for dealing with epidemics? >> well, the majority of emerging infectious diseases come from animals. there are diseases that affect both humans and animals. so we definitely need to do a better job looking at those hot spots where we are likely to see spillover from one species to humans. most of the hot spots are in tropical zoennes in asia, afric. most of our surveillance is in temperate zones. we are beginning to have tools such as high speed genomics that could give us a handle on what diseases might be able to spillover. secondly, we ought to fund much
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more rigorously the usda's existing program for looking at agricultural animals, because modern methods of animals together, creating our own industrial hot spots for spillover. and we've seen that with flu and the loss of turkeys and chickens in the past years. thirdly, for humans we have to have a much more strategic approach to surveillance. we spent literally billions on surveillance in the past 15 years. some things have worked, some things haven't. we've done a terrible job at lessons learned and we ought to go back and figure out what really has made a difference. part of that is, again, we're -- we sound like broken. records, funding state health departments, because that's where, you know, the rubber meets the road. but we have to help state health
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departments do a better job. diagnostics, again, critical, critical, critical, critical. clinical disease is very vague. if you don't have a diagnostics to say this is zika and thens denghi, you're going to have a hard time figuring out what's gong on at the beginning and middle of an epidemic. i would be very careful about investing large amounts of money and particular survey programs unless you know what it's supposed to do, whether they work and you know what they're going to use that information. >> the next question was going to be, are we doing a good job of integrating human and animal environmental health. and i think you answered that. secretary, how can we improve those three components to develop a more comprehensive strategy to ensure we're prepared for whatever is next? >> i think our major recommendation is that woo put this responsibility in the office of the vice president that we really
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need a national leader with the clout to integrate all these pieces and to help us. actually to help us think through a strategy, because the int intergration itself will have to be done by agencies and others. the strategy, having the metrics for it, keeping people accountable, we've all recommended that we elevate that to the office of the vice president. >> i appreciate that. dr. o'toole, lots of concerns being raised about zika and our athletes competing this summer in the olympics. not only athletes but all of 0 the spectators who will go down, the coaches, the family members et cetera. the brazilians will have to so. things and this is an international effort. but do you believe we're going to be ready to be able to defend our folks, or have the biodefense efforts ready to depend our athletes and spectators and coaches and family members who go to the olympics this year?
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>> well, i understand the deep concern that zika has raised. whenever children are affected, grown-ups get deeply, deeply worried. that's what's happening here. i will say that there are dozens of very dangerous mosquito and even tick-born diseases that have been with us for millennia. and you can, to some extent, protect yourself from mosquito bites by using deet and dressing well and sleeping in places with screens and so forth. that's not a perfect protection. it's not a zero risk. we have to wait and see more information about what is going on. we have known there's been more or less an epidemic of denghi and chicken gungha. and denghi is a serious disease.
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in south america, for a few years, that hasn't stopped people from going down there. i think we have to wait until there's more scientific data about zika. i know nih is working on a vaccine. i wish we had one. i think if i were a young woman who is pregnant or getting pregnant, i would think twice about going to south america right now. but i think for most people, there are ways to at least mitigate the risk. >> would you indulge me 30 seconds on the zika question? >> yes. >> thank you. i want to point out, aside from medical countermeasures on zika, there's a whole field of looking at how to bioengineer mosquitos, which we already know how to do. so they are actually -- they're all males, they don't bite, and they mate with the females and the progeny don't survive.
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it's a fascinating new technology that may be part of the solution to this problem. >> i know we have votes in a few minutes. but if you have one quick follow-up question. >> one quick follow-up question, thank you, mr. chairman. to mr. greenwood with respect to the priority review voucher program. can you share with us existing prv programs for rare pediatric disease or neglected tropical diseases, increasing the biotech investments in this area. can you give us some examples where you've seen that already happen? >> i probably have that in my notes. if i had time i'd be whispered to behind. i would just say -- >> and if you would like to submit it for the record, that would be fine. >> i will submit that for the record. suffice it to say that it is working, it has created both in the area of pediatrics and the area of neglected tropical diseases, it has generated a tremendous amount of interest and investment, and it is
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working perfectly well. just as congress intended. i have no doubts that it would work well in this field as well. >> do you believe that we added dhs's material threats to the fda's prv program, it would spur additional development of the medical countermeasures? >> i think that's precisely what needs to be done. i have no doubt whatsoever that it will be successful in inspiring investment in this very dangerous field. >> thank you. i'll yield back. >> a quick follow-up question? >> yes. secretary shalala, you've spoken about the vice president as the overseer of all 0 of this and i appreciate the fact that there are too many agencies and too many people involved. and when too many people are in charge, no one is in charge. and i get that. >> and too many committees of jurisdiction. >> and i'm not -- i don't quite share your enthusiasm for putting this into the executive branch.
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perhaps it should be a speaker's position, but nevertheless, i will just tell you, i was down at the border, the little rio grande border, last weekend and realize you've got cdc map that shows mexico and central america being purple with zika. in my states, the other side of a relatively narrow river. it just seems to me we don't pay enough attention to border control. i know you can't stop mosquitos at the border, but really, the issue is stopping people who are infected or potentially infected. and right now, we are undergoing another surge of unaccompanied minors and family units. and, to the best of my ability to detect, we're not looking. and that is a point of great concern to me. so all of the other things we talked about are extremely important, but let us not forget border control, because that's an issue as well. >> well, i'll leave that to your comments, but i would say that
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we also have to beef up global health. this is part of the world health organization. we can't stop mosquitoes from coming across borders, whether it's in people or they're justify flying across. but it's not only beefing up our own infrastructure, one of the things we learned with ebola is the world health organization doesn't have the kind of authorities it needs. it doesn't have the resources they need. and so it's not just a state and local issue or a federal issue, it's also an international issue. and i think your point about border security is also, but i would put it in the context of international health security and looking at the agencies that we have now, the international agencies that we have now. and we know that they're weak, we learned that during ebola and
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previously. and this committee also might have a hearing because there have been recent reports on the international health organizations to take a look at those relationships as well. >> thank you. >> i know you're going to call votes any moment. i would follow up with two quick questions. if you can't answer here, get back to us. i would like an answer to each of you. if you know countries who model programs of the very thing you're describing, we would love to know about that. any of us know any offhand or would you like to get back to us on that? >> my only comment is if we don't have it, i would be very surprised if anyone else in the world had it. >> to be fair, there are centralized health systems in smaller places that may be more integrated. but i think that we have different levels of government, different levels of responsibility. we need to put -- we can't use their models. we'll have to put our own system
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together. >> thank you. >> another question, just hope you can get information to us for the record. based upon -- given the recent geo report on the failings of bio watch programs, including the lack of valid performance data, should we continue to fund it? do you have an answerer to want to get back to us >> i'm sorry, would you repeat the question. >> should the federal government repeat the biowatch program given the recent gao report on its failings and problems including the lack of valid perform 'data? >> i think we probably will get back to you on the record with that. >> ms. o'toole, can you answer that? >> i'm a long-time critic of bio watch, but i think you should continue to fund the current program for a defined period of time until we have a strategy for what we're going to go do next. i think the notion that bio watch, or even the next gen bio watch, a series of environmental
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sensors, can protect the country is wrong headed. the technology just isn't good enough. the cost effect in this ratio is just not advantageous. we need a new generation of technology. it's not there yet. again, diagnostics would make a big difference. you do need these sorts of sensors to protect high-risk targets and national security events and so forth. the problem with biowatch right now is that it is not characterized, as gao points out very graphically, and i think accurately, we don't know that it works. it's not clear that it doesn't work. it has a very limited range of bugs that it looks for. to really cover an area of a city, you need a lot of those machines. it would be very expensive. >> i want the committee to -- >> can i just say something? thank you. first of all, with all due respect to my friend from texas, i don't think any kind of border control, even building a wall is going to stop these vector-born
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diseases from coming over. i know that's not what you mean. but what it does really highlight is how we are an international community. it's not just the mosquitos coming. we even had ebola cases come here because of international travel. that's why it's so unbelievably critical that we take this report seriously and work hard as a committee. mr. chairman, i just want to commend you again for calling this hearing. i know you're planning to have a classified briefing when we come back from the february recess. i think that's a good other step. and i would just offer my input and of the minority staff and members to help come up with a robust hearing schedule for the rest of the year. i think if there's nothing else we do, spend time on this report and recommendations, trying to get our arms around it and get
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that sense of urgency to our respective leaderships and it will have been successful. and i want to thank everybody again from the commission for doing this deep dive. this really is important. >> and let me announce on march 2nd, we will have a hearing on the zika virus where many of these issues will come up. we'll take a deep dive as well as what my friend said about getting into classified briefing and some of the bio defense issues critically important and should be a wake-up call for america. but as you said a couple of times, mr. greenwood, we may not do these things until after the fact and that would be a tragedy. so we'll get moving on that. in conclusion, again, i want to thank all the witnesses and members who participated in today's hearing. members have ten business days to submit questions for the record. i ask all of the witnesses to respond promptly to the questions. with that, this committee meeting is adjourned.
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>> we are live now in san antonio, texas, with republican presidential candidate, senator ted cruz. right now speaking to reporters ahead of the campaign rally
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there, where he's joined, you may see in your screen there, texas governor greg abbott as well as former governor and former republican candidate, rick perry. live coverage on c-span3. >> and donald trump agrees with hillary clinton that america should be neutral between israel and the palestinians. i disagree with that. if i am president, america will not be neutral. we'll stand unappall getically with the nation of israel. if you are one of those 65% of republicans who recognizes that donald trump is not best candidate to run against hillary, then there is only one campaign that has beaten, and that can beat, donald trump and that is us on super tuesday, we are running neck and neck with donald in super tuesday states all across the country. i want to say, if you're someone thinking about supporting another candidate, listen, there are a lot of good people in the race. people who are friends of mine, people who i like, people when i
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respect. but we are the only campaign that has a shot at beating donald trump an super tuesday. if you don't want to see donald trump as nominee, i ask you to join us and stand with us. if that happens, if conservatives stand together -- >> senator, are you preparing for -- >> back on the record, would you agree with john kasich and marco rubio's campaign, that come what may, there's -- >> i don't know if they've said that or not. a campaign sneaking around when you can't win a state and not amassing delegates that doesn't stop donald trump. we need to come together. i believe after super tuesday we will see this race become more and mr a two-man race. i think the likely outcome of tomorrow donald is coming out with a been. of delegates, i believe we'll out with a bunch of 0 delegates and everybody else will be way, way behind. if that's the case, it time for the party to unify, head to
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head, i beat donald trump and beat him resounding like 16 points, 56-40, donald has a hard ceiling. 60% of americans have a negative view of donald trump. it's why the democrats are thrilled for our country to nominate him. i will say, there was a disturbing story that broke today, that apparently there is a secret tape that "the new york times" editorial board has of donald trump saying that he didn't believe what he's saying on immigration, all of his promises to secure the border are not real and if he's president, he doesn't intend to do what he said. now, that's been reported, "the new york times" apparently has this on tape. but it was an off the record tape. so "the new york times" has said they will not release the tape until donald gives them permission to do so. i call on donald, ask the new york times to release the tape. and do so today, before the super tuesday primary. one of two instances, it is
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either false, and if donald didn't say that to "the new york times," he deserves to have this cleared up and releasing the tape can clear it up. alternative is that it is true, that not only did donald trump fund the gang of eight rubio/schumer amnesty effort everybody not only did he give over $50,000 to 5 of the 8 members of the gang of eight, but actually now is telling "the new york times" editorial board, pay no attention to what i'm saying on immigration because i, donald trump, don't intend to do anything. i'm saying i'm just try -- he recently said he loves the poorly educated. i hope it not the case that donald trump is telling "the new york times" editorial board he is deliberately misleading voters and he has no intention of doing anything he's saying now. the tape can clear it up. voters deserve to know if he says something different when talking to "the new york times" than he does when talking to
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voters and we deserve to know before super tuesday. >> are you preparing for a contested convention in. >> no. contested convention is -- is the great hope of the republican stature. it is how they are drowning away their sorrows. as they say, have a brokered convention and all of these crazy voters will go one way and we'll step in with all of our money and we will anoint our white knight to ride in and save the day. that's not going to happen. are they trying to do that with mitt romney, trying to slip him? >> we will see, we're not going to have a brokered convention. voters will decide. it is very clear, it is very clear the only campaign that can beat donald trump, and in fact the only campaign that has beaten donald trump, is our campaign. look, here in the state of texas, the polling shows we've got a considerable lead. i think we're going to have a very good night in the state of texas. i would note, the other
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candidate in the race, marco rubio, is losing his home state of florida by 20 points. that's a real problem. you can't beat donald trump if you can't win your own home state. >> senator -- >> the division -- >> last question. >> does that hurt your argument -- [ inaudible ] >> jeff sessions is a good man, a good friend, principled senator who fights passionately for his causes. donald trump's record is open for everyone to examine. it is a fact that for four decades donald trump has supported open borders democrats. it is a fact that donald trump supported jimmy carter over ronald reagan. it is a fact that donald trump supported hillary clinton and chuck schumer and harry reid and he supported john kerry over george w. bush. nobody who supports open border democrats for 40 years can care about securing the borders. it is a fact that donald trump
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had a $1 million court judgment against him for hiring illegal aliens. it is a fact that right now donald trump's hotel in florida brings in hundreds of foreign workers rather than hire american workers and, indeed, his explanation for that, that he didn't interview, just after the last debate, he said you can't find americans who are qualified or who want to work as waiters and waitresses. that explanation is patently offensive, it is false. there are millions of americans who have worked as waiters and waitresses who want to, especially in some swanky hotel in palm beach where people are tipping with $100. but out of roughly 300 americans who applied to work at that hotel, donald hired 17. instead, he brought in hundreds of foreign workers that he could pay less money, he could control that were captive, that couldn't quit, that couldn't leave.
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and donald cannot abuse our immigration laws and take advantage of american workers and, at the same time, pretend to be a champion of american workers. and i would note, the secret tape of "the new york times," if it is in fact the case, that "the new york times" has a tape showing donald saying he done believe what he's saying on immigration right now, then the voters deserve to know and you should be very troubled by a candidate like donald trump who tells "the new york times" one thing and voters another, although i would note donald has also told us that he would be a very, very different person the day after the election, that he could be, in his own words, the most politically correct person on earth. let me tell you this, the day after i'm elected president, i will be the exact same person i am today, a principled constitutionalist. here in the state of texas, five years ago, i promised the people of the state of texas that if i was elected i would go to
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washington and fight with every breath in my body to stop obamacare, to stop amnesty, secure the borders, to defend this nation, to defend the bill of rights and religious liberty, and i have done that every single day in the is that tsena. that's why we've got the tremendous support we have in the state of texas because i've honored my commitment to the men and imwomen who elected me. >> senator sessions describing your past position on immigration. [ inaudible ] it demonstrates you were conservative at the time. the fact he's endorsed donald trump now, what does that say? >> look, donald trump's immigration record is a matter of public fact and public record. donald trump's record on immigration is terrible. donald trump's record on immigration is terrible. no one who gives hundreds of thousands of dollars to open border democrats can be trusted
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to secure the border. and the fact that there are now reports that donald trump is telling "the new york times" he intends to go back on everything he's saying on immigration right now, there is a reason, there is a reason. >> [ inaudible ]. >> i have no idea what trump said. >> this is last one. >> thanks, guys. >> what is going to be your message to the dreamers that are trying to decide [ inaudible ]. >> my message in this election is that we're going to bring back jobs and economic growth to america. >> dreamers. >> we are going to enforce the law. and president obama's executive amnesty is illegal, it is contrary to the law. a president doesn't have the authority to ignore the law and refuse to enforce it.
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as president i will enforce the law. all right. thanks. >> you never set foot, even close to that aircraft, without a check list. check list will save your life. you either were reading it yourself or had another crew member that was there reading
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that check list. i want the next president of the united states to be someone who uses a check list. i've got more than just passing knowledge of individuals that are standing before us and asking to be our next commander in chief. i want the next individual who is in that oval office to every day get up and use not just one but two check lists. and i know for a fact there's only one individual in this race that's standing there today and asking us for our support that uses two check lists, and that's the bible and the united states constitution, and that is ted cruz!
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that's who we want. that's who the world needs, the stability, the predictability, of knowing that they are going to check off on that book that is guided judeo christian values for all of these many years, has guided the country over 200 years and that biblical judeo christian way constitution. you see, i'm grateful, as we look at individuals and they stand before us and they say, i want to represent you. this isn't hearsay. what i'm going to share with you is, i was standing on the entranceway to be the next person interviewed last summer
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in iowa, it was a faith and family organization that bob van derplatts puts together. a large audience of evangelical christians and frank luntz was interviewing the candidates, interviewing all of us, querying us, asking us questions about not just our faith but our family, our positions. and the individual who went before me was donald trump. frank luntz looks donald trump in the eye and said, mr. trump, have you ever asked god for forgiveness. and the answer was, nope, i don't think i've ever done anything that i needed to ask god for forgiveness for. now, i don't know what your --
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where you find yourself in the entire religious conversation, but here's one thing i do know, if you do not understand in your mind intellectually, and you don't understand in your heart spiritually, that to be a christian you must understand in both of those places that salvation comes by god's grace. that you have to ask god for that forgive neness. i don't worry about whether ted cruz understands that or not intellectually or spiritually, he does. i have talked about two groups
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this afternoon that are really pivotal to how this election is goinging to turn out. veterans and the families of those veterans and evangelical christians. and in state of texas, i'm really proud that we got a lot of both of those. i started working with a group of veterans called keep the promise to the vets, as a matter of fact, you can go to their website, you can go to my twitter site, you can follow what we're doing. it's -- it's young men and women who really care about the future of this country. it's young americans who held their hand up and said, here am
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i, send me, when our country needed them. we owe them so much because they were willing to step away from family. they were willing to step away from commitment to go serve this country when this country called them. go to that site, you'll find some extraordinary stories about young people who have given way more than their fair share. to those of you in this audience, not just those who served our country nobly, sacrificially, but to the family members who just as sacrificially served this country by taking care of our veterans. and as we've seen them all too often come home and they've been scarred, scars in ways we can see, scars in ways that we
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cannot see. i want a president of the united states that understand what sacrificial service is all about. one of the things that i come to learn and to love about senator ted cruz is he truly understands the concept of sacrificial service, of servant leadership. ted cruz knows who he will work for and that's the people of the united states. that's the humility of this leader that i want to see. when donald trump had the opportunity to serve this country, he decided to take a pass. he talks about that he's for the
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little man. he's for the little guy. well, who is the little guy that took his place in vietnam when he didn't take his responsibility? who was that individual? i don't know, did he make it back? donald trump said he couldn't serve because he had heel spurs. those heel spurs didn't seem to bother him when he was playing in college athletes. as a matter of fact, i'll bet during that period of time he has problems remembering things, like remembering what the ku klux klan is. he has trouble with his memory when it's helpful. he couldn't remember which foot it was, pastor, that had these bone spurs. but i bet you he remembers his athletic exploits during that
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period of time. dakota myers is a medal of honor recipient, endorsed him. as we were talking about this issue in iowa, he said, i don't know about -- i don't know about donald trump and his bone spurs, but he said, i know men who have serve who'd have lost legs and they have gone back to serve this country. that's the kind of sacrificial servant that we need in america today and that is an individual i'll suggest understands what sacrificial service is, is ted cruz. we need to do everything we can tomorrow, tomorrow is our day. tomorrow's the day texas sends its powerful story in a man who continues to understand what
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sacrificial service is all about, a man who understands what a hurdle is about, a man who understands what standing before the american people and before this great state of texas, in a powerful way and saying i will lead you with true allegiance to our constitution, to the american people and to the spirit that made the greatest state in the nation. welcome on this stage, our governor, greg evan. [ applause ]
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>> thank you, san antonio! the hometown of the first lady of texas. thank you to rick perry for 14 years of guiding this state down the conservative pathway, making state of texas even better. i enjoyed working side by side with governor perry as we elevated the state of texas and as we fought back against the federal government.
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now you all know that i rewrote the role of the attorney general in texas. i went into the office, i sued the federal government, and they went home. i sued barack obama and the federal government 31 times. so i can be the first, the first to tell you, we don't need another president who is going to ignore the constitution. we need a president who is going uphold the constitution. we need ted cruz to be the next president of the united states of america.
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ted cruz is going to rein in all of the rogue, out of control federal government agencies that are questioning jobs. i've heard far too many stories, even right here in san antonio, about so many doctors who are leaving the medical profession because of the heavy hand mandates of obamacare. i've talked to too many businesses that are not growing, that are not creating jobs, because of all of these heavy-handed regulations coming from the epa. and i've talked to farmers and ranchers who are fed up because ditches and ponds on their ranches and farms are now being regulated by the federal government. okay, if you feel that way, let
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me ask you a couple of questions. are you frustrated by barack obama's epa? >> yes! >> ted cruz will rein it in. are you fed up with the irs? [ cheers and applause ] ted cruz is going to get rid of the irs. [ cheers and applause ] are you angry -- are you angry about obama care? [ cheers and applause ] ted cruz will repeal every single word of obama care. [ cheers and applause ]
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a little bit more soberly, are you disappointed, like i am, about some appointments to the united states supreme court by republican presidents themselves? [ cheers and applause ] friends, we are at a constitution y constitutional tipping point. there is no margin for error when it comes to supreme court appointment. ted cruz will appoint true conservatives to the united states supreme court who will apply the law, not rewrite the law. [ cheers and applause ] and y'all remember that story, that horrific story, about the woman in san francisco who was
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gunned down by an illegal immigrant with a criminal record who was allowed to stay in the united states because of a sanctuary city policy in san francisco. with ted cruz as your president, there will be no one like kate steinle whoever suffers that fate again. because, because ted cruz is going to ban sanctuary cities in the united states. and ted cruz is going to secure our border. and ted cruz is already working with me on a federal law to prevent terrorists from sneaking
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into this country through the refugee system. ted cruz is going to keep the united states of america safe. and my friends, america today is at a crossroads. and we need a leader who will take us down the right path. ted cruz is the right man to take us down the right path. i speak to you today with personal knowledge. i've known ted and heidi cruz for 13 years. ted worked side by side with me when i was the attorney general and he was the solicit general for more than five years. i've seen ted cruz behind the scenes. i know the man's heart. i know his commitment. and i know that there are so
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many people in america who have hoped when they cast a vote for president that that person will fulfill their promises. when i vote for ted cruz, i know he will fulfill the promise of true conservative values for the united states of america. [ cheers and applause ] >> to my fellow texans, this is our time. texas can play a texas-size role in determining who the republican nominee is going to be in this presidential election. you have the ability to chart the course of who the republican nominee is going to be. and most importantly, chart the future for the united states of
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america. all it takes is for every single person in this room to do far more than vote. if we are really going to make a difference, we need everybody in this room to get one dozen people to go out and vote for ted cruz tomorrow to become the next president. so let me close this out in the way i closed out my campaign for governor. it relates to that tv commercial we had with me telling the story about how i built my strength back up after the accident that left me in the wheelchair. rolling up that parking garage, floor after floor after floor saying to myself, just one more.
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just one more. just one more until i reached the very top of that parking garage. what we need you to do is to adopt the very same attitude for ted cruz to get just one more voter to the polls. if you do that, if you do that, the same state that helped lift a man whose back was broken out of the hospital bed all the way to the governor's mansion in texas also can lift ted cruz all the way to the white house in the united states of america. so join us in supporting ted cruz as your next president.
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[ cheers and applause ] ♪ ♪ ♪
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god bless the great state of texas. you know, heidi and i have been on the road, criss-crossing the country nonstop, and it is great to be home. [ cheers and applause ] it is great to be with the most wonderful people on the face of the planet, the wonderful men and women of the great state of texas. and what a privilege to be standing with patriots. governor rick perry, a strong principled conservative who led
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this state for 14 strong glorious years. who demonstrated what it means to create an environment that encourages small businesses to grow that creates jobs that protects our freedoms that allows people to achieve the american dream. and governor greg abbot. what an incredible friend and mentor greg abbot has been. what a strong passionate leader. what a tireless fighter for the constitution and the bill of rights. i am so proud to be here with each of you. you know, we're here today because our country's in crisis. because we're bankrupting our
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kids and grand kids. because the constitution and the bill of rights are under assault each and everyday. and because america has receded from leadership in the world and it's made the world a much more dangerous place. and yet i'm here today with a word of hope and encouragement, all across this country people are waking up. this election, i believe, will focus on three issues. jobs, freedom, and security. let's talk about jobs. you know, if you're a single mom, if you're working two, three jobs, 28, 29 hours a weeks
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because your hours have been forcibly reduced because obama care kicks in at 30 hours a week. if you're a working man or woman, carpenter, plumber, electrician, truck driver, you have calluses on your hands and year after year you've been seeing your wages stagnating, not going up, while the cost of living keeps going up, your wages don't go anywhere. if you're a young person coming out of school with student loans up to your eye balls, scared am i going to get a job, what does the future hold for me? will i be able to provide for my family? these are the consequences of the obama/clinton time. millions are hurt. now you know, it is easy to say you want to make america great again. you can even print that on a baseball cap.
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but the real question is, do you understand the principles and values that made america great in the first place. [ cheers and applause ] now our economy, the heart of our economy, is small business. two thirds of all new jobs come from small businesses. you want it hammer the economy, do what we've done the last six, seven years, you want to unleash the economy, lift the government off the backs of the necks of small businesses. [ cheers and applause ]governme necks of small businesses. [ cheers and applause ]the econt off the backs of the necks of small businesses. [ cheers and applause ] if i'm elected president, we will repeal every word of obama care.
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[ cheers and applause ] we'll pass common sense health care reform that makes health insurance personal and portable and affordable and keeps government from getting in between us and the -- and we will pass a simple flat tax. where every american can fill out our taxes on a postcard. and when we do that, we should abolish the irs. for far too long we've seen deal makers in washington cut deal after deal after deal that
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enrich the special interest, enrich the giant corporations, and leave behind the working men and women in this country. and you know, no issue captures that more powerfully than immigration. now immigration is a law enforcement issue. immigration is a national security issue but immigration is also powerfully an economic issue. when you allow 12 million people to come into this country illegally, they take jobs from american citizens, take jobs from illegal immigrants and drive down the wages for people all across this country. and in washington, the sad truth is, neither party wants to fix the problem. democrats support illegal immigration. because they think they'll get votes there. you know, the new politically
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correct term for illegal immigrant is undocumented democrat. but the sad truth is, far too many republicans are listening to wall street and the u.s. chamber of commerce and they look at illegal immigration as cheap labor. the more the better, drive down the wages they think is fantastic p. it's interesting, there was an article in the wall street journal a couple weeks ago. focussing on the state of arizona. you know a few years ago arizona passed some tough laws on immigration. well what happens, this article made out, is a lot of the illegal immigrants left arizona. the state is now spending hundreds of millions of dollars less on prisons, on hospitals, on education. that's hundreds of millions of dollars more that are available to spend on the citizens of arizona. [ cheers and applause ]
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you know, this article has a quote of a farmer who has a field of animals and he said, look, i can't find cheap labor any more to pick my peppers. i don't think his name was peter piper.abor any more to pick my peppers. i don't think his name was peter piper.ook, i can't find cheap l any more to pick my peppers. i don't think his name was peter piper. he said it was terrible. he had to invent a new tool to help pick the peppers. he went to the community college and hired american citizens to operate the tool. he said, i have to pay them a lot more, but we're getting it done. and you know what is happening in arizona? we have seen unemployment going down in arizona. wages for construction industries, carpenters, mechanics, people working, their wages are going up. that's who we need to be fighting for and that's who washington is --
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and you know in a republican primary, every candidate said they are opposed to illegal immigration. you want to ascertain the truth, the moment that was a time for choosing the moment that was as william barity travis would have put it, a line if the sand, was the 2013 battle over amnesty. in 2013, one of my opponents, marco rubio, chose to stand with barack obama and harry reid and chuck schumer and lead the fight to pass amnesty in the united states congress. i made a very different decision. i chose to honor the commitment, the promise i made to the men and women in this room, to the men and women who elected me to lead the fight against amnesty
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and -- [ cheers and applause ] i'm told that donald trump talks about immigration quite a bit. but there's a natural question in 2013 when the fight over amnesty was waging. where was donald? nowhere to be found. and in fact, when marco rubio was leading the gang of 8, donald trump was funding the gang of 8. 5 of the 8 members. 5 of the 8 members, donald trump gave over $50,000 to. now, you don't get to support open-border democrats for 40 years and then sudden pli wake up and say, hey, i'm for securing the border.l pli wake
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up and say, hey, i'm for securing the border.y pli wake up and say, hey, i'm for securing the border.pli wake up and say, hey, i'm for securing the border. wake up and say, hey, i'm for securing the border. you know, we saw in the debate last week, that donald trump had a $1 million court judgment against him. for hiring illegal aliens. now donald's defense, he said, that was a long time ago. okay, how about last week? last week it was reported that donald's hotel in florida, big fancy hotel, is bringing in hundreds of foreign workers and not hiring americans. now after the debate, donald went on tv to explain it. now the problem, donald said, you just can't find americans who are qualified. or who want to work as waiters and waitresses. let me ask you something, how many folks here have ever worked as a waiter or waitress?
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look around. that's who donald says doesn't exist. he had roughly 300 americans apply to come work for him. you know how many donald hired? 17. instead he brought in hundreds of foreign workers. now i get that foreign workers can you pay them a lot less. they can't quit. they can't good anywhere else. but you don't get to abuse our immigration laws and take advantage of american workers and then suddenly call yourself a champion for working men and women. [ cheers and applause ] and just today it was reported that donald trump had a secret meeting with the new york times where they recorded a tape, the editorial board, a tape of donald, this year, saying, hey,
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you know that wall i keep talking about, i don't need it. i don't intend to do any of that. that's what's been reported that the "new york times" has a tape of donald saying, everything i'm saying on immigration, i'm just saying because the voters like it, i don't intend to do any of it. now, the "new york times" says this was off the record. so they can't release it without donald's permission. so i call on donald trump, allow the "new york times" to release the tape. [ cheers and applause ] donald, if you're sitting there, tell the voters. the voters have a right to know this. [ cheers and applause ] here's what we're going to do,
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if i'm elected president, we will secure the border, we will end illegal immigration, we will stop amnesty and we will see hundreds of high-paying jobs come in. and we will repeal obama care, pass a flat tax, wages will skyrocket, young people will come out of school with two, three, four, five job offers. second, freedom. in just two weeks ago, we were all stunned with the passing of justice scalia.
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last week i attended justice scalia's funeral. i was honored and privileged to know justice scalia personally for 20 years. he was alive at the law and brilliant and ferocious defender of the constitution. and his passing underscored just what stakes are in this election. it is not one branch, but two branches of government that are at stake in this election. we are one liberal justice away from a radical five-justice left wing majority at the likes of what this country hasn't seen. we are one liberal justice away from the supreme court taking away our religious liberty, giving the government the power to force you to violate your faith upon penalty of prisoner fine.
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we are one liberal justice away from the supreme court ordering 10 commandments monuments to be taken down all over this country. we are one liberal justice away from the supreme court effectively erasing the second amendment from the bill of rights. and let me note, by the way, my two leading competitors in this race have both previously supported banning notes. donald trump, donald trump supported bill clinton's ban on many of the most popular firearms sold in this country. and marco rubio, when he was on the west miami city commission, voted to ban guns in city parks. and let me tell you this, i have never, and i will never, support
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banning guns because i support the second amendment, right to keep and bear arms. [ cheers and applause ] we are one liberal justice away from the supreme court ordering veter veteran's memorials to be torn down all over this country if they have any religious symbol whatsoever. and we are one liberal justice away from the supreme court making us subject to the authority of the world court and the united nations and international law and giving up america's -- now, the debate last week, there was a clarifying moment. hugh hewitt asked the question about religious liberty and the supreme court. and donald trump said, ted, i've known a lot more politicians
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than you have. and he's right. he has supported left wing politicians for four decadeets. s. and donald said when it comes to the supreme court religious liberty, ted, you got to be willing to compromise. you got make a deal in washington. let me be very clear to the men and women of texas. i will not compromise away your religion freedom. and i will not compromise away our second amendment right to keep and bear arms. and what donald trump told us in that debate is he intends to go
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to washington and cut a deal with harry reid, cut a deal with chuck schumer, and let me say that any justice that harry reid or chuck schumer signs off on will take away our rights. and i give you my word, any justice i put up on the court will be principle constitution to defend our rights. [ cheers and applause ] the third critical issue in this election, is security. for seven years, abandoned and alienated our friends and shown weakness and appeasement to our enemies. this, once again, was on sharp display thursday night. when donald trump said, if he
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was president, he would be neutral between israel and the palestinians. well, let me say this very, very clearly, if i am president, i have no intention of being neutral. america will stand unapologetically with the nation of israel. one of the developments we've seen in this presidency has been the weakening, the degrading of the united states -- we've seen
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our readiness undermined. we've seen morale in the milita military, we've seen a commander-in-chief that does not support the military, does not have their back. well you know, we face these challenges before. we had a weak president jimmy carter who similarly degraded the military. in 1991 when ronald reagan came in, he passed tax reform and lifted the burden of washington on the backs of small businesses. small businesses exploded. we had millions of high paying jobs that generated trillions of dollars of government revenue. reagan used that money to rebuld the military and we bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war. buld the military and we bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war.u buld the military and we bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war.i buld the military and we bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war.l buld the military and we bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war.rebuild buld te bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war.buld the milit bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war. the military
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bankrupted the soviet union and won the cold war. i intend to do the exact same thing with radical islamic terrorists. we will rebuild the military so it remains the mightiest fighting force on the face of the planet. we are going to fundamentally reform the v.a. so that every veteran has the right to choose his or her doctor. we are going to protect the second amendment right to keep and bear arms on every service man and woman. and we will have a president who stands up and says to the world, we will defeat radical islamic terrorism.
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we'll have a president willing to honor the words radical islamic terrorist. our military will no longer be governed by political correctness. promotions will not be based on securing the favor of some plush bottom basement in the pentagon. instead based on the war-fighting ethos of our military. my priority isn't going to be gluten-free mres.
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and i'll tell you, one of the most shameful things we've been seeing in the last seven years, has been this president sending our fighting men and women into combat. with rules of engagement so strict that their arms are tied behind their backs that they cannot defend themselves. that is immoral, it is wrong, and in january 2017, it'll end. to every soldier, serviceman,
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marine, to every mom, dad, sister, brother, and to every police officer, firefighter and first responders, come january 2017, once again, you will have a commander-in-chief who has your back. tomorrow is super tuesday. it is the most important day, i believe, in this republican primary. now tomorrow, the state of texas gets to vote.
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and 11 other states across this country will vote with us. 65% are republicans, recognized. that donald trump is not the best candidate to go ahead to head with hillary clinton. that if we nominate donald trump, hillary clinton most likely wins the election and our kids and our future are in serious trouble. it doesn't make sense to have in the general election two rich liberal new yorkers on the ballot one democrat and one supposedly republican. and all across count try people will recognize that the only campaign that has beaten donald trump and the only campaign that can beat donald trump is us.
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[ cheers and applause ] so i want to talk very directly to the people of texas and the people of all the super tuesday around the states, if you're one of those 65% that recognizes that donald trump is not the best nominee, you may be thinking of another candidate in this race. there are a lot of good people in this race that i like, that i respect, that are friends of mine. but the only campaign that is in a position to beat donald trump tomorrow on super tuesday is us. if you don't want to see donald trump as the nominee, if you don't want to see hillary clinton as the next president, then stand with us tomorrow on
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super tuesday. five years ago when i ran for the senate, i promised the people of texas that i would fight with every breath in my body to stop obama care. that i would fight with every breath in my body to stop amnesty and secure the borders. that i would fight with every breath i have to stop the debt that is bankrupting our kids our grand kids and to defend the second amendment and to defend the bill of rights. and everyday in the senate i have worked hard to honor those commitments.
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not everybody undin this race cd say that. we have seen too many politicians, too many washington deal-makers lie us to, over and over and over again. enough with the lies. enough with the broken promises. do what you said you would do. [ cheers and applause ] as i travel texas, people stop me all the time. they say things like, ted, i'm a democrat. i didn't vote for you. but i'll say this, you're doing what you said you would do. and i give you my word i will do the very same as president. you want to know the strength of
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the campaign? look around at the men and women here. it is the grass roots, courageous conservatives, each of you. we got 24 hours. 24 hours until the end of super tuesday. i want to ask each and every one of you, not just to come out tomorrow and vote, but to spend the next 24 hours picking up the phone and calling your friends, your family, your neighbors, loved ones, everyone you can think of, in texas or any other super tuesday state, pick up the phone and say, please come and stand with us. this is for us. this is for our kids. this is for our grand kids. this is for our nation.
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it took jimmy carter to give us ronald reagan. and i am convinced the most long-lasting legacy of barack obama will be a new generation of leaders in the republican party who stand and fight for liberty. who stand and fight for the constitution. and who stand and fight for the judea christian values that built this great nation. and god bless you. ♪ ♪ ♪ we're going to take you live
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now to fairfax, virginia from san antonio, texas. our road to the white house now bringing you a campaign rally for hillary clinton. that's senator tim kaine of virginia, democratic, speaking live to the crowd. here on c-span 3. >> a reporter asking me coming in, why is hillary doing these events in virginia right before super tuesday. there's a lot of super tuesday states. i said, i think part of it is because she and our great governor, you will hear from him later, our friends, but part of it is because virginia is now the battle ground of the battle grounds. we were irrelevant 15 years ago. between 1948 and 2008, 14 presidential elections, only went democratic once, the parties just wrote us off. republicans didn't come because they didn't have to. democrats didn't come, because why bother. now all of a sudden, folks, all of a sudden because of the work of an awful lot of people in
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this room, virginia is front and center, battle ground, spotlight on. we are going to be probably more than any other state the states that's the bell weather about how things go in november. i think hillary is here because of the importance you play. as virginians and the importance virginia plays at the national level. but you know this, when the spotlight's on, you got to do your best work. when you're in at battle ground and everybody is counting on you, you got to produce. between now and tomorrow, we are going to produce. she is going to win. we will take 12 hours off and start on wednesday and make sure she wins in november. thank you guys so much. great to be with you. thanks george mason. [ crowd chanting "hillary" ]
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so we are live from george mason university in fairfax, virginia across the river from washington. hillary clinton at a rally there. we expect her to be on the stage shortly making remarks. one of several events we are covering today ahead of super tuesday, which is tomorrow. later today we will take you to a rally in georgia with donald trump. that's 6:00 eastern here on c-span 3. and later bernie sanders speaking to supporters at an event in massachusetts. that's at 7:00 eastern time on c-span 2. of course our coverage of all of the super tuesday activities, voting, polling, speeches, all gets under way tomorrow evening about 7:00 eastern on the c-span networks.:8fgñ
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again, we are waiting for hillary clinton to come to the stage at this event in fairfax, virginia. while we wait with the supporters there, we are going to show you an event from earlier today in atlanta, georgia. florida senator marco rubio joined on stage with south carolina governor nikki haley. mr. rubio's voice going out a little bit on him so governor
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haley picked up some of the speaking doubties. we will show you as much as we can as we wait for former secretary of state clinton. >> thank you. >> hello, atlanta! so i always love to come to my sister state. and to see the good people of georgia. we have somebody kind of cool here with us as well. and he has lost his voice.
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so i will tell you the interesting thing is, when you work hard and you fight hard, sometimes these things happen. and so when these things happen, what do you do? you call your friends. and when you call your friends, it's a dangerous thing when you say, will you speak for me. because you know what i think marco would say if he could talk? my ears aren't big! so there's one thing that i've always known. and that is, if you really want to know what kind of leader you're going to get, you can always tell by how hard they work on a campaign.
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the fact that he's doing five events a day to touch as many people as he can. and when he gets up and he says, i don't have a voice, but he knows we've got thousands of people out here in georgia and says, i'm going anyway, that's someone who's fighting all the way till the end. marco, marco, marco, marco! marco, marco, marco! so this is what i want to do. i want us to be the voice that he can't have right now. but until he can talk, and he might talk a little bit, we'll see, i want to tell you a little
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bit about why i am for marco. and i want to talk about what marco rubio for president sounds like, and what it could be if we fight hard enough. i am the daughter of indian parent that reminded my brothers, my sister and me everyday how blessed we are to live in this country. [ applause ] they came to this country with $8 in their pocket. because they knew the opportunity that was america. and they knew that in america, they could make a better life for their children. my mother, she was a lawyer. and would have been one of the first female judges in india. but they didn't allow women to be judges, and she wasn't able to do it. yet when she came to this country, six years ago, she got it watch her daughter become the first female governor of the state of south carolina.
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[ cheers and applause ] go tigers! i know what my parents wanted for us. i know what i want for my children. first and foremost, i want a president that's going to keep my children safe. secondly, i am the proud wife of a military combat veteran. [ cheers and applause ] i know the worries that military families go through. and let me tell you something that marco goes around and says all the time. we have the smallest and oldest
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air force that we've ever had in the history of our country. we have the smallest army since world war ii. we have the smallest and oldest navy in the last hundred years. do you know what that does to military spouses like me? it means when you call my husband to go fight, you're not going to have his back. i want a president like marco rubio that will have the backs of our military officers when they good overseas. [ cheers and applause ]d overse. [ cheers and applause ] oversea. [ cheers and applause ] we want to know they're going to do something to take care of our military. we want to know they're going to have our backs. ♪ ♪ ♪
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♪ ♪ all right, everybody, you fired up? ♪ the day before super tuesday. where is hillary clinton? in virginia, the greatest state in the greatest nation on earth, the common wealth of virginia. and what are we going to do tomorrow? i can't hear you. what are we going to do tomorrow? every friend, neighbor, everybody you got, you drag them
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to the polls because virginia is clinton country. [ applause ] and let me tell you, folks, i don't have to tell any of you, elections matter. two years ago when you helped me get elected, remember i inherited a very large budget deficit. we had a tax on lbgt members, they tried it shut our health clinics down. and two years later we are cranking the biggest budget surplus in the history of the common wealth. you know what we did with that surplus? we invested the largest amount, $1 billion in education. so we need your help. our economy 4.2% unemployment, lowest in years, lowest of any state in the southeast of the united states of america and guess what? 16,500 former felons have now had their right back. more than any governor in
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virginia. so elections matter. and it matters that hillary clinton gets elected president of the united states of america. because she will fight for you. she will fight and make sure everybody has opportunity to have great jobs. protect our environment but give everybody an opportunity. something she has done her entire life. she is a progressive who gets results done for you. so folks, are we ready? and let me tell you, tomorrow night when that tv comes up and that map of virginia comes up, there will be a check mark for hillary clinton because of you! so folks, let's hear it for our nominee of the democratic party and the ex president of the united states of america, hillary clinton!nex president o
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united states of america, hillary clinton!ex president of united states of america, hillary clinton!xex president o united states of america, hillary clinton!tex president o united states of america, hillary clinton!x president of united states of america, hillary clinton! president of t united states of america, hillary clinton! >> hello, virginia! hello, george mason. hello! oh, thank you so much! [ crowd chanting "hillary" ] oh, thank you. thank you. it is great to be here with all of you. i want to thank my dear friend, your governor, for not only that introduction but the amazing job he's doing. in leading virginia, getting results. helping to build a strong future. i am thrilled to have this opportunity to spend a little time with you the day before this important election. i know you've heard from senator kaine and bobby scott and jerry
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connolly and jim moran who is here. we have a great preprogram about people talking about what's at stake in this election. i want to just underscore that. there couldn't be a bigger difference between what i believe we need to do to move our country forward. and what the republicans are promising to do. which would rip away the progress, send us backwards, deprive people of rights that they have obtained and generally make it very difficult for us to have the kind of opportunity that i know america deserves and that we can achieve together. so here's what i want you to know. i'm running for president to break down every barrier that stands in the way of america fulfilling its potential. and i want to make it possible for every single american,
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particularly young americans, to go as far as you can. you know, america never stopped being great. we've got to make america whole. we people together, quit being divided. i really regret the language that is being used by republicans, scapegoating people, finger pointing blaming. that is not how we should behave toward one another. that is not how we want to be treated and we're going to demonstrate, starting tomorrow on super tuesday, there's a different path that americans want to take and that we're going to do that because, from my perspective, knocking down barriers means we get rid of all of the challenges whether they be economic, access to health care, access to quality education, the continuing barriers of systemic racism,
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prejudice, bigotry, all of that, because that's what we are called to do as americans. and i am proud of the progress we have made. i want us to have more good jobs, i really applaud governor mcauliffe's record helping to attract and create more job opportunities here in virginia. we need do that across the nation, particularly we need to target communities that have been left out and left behind. i am the only candidate running who has a plan to improve the economy in coal country, to help people who have been left out. we can do this by creating jobs and infrastructure, advance manufacturing, clean renewable energy. let put americans to work and jobs that can't be exported and that we'll build our communities and our country.
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and with respect to climate change, the republicans, whenever asked about it, they all say i don't know, i'm not a scientist. there's a very easy answer to that, go talk to a scientist like somebody here at george mason who can set you straight and give you the facts. you see, i actually have concluded that they don't believe that. they just are following orders from the koch brothers who have told them, do not ever say you believe in climate change. well, i'll tell you what, not only do we know it's happening, we're going to tackle it together. and one of the ways is by building a new economy with clean renewable energy jobs. i've set two big goals. let's deploy half a billion more solar panels by the end of my first term, and enough clean energy to power every home by the end of my second term. some nation is going to be the 21st century clean energy
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superpower. i think it's either going to be germany, china or us. i want it to be us. it can be us. let's work to make that come true! we also have to do more for small business. i want young people to feel like they can start a small business, have that chance to grow something of their own, and we're going to do more to support minority and women-owned small businesses. let's get around to raising the federal minimum wage because right now it's a poverty wage and people that work full time should not still be in poverty. and don't you think it's finally time to guarantee equal pay for women's work? now, everything i've just said, the republicans don't agree with. and it's a real shame because we know how to create jobs. back in the 1990s, when my
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husband was president, we had 23 million new jobs. and incomes went up for everybody, not just people at the top. everybody. middle class families, working families, poor families, and we lifted more people out of poverty than at any time in recent history. and here's what i want you to know. during that time period, the median american family in went up 17%. and the median african-american family in went up 33%. there is nothing better than a good job to help people and themselves and their children. and it's absolutely essential that you pay attention and help other people understand. the republicans want to sell the same snake oil. they want to go back to trimckl
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down economics. hasn't worked. won't work. here's how we know it. we went from 1990s with all of the jobs and rising incomes to a new republican president who came in and went back to trickle down economics, slashing taxes, getting the regulators to turn away from regulating wall street, no longer keeping an eye on the mortgage market. and you know what happened. you know we had another, new, young, dynamic democratic president come in and was ha handed -- he was handed the worst financial crisis since the great depression. you know after that '08 election, president-elect obama called, asked me to see him in chicago. i didn't know why. he just looked at me and said, it is so much worse than they told us, and it was. we were losing 800,000 jobs a month. 9 million americans lost their jobs. 5 million homes were lost.
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and 13 trillion dollars in family wealth was wiped out. i don't think president obama gets the credit he deserves for digging us out of the ditch that the republicans put us into. so we're going to have a great debate about the economy in the general election, if i'm so fortunate enough to be the nominee. and i'm not going to let them forg forget. we'll talk a lot to the american people about what's at stake. we'll also talk about health care. because i will defend the affordable care act which has helped 19 million americans get access to health care. we are at 90% universal health coverage. we have 10% to go. the republicans keep trying to repeal it. 63 times they have voted to repeal it. and you know what?
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they won't tell you what they want to put in its place. they won't tell you because if they do, you're not going to like it because they're just going to hand it back to the insurance companies and we'll be right back where we were, because remember, before there was something called obamacare, there was something called hillarycare, because i was trying to get to universal health care coverage. and you know, the insurance companies, drug companies, gheet us that time. and i was so disappointed because i knew what was happening to so many american families who could not afford health insurance. you know what? it was -- it was so unfair. i'll tell you one quick story. i was at the children's hospital in cleveland, i was meeting with parents of really sick kids. those kids had preexistingen cans, they couldn't get health insurance and parents were telling me what an incredible burden, they were mortgaging houses, going into debt, taking
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bankruptcy to try to help their child to save a life, to give them quality of life, and you know, one man said, look, i'm successful, i have a business, i provide health insurance to my employees and their families, and nobody will sell me any kind of policy. i said, what do they tell you? he said, i have two daughters with cystic fibrosis. i sit down with them, show them my financial statements, show them the medical costs, i ask them for some help. he said the last time i met with one of the companies, the rep looks at all of that, and then he said to me you don't understand, we don't insure burning houses. to the father says to me, with tears if his eyes, they called my little girls burning houses. i want you to remember that because one of the reasons i worked with republicans and democrats to create the children's health insurance program which insures 8 million kids now, was at least to try to
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help kids like that get some medical care and give their families some peace of mind. that's why i was thrilled when the president passed and signed the affordable care act. and i'm go to do everything i can to defend it against the republicans, to improve it, to get the costs down, and to make it work better. and i'll tell you what, we're going to go after the drug companies that are increasing the costs of prescription drus.s we're also going to remove the barriers that stand in the way of education. education for every child, regardless of your zip code. this is a fundamental unfairness we still have to overcome in america. if you're from a poor community, you're likely not to have the resources you need for the kind of education you deserve.
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at some point, we have to acknowledge we are short changing millions of kids. before they ever get to be 8, 10, 12, they are behind. so let's do this, let's have early childhood education so we get more kids ready to be successful and then let's make college affordable again. i want you to be able to go to any public college or university debt-free. you won't have to borrow a penny to pay for tuition. and we're going to get the costs down. we're also going to work with states, like this one, where the governor just said he good a billion more for education. we need states starting to put back money into higher education. we have enough prisons. we don't need any more prisons.
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woo need investment in higher education instead. and then we're going to tackle the debt problem for people who already have debt. how many of you have student debt? i'm not surprised. i'm not surprised. anybody here have an interest rate higher than 10%? 11%. higher than 11. 12%. i feel like i'm in an auction. 14%. okay. i want everybody to just listen to that. we haven't had interest rates that high for anything besides student debt. you can refinance your car. you can refinance your home. corporations can refinance their debt. and we are saddling young people trying to get their education with these debts and an interest rate that is as high as 14%.
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people are afraid to go to school because if they borrow money, they'll never get out from under the debt. so here's what we're going to do. we're going to refinance all of this debt. get the interest rates down as low as they are for everything else in the economy. and then we're going to move people into income repayment plans, like i had and my husband had. we graduated with debt from law school but we were in a plan as we paid it back as a percentage of our income. i want every young person to have that same option. and if you do public service, national service, we will cut it, discount it, even forgive it at a certain period of time. and we're going to put a deadline, if you pay your debt back every month, faithfully at the end of 20 years, it doesn't matter how much is left, you're done. we are not going to have you
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carrying that debt around. and i'm not going to let the federal government make money off of lending money to young people. it should be an investment we make, not a money making propositi proposition. i do have a disagreement with my esteemed opponent in the democratic primary because he wants to give everybody free college and there's two problems with that. one is, that does nothing to get the cost done. if you're going to have a guarantee a free money, there's no reason to try get the costs down. the other problem is people who can afford, upper class, rich people, they should pay. i am not going to tax you and your family to send donald trump's youngest child to college for free. so we've got work to do. and there's more exciting opportunities to knock down
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barriers. but let's think for a minute about where we disagree with the republicans on what they say about civil rights and voting rights and women's rights and gay rights and workers rights. they seem to be against them all. here's where i stand. i support a woman's right to make her own decisions about health care. i will defend planned parenthood against these partisan republican attacks. i will defend marriage equality and work to end discrimination against the lgbt community. i will defend voting rights against all of the efforts to make it harder and harder for people to exercise their right to vote. i will do everything i can to end citizens united, one of 0
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the worst decisions that has ever been decided. and i applaud president obama for fulfilling his constitutional responsibilities to actually nominate a supreme court justice. and now, i think we have to defe defed demand that the senate fulfill its constitutional responsibilities. i will continue to work for a path to citizenship. i will defend social security against the republican schemes to privatize it and turn the trust fund over to wall street, the worst idea ever! i will stand upper to the simple proposition that the wealthy in this country need to pay their fair share in the tax system. and when a company or an
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individual pulls all of the games and gimmicks in order to avoid paying their fair share, we're going to crack down on that. i'll give you a quick example. a company called johnson controls, based in wisconsin, it makes auto parts. one of the problems president obama faced in '09 was the potential collapse of the auto industry, and the auto companies, parts companies, they came to washington, they asked for help. the republicans said let them die, take millions of be. >> reporter:s, let it go. the president and the democrats said no, we're going to see what we can do to help. they gave them a bailout. turned out to be a good deal for us, they paid it back, even faster than expected. but here's what i want you to know. one of the companies asking for help and getting help was johnson controls. so you, i, everybody else in america we kept that company alive. it turned the corner, became successful. what did they just announce last month? they announced that they're
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going to protego ing to pretend to sell themselves to a smaller company in europe, pretend to move their headquartered to europe so that they can avoid paying taxes to the government and the people of the country that saved them. now, in the tax law that's called an inversion. i call it a perversion. we are not going to let that continue. we're going right at it. we're going to make them pay a price for that kind of behavior because it's wrong and it really does send a message, hey, big companies, billionaires can do whatever they want. so we've got work to do to fix the tax code, to make it fairer. but i will tell you this, i'm the only candidate in this race, on either side, who has said i'm going to do what i can to raise your incomes. i will not raise middle class taxes. that will not happen on my watch. now i also want to tell you that
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i, like a lot of people, am sick of looking on the internet, turning on the news, see another mass killing in america. on average 90 people a day are killed by guns. that's 33,000 people a year. people talk about the really powerful lobbies in washington, they talk about wall street and drugs and insurance companies and big oil. the most powerful is the gun lobby. and it's time we all stood up to them. and work to achieve -- work to achieve common sense gun reform measures. we need comprehensive background checks. we need to close the gun show loophole and the online loophole, close what's called the charleston loophole. that's something you may not know enabled the killer in charleston to get the gun that he went to buy because,
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unfortunately, there united states a loophole that says at the end of three days, whether or not they have the information, you get to buy the gun, and what happened with this young man is that they found out only later he shouldn't have been able to buy the gun because he had a record. but he took that gun, went to the mother emmanuel church in charleston, walked in to bible study, and he was welcomed. you know, those of us who are people of faith, we know, you're called to welcome the stranger. he was welcomed. he sat down in that bible study. he listened to those faithful people talk about the bible. and then about an hour later he stood up and murdered nine of them. if we can't figure out how to respect the constitutional rights of responsible gun owners but keep guns out of people who have felony records who are fugitives, stalkers, have
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domestic violence restraining orders against them, are dangerously mentally ill, shame on us. and here's the worst example of the overreach by the gun lobby. something called the no fly list. you get on it because you have some connection to terrorists or terrorism. so the gun lobby won't even let the congress pass a law prohibiting people on the no fly list from buying a gun. what is it about being a terrorist that gives you second amendment rights that can be exercised potentially by somebody who wants to do harm to americans? 92% of americans agree with what i'm proposing. 85% of american gun owners agree with what i'm proposing. now, i want to knock down these barriers. i want to lift people up.
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create more opportunity. but i can't do it without your help. i need your help tomorrow. i hope everyone will turn out and vote in the virginia prim y primary. and here's what i want you to know. if you go out and vote for me tomorrow, i will stand up and fight for you throughout this campaign no matter who the republicans nominate. in fact, i've got to tell you, i'm looking forward to those debates because at some point you can't just say whatever pops into your head if you want to be the president of 0 the united states of america. people around the world actually listen to what people running for president say. and you know, we have to defeat isis. i am proud of the united states
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military and i'm proud of virginia, which is the home to so 0 many active duty members and veterans. and i know we've got to defeat the terrorists' threat. i've laid out a plan to do that. but part of it requires building coalitions with muslim nations because we've got to go after it, an air coalition led by the u.s., isis, their infrastructure, their leadership, from the air. but we've got to support arab and kurdish fighters willing to take territory back physically. we've got to continue to support the iraqi army, now that we finally have a cease-fire in syria, we've got to work to hold it. while we have it, turn people's attention toward isis and the other terrorist groups. just imagine, i built the coalition that took on the sanctions to impose on iran, put
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it together, including china and russia. i know how hard it's been. i know we've got to do the same to defeat all of the terrorist groups from north africa to south asia. so, when you've got somebody running for president who is insulting people, insulting their religion, i'll tell you, that makes a hard job even harder. and so we've got to pay attention to what is said because everybody else in the world pays attention. and it has consequences. in a campaign, and most seriously in the white house. when you go to vote tomorrow, you'll be voting for a president and commander in chief, right? and we need somebody who has the experience and the temperament to deal with what's going on in the world. and i am grateful for the
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experience i've had because i've been in that situation room, decisions don't get there unless they need the president to decide them. just like when we were trying to decide whether to base any action off of the intelligence where bin laden was. these are hard choices. so we need to be sure that we think hard about who can fulfill that essential part of the job. so here's what i'm asking you. if you will stand with me tomorrow, if you will stand with me during this campaign, and then, then if you will work with me to achieve this mission i have laid out of knocking down these barriers, of creating opportunities, of giving every single person in this country not just the feeling but the reality that we are all equal before the law, that's why we're going to fix the criminal justice system and the
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incarceration system. that we all have potential, that's why we're going to deal with jobs and health care and education, that we all have rights, that's why we're going to defend the rights that we have, if you will stand with me, i truly believe america's best years are still ahead of us. so let's go out and make that come true! thank you all so very, very much!
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we've lost the sound from the end of the hillary clinton rally in fairfax, virginia, at george mason university. we're going to move on. campaign coverage continuing on c-span3 with donald trump in georgia. he holds a rally at valdosta state university. we'll tack you there live just about 6:00 eastern right here. donald trump has been facing criticism recently for an interview he did this weekend on cnn where he would not directly disavow an endorsement from former ku klux klan leader, david duke. in an interview today with nbc,
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donald trump called the situation a misunderstanding, blaming a poor earpiece as the problem, and saying he's disavowed mr. duke all week long on social media. that topic came up earlier today and in an event with senator marco rubio. he was in georgia for a campaign rally with south carolina governor nikki haley. we'll show you as much as we can while we wait for the donald trump rally to get under way. >> hello, atlanta! so, i always love to come to my sister state and to see the good people of georgia. but we have somebody kind of cool that's here with us as well and he has lost his voice.
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so i will tell you the interesting thing is, when you work hard and you fight hard, sometimes these things happen. and so when these things happen, what do you do? you call your friends. and when you call your friends, it's a dangerous thing when you say, will you speak for me? because you know what i think marco would say, if he could talk? my ears aren't big. so there's one thing that i've always known and that is if you really want to know what kind of leader you're going to get, you can always tell by how hard they work in a campaign. [ applause ]
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the fact that he's doing five events a day to touch as many people as he can, and when he gets up and he says i don't have a voice, but he knows we've got thousands of people in georgia and says i'm going anyway, that's someone who is fighting all the way until the end. [ applause ] marco, marco, marco, marco, marco, marco! so this is what i want to do. i want us to be the voice that he can't have right now. but until he can talk -- he might talk a little bit, we'll see -- i want to tell you a:h little bit about why i am for
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marco and i want to talk a little bit what marco rubio for president sounds like and what it could be if we fight hard enough. i am the daughter of indian parents that reminded my brothers, my sister and me how blessed we were to live in this country every day. [ applause ] they came to this country with $8 in their pocket, because they knew the opportunity that was america. and they knew that in america they could make a better life for their children. my mother, she was a lawyer, and would have been one of 0 the first female judges in india. but they didn't allow women to be judges and she wasn't able to do it, yet when she came to this country, six years ago she got to watch her daughter become the first female governor of the state of south carolina.
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[ cheers and applause ] go, tigers! i know what my parents wanted for us. i know what i want for my children. first and foremost, i want a president that's going to keep my children safe. secondly, i am the proud wife of a military combat veteran. [ cheers and applause ] i know the worries that military families go through. let me tell you something that marco goes around and says all the time. we have the smallest and oldest
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air force that we've ever had in the history of our country. we have the smallest army since world war ii. we have the smallest and oldest navy in the last hundred years. do you know what that does to military spouses like me? it means when you call my husband to go fight, you're not going to have his back. i want a president like marco rubio that will have the backs of our military officers when they go overseas! [ cheers and applause ] we want to know they're going to do something to take care of our military. we want to know they're going to have our backs. but we also want to look at everything else this last eight years has done. we want someone that's going to in there and repeal obamacare and say it is not working.
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>> we want a president that understands the sponsor of the supreme court nominations and saying we're not going to put a moderate in there. we're going to put a conservative in there. with our first amendment, our second amendment on the line, and the hobby lobby case, guess what? the hobby lobby ceo came out and endorsed marco rubio for president. [ cheers and applause ] and then there's some other people that are running in the race. but let's talk about this. because i want to talk about the reality of the race. you know, when there's other contenders out there, we have to acknowledge them. first of all, i appreciate the
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sacrifice of anyone that decides to run for president. [ applause ] but i have to tell you, donald trump is everything i taught my children not to do in kindergarten. [ cheers and applause ] i taught my two little ones, you don't lie and make things up. i taught my two little ones that you don't push people around and just tell them what you think should happen. and i told my two little ones to do exactly what marco rubio did in the last debate, when a bully hits you, you hit that bully right back! [ cheers and applause ]
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>> [ inaudible ]. >> so i will tell you this, now let's get serious about the opposition. this race is really about two people in our republican primary, it about marco and it's about donald trump. we are talking about a man who has filed for bankruptcy four times. we can't afford for a man to go in as president and bankrupt our country. d.c.'s already doing that. we don't need someone encouraging them to do that. [ applause ] donald trump is one that goes after project after project
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after project. we've seen it with trump vodka, we've seen it with trump mortgage. we've seen it with all of his trump endeavors and right now he's being sued for fraud with trump university. every single one has failed, and now he wants to run for president. this is not a game. we're not a project. this is the best country in the world fighting for the truth and value of what makes us great. [ cheers and applause ] so what i want to tell you is, there's a lot of people who will be out there loud about trump. but the one thing that i want you to remember that i came from south carolina to georgia to tell you is south carolina went through a terrible tragedy last year. and the kkk came to south carolina from out of state to
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protest on our state house grounds. we saw and looed at true hate in the eyes last year in charleston. i will not stop until we fight a man that chooses not to disavow the kkk that is not a part of our party, that's not who we want as president, we will not allow that in our country! that is not who our republican party is. that's not who america is. because when my parents came here, they came here because
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they knew there was love and acceptance in this country. and they knew that this country had opportunity for all. so, ladies and gentlemen, i will tell you that, when it was time for me to endorse i wanted someone who had true leadership and courage to do everything we needed to do to self-correct america. i wanted someone with true passion that would fight till the bitter end, even if it meant losing his voice and showing up anyway. [ applause ] i wanted someone with integrity to do the right thing. and above all, i wanted somebody with humility. that understood you serve and work for all people, not just the ones that vote for you.
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so where do we go from here? we fight. we show our passion. we show our integrity. we show what we're made of. georgians need to stand up tomorrow and show the entire country what we want in a president and that's marco rubio. [ cheers and applause ] we have two presidential candidates right now that are under investigation.
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hillary trump -- oh. that could be something. that even cracked me up. hillary clinton and donald trump. we have two presidential candidates that refuse to disclose information. hillary clinton and donald trump. i am an accountant. i can tell you there is no audit that precludes you from showing your tax return. donald trump, show us your tax returns! so in closing, i'm going to say this, i know what my parents wanted for me. i know what my parent -- what i want for mire children.
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i know what all of you want for your families. we know the sacrifice that our parents gave for us. we know the sacrifice that our grandparents gave for us. we know the sacrifice of every generation who wanted better for their next. this is our chance to do for them what they did for us. and so i know that if we can go out and we can fight and we can show the people of america that we do want to be great, but we are going to make sure, as i always say, it's a great day in south carolina. i want you to go out and tell ten people that you're voting for marco rubio tomorrow.éwp i want you to go on social media and contact everybody and every other state and let them know
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the time is now to show what a great america really looks like. [ applause ] let's show our fight, let's show our passion. it's a great day every day in south carolina. it's a great day today in georgia. it will be a great day in america with marco rubio as president. ladies and gentlemen, marco rubio! [ cheers and applause ] >> she's great. wow. thank you. thank you. that was -- [ crowd chanting marco ] >> thank you, thank you. that was something else. whoo! i found a little bit of my voice back. i got my voice back, just a
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little bit. if you ever need to be pumped up, lifted up, you call nikki haley, she'll get you going. it's unreal. well, she covered a lot. and so, i just want to go right to the point with you. first of all i want to thank the governor of south carolina for being with us today. she's a phenomenal leader. [ applause ] if you want to know what the republican party should be about, if you want it 0 know what the conservative movement should be about, if you want to know what the party of lincoln and reagan should always be about, you should look at nikki haley. that is what our party is about. and that's an important question for us right now. it's an important question for us as conservatives, as republicans, and as americans. you have a choice to make tomorrow and you'll have a choice to make in november. november, you will get to choose what kind of country america's going to be in the 21st century.
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tomorrow you're going to get to choose what kind of party are we going to be in the 21st century. [ applause ] in the process of politics and of government and of leadership, there are two ways to motivate people. history teams us that. one way is to peel to anger and fear, go to the darkest parts of people's lives and convince them they not only have a right to be angry but it's a right to be fearful and go out and blame it on someone else, go out and take the attack on somebody else. i want you to know lessons of history. there has never been a great movement in human history led by anger and by fear. never. there have been movements that
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have taken power through anger and fear, there have been movements that motivated people through anger and fear, but never a great cause in the history of all of mankind led by anger and by fear. in fact, history teaches us that any movement who at its core is motivated by anger and by fear, by appealing to your anger, to your fear, to your worries, is a movement that is destined not just to fail but to do great harm. the great movement in human history, whether spiritual movements or political movements are led by hope and dreams, are led by the belief that things can be better. that doesn't mean you ignore your problems. for you do not have to be oblivious to our challenges to be optimistic about your opportunities. you you do not have to ignore people's frustrations in order to understand their dreams. we have to choose tomorrow. we have to choose in this election what will it mean to be a conservative in the 21st
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century, what will it mean to be a republican? are we going to be the party that did what reagan did 36 years ago that says to people, yes, times are difficult, yes the world is bad, yes there are things going wrong in your life, but if we do what needs to be done it can be morning in america again. [ cheers and applause ] the truth is that today donald trump leads in many polls and has won already many delegates. and if it is to be believed he will do very well tomorrow as well, according to the experts and the pundits. in the end it's up to you, it's not up to them. [ applause ] but that won't change what i'm doing. i will go to all 50 states in
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every territory, i will continue to speak out until i literally have no voice left. i will go anywhere to speak to anyone before i let a con artist get a hold of the republican party and the conservative movement. [ cheers and applause ] and i suppose i could sit here today and hurl insults, personal insults against him, because he's done that the whole campaign. okay, i've done that a couple of times lately. but i'm not -- i'm not -- i'm not -- no. not today, i lost my voice. it too crazy. you know what my ears are? they're the way god made them. [ applause ]
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what really motivated me the other night when i got to the debate two things. it wasn't standing up for myself. the end, this is politics. you know, worst thing that happens in politics someone says something mean about you. i was standing up toer two things. number oner i was stand standing up for you, for us, the country, for the drekds we have to choose. the other i was standing up to the truth. earlier that morning i had read a story, i heard about it before i never read about it. i saw a promotional video for something the governor mentioned, trump university, and that's when my blood began to boil. i saw a promotional video of donald trump sitting in a chair saying to a video camera, we're going to hire the best people, the smartest people, we're going to let you come in and give you the best education, better than the best schools in america and teach you everything you need to know, you're going to do is win and win and win and be successful. if you're not successful after
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going through my program, you'll never be successful. that's what he's telling voters now. so i looked at success of the program, this program was an outrage. this was a program where they brought americans that were struggling. if you're successful, you aren't going to trump university. these are people that were struggling. and they told people that were struggling, if you give us money, we're going to teach you to be somewhat like donald trump. if you give us money, people say we don't have money. you can borrow money. people say i don't want to borrow money, i don't want to go to debt. all great businesses have debt. donald trump would know, i suppose. people took on debt. people borrowed $10,000 but actually when you went inner they would say to you, if you want to make the big bucks you've got to sign up for the $36,000 course and tell people, call your credit card company, have them increase your borrowing limit. so that you can borrow that
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money to pay us. and they gave their money, they gave their money to trump university and they got nothing. only thing they left was a picture of a cardboard cutout of donald trump. and i realized what he did to those students is what he's trying to do to you. is what he's doing to our neighbors, is what he's trying to do our country. he portrays himself as a fighter for the little guy. this is a scam of the highest order. this is a guy that goes around saying every day i'm going to fight for the american worker. but he in florida this year turned down 300 american workers and instead brought people from abroad. he says to do jobs no americans were qualified to do. i know americans are qualified to do those jobs because those are the jobs my parents did working at a hotel. [ applause ]
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and he says, i'm going to take on china and i'm going to take on mexico and going to bring back those jobs, but he doesn't tell you all of that closed that says donald j. trump, it just not tacky, it made in china and mexico. [ applause ] if donald trump wanted to bring jobs back to america from china and mexico, he can start today. why don't you announce from now on, no products will be sold that say donald j. trump on them unless they're made in america? [ applause ] he says -- >> usa! usa! usa! usa! >> he says he's mr. anti-illegal
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immigration. why did did you hire all of those workers from poland illegally? you brought them into the country. you were found to be part of a conspiracy to defraud workers of the pay. he says he fights for the little guy. ask any subcontractors, because every single time that a trump project went bankrupt, the first people that didn't get paid was those subcontractors. there are literally people in the country, e-mailing us, calling us to tell us their stories. we've got to go through them all to make sure they're accurate. stories of people that were plumbers and electricians and everyday people working on a project as a subsubcontractor. donald trump kept his money, the bank got a little bit of their money, and these workers got none of their money. some were broken by him. now, why is all of this important? is this just a smear against a person? no, it is because this is a person trying to convince, and lass been successful, convincing some americans that he is fig
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fighting for them. he has never fought for them. he has never fought for anything except for himself. [ applause ] and if this was just a business thing it would be annoying but what he's discussion to do is to make him president of the united states of america. what he's asking -- what he's asking you to do is make him the face and the voice of the conservative movement. do you realize that if he's our nominee, americans will say a republican is someone like donald trump. a conservative means donald trump. we are going to lose a generation of voters and a generation of americans, most of whom want to be nothing like donald trump. [ applause ]
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he's asking us to turn over the conservative movement to someone who yesterday was asked repeatedly will you condemn david duke who is a racist, an avowed racist. and he wouldn't condemn him. he finally said on twitter why wouldn't you just say it right away at the moment. you say david duke to me i say racist immediately. why wouldn't he condemn the ku klux klan? [ applause ] there is no room in the conservative movement and there is no room in the republican party for members of the ku klux klan or for racists like david duke. [ cheers and applause ] and the thing that keeps me going the most is not just the future of the party it's the future of america that's at
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stake. this election is a referendum on our nation. if we elect somebody like donald trump who can't win, guys the press right now -- everybody likes to beat up the press. their number one job of the press whether they admit it or not is ratings and that's why every time he says something outrageous they cover it. they say oh, it's so disrespectful. they cover it. he has had ten times more coverage than everybody else in the race combined. all of these things about his record that i just said to you they know all it and more. even as i speak to you i promise you there are democratic groups out there interviewing the victims of donald trump scams and paranoia miss you -- if he were to ever become our nominee the minute he becomes our nominee the press, the democrats and all these groups will descend on him like the hounds of hell and rip him apart. they are going to rip him apart.
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[ applause ] honestly, you know our country. you know your neighbors. you know your family and friends. do you really believe that they are going to vote for someone who refuses to disavow the ku klux klan. do you think they will vote for someone with a record like his. they are not. that means he'll lose. the winner of this election will be hillary clinton. because there's no turning back. someone the other day said some of these people voting for trump they are so angry at government and our party believe me i am do. both me and nikki haley and i were elected in 2010 when i ran against the establishment of my party. [ applause ] but they said to me this is like someone who mears someone their parents hate just to get back that their parents. i said yes, you get married to this guy you can't get divorced
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for four years. [ laughter ] you got to live with him for four years. i don't know if america has four more years. not in the direction we're headed now. if we lose this election and we will if donald trump is the nominee then hillary clinton will be the next president of the united states. i say this to you without any hesitation and without any glee. a vote for donald trump tomorrow is a vote for hillary clinton in november. [ applause ] and that's why i'm here today to give you a choice. because it's still not too late. it's still not too late to get this right. it's still not too late to wake up and realize the direction we're headed as a party and as a country. it's still not too late to choose a different direction. and i want you to know what that different direction looks like if i'm elected president. and nikki touched upon a lot of
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it. when i'm elected president of the united states for first time in eight years you're going to have a president that follows the constitution of the united states of america. [ cheers and applause ] not a president that ignores it like barack obama. not a president like donald trump who says that if he's president he wants to change the first amendment so that make it easier to sue people that say things that he doesn't like. there are not enough judges in the world to hear all those cases. [ laughter ] when you elect me president you're going to have a president that protects your second amendment right to defend yourself and your family again. [ applause ] when you elect me president you're going to have a president that understands that what makes america great is not our president and it's not our
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government, it's our people, it's our families, it's our communities. [ applause ] when i take the oath of office, unlike barack obama i'll actually mean it. that means on my first day in office i will immediately repeal every single one of barack obama's unconstitutional executive orders. [ cheers and applause ] you'll have a president that will fully embrace the free enterprise system. it works. i know it works. because my parents would not have had a job if free enterprise didn't work. my father was a bartender, my mother was a maid at a hotel. they had jobs because free enterprise works. because someone built those
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hotels and hired them. [ applause ] the american economy is not a real estate deal or a scam. the american economy is not run by the president or the government. it's run by our people and we have to make it easier for them and i have shown the voters -- i have given the voters what you deserve, real ideas. not talking points. not platitudes. not slogans. real ideas. [ applause ] so, i always chuckle at these reporters why are you now saying some of the things you're saying. because for months i've been talking about real ideas and they don't cover. i give speeches about education and they igminority. i give speeches about health care and they igminority. you talk about -- forget it i don't want to say it again. you talk about anything that doesn't have anything to do with
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that they jump all over it. it makes it on the newscast. what a sad indictment on the political process today. [ applause ] so from time to time i'll still read the mean tweets. but i will never stop talking about the ideas you deserve to have. they are on my website. go on it now. not now when you're done. [ laughter ] marco and you'll see we have a real plan to fix our tax code. a real plan to roll back regulations. we have a real plan to save social security and medicare. we have a real plan to balance our budget one of the most embarrassing moments in the last debate when donald trump was asked about the debt and he said we'll get rid of fraud, waeftd and abuse. there is a lot of waste, fraud
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and abuse. instead of pressing him on it they moved on the next question. the consequences are too high. you deserve a real plan to deal with the debt. i have a real plan to deal with the debt and you can see it on our website. we'll utilize our energy resources when i'm president of the united states of america. [ applause ] when i'm president we're going to have a real plan on health care and a lot more than just getting rid of the lines around the states. [ cheers and applause ] i'm going get rid of the lines around states. the lines around the states. the lines around the states. when i did it it was a catastrophe. when he did it oh, he's on message. [ laughter ] [ applause ]
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somebody said to me well maybe that means donald trump is a robot, isn't that what they said you are. i said yes, but if he's a robot he was made in china. [ cheers and applause ] i have a real plan on health care and that's why i can tell you this with certainty, when i am president of the united states, we will repeal and we will replace obamacare. [ cheers and applause ] we're going to keep our country safe again. that's the most important job of the federal government. okay. the most important job of the president of the united states is to be the commander-in-chief. the president of the united states has access to these nuclear codes, by the way, that give you access to the most powerful military force in human history.
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people should think about that before they vote. okay. access to the nuclear codes, the president of the united states has the power to send your sons and your daughters and your loved ones off to die in the service of our country. i want you to think about that before people vote. and today nikki already talked about what we've done to our military and the gutting of our military that this president has undertaken. one of the most shameful things in this process donald trump knows nothing about military. he says he'll hire the best people work for him. we already have the best people work for us. they are our generals and commanders in the military. [ cheers and applause ] and by the way, if he knew anything about this, he would know that you can put the best people in the world in a room and they're is going to give you conflicting opinions. and then the buck stops on the president to choose between
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those different opinions the right route forward than guy has zero understanding when it comes to defense or foreign policy. this is not an issue can take a course in at trump university. [ laughter ] you'll have to know about this on your first day in office. you have to know about this on the first day in office. we can't elect as president of the united states a man who believes the nuclear triad is a punk rock group from the 1980s. [ laughter ] [ applause ] defense spending is not the cause of our debt. and that is why when i'm president of the united states, we are is going do undertake a reagan style rebuilding of the united states military. [ cheers and applause ] we're going to have a real war
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on terror. a real war on terror is not talking tough. a real war on terror is not outlandish claims of what you're going to do. it sounds cool. funny to listen to on tv. people like it because it sounds tough. it doesn't solve your problem. you need a real war on terror. one in which the best intelligence agencies in the world find them and the best military in the world destroys them and one in which if you capture terrorists alive they don't get the right to remain silent, they don't go to a court hearing, they go to guantanamo. [ applause ] when i'm president, we're going to have a foreign policy of moral clarity again. which means we're allies to our allies and to our enemies don't taxpayer test us. donald trump thinks that
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vladimir putin is a fascinating man. he thinks they are going to get along very well. vladimir putin is a calculated political figure but a proven killer. this guy poisoned people with radioactive material. he ordered people to be poisoned. this guy is not a game. he's not some real estate developer from across the country you're doing a deal with. he's a guy that is sowing instability in the northeast and europe. proe provided weapons to shoot down that aircraft over the ukraine. he will take advantage of donald trump or anyone who is not prepared for that position. and i'm going tell you one of the most outrageous things that's happened in the last eight years how this president has undermine our alliance with israel. [ applause ] israel, israel is a nation with a special purpose.
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israel is not just another country. israel was created as a homeland for the jewish people after the holocaust. [ applause ] israel is the only free enterprise pro american democracy in the entire middle east. [ applause ] when donald trump was asked are you going to take sides between israel and its enemies he said no i'm going to be neutral because i want to work out a deal. let me tell you guys something when i'm president we're going to take sides. we're going to be on israel's side. [ cheers and applause ] and everyone is going to know that because on my first day in office as soon as i walk into the oval office i'm going cancel barack obama's deal with the t
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ayatollah of iran. [ applause ] we're going take care of our veterans not use them as a prop which is what way too many politicians do. [ applause ] the first gentleman of south carolina, nikki's husband is a veteran. my brother is a veteran. he served in the 7th special forces of the green berets. if you're a veteran will you raise your hand so we can thank you for your service? [ cheers and applause ] everyone running for office says
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that i've done it. listen bernie sanders and i -- [ inaudible ] thank you. we need to support you. [ inaudible ] bernie sanders and i do not agree on many thing. he's a socialist, i am not. [ laughter ] but we worked on something that we could agree on and is that if you work at the va and you're a senior executive and not doing a good job we should fire you. and we passed that. [ cheers and applause ] donald trump says he cares about veterans but what's his record? i'll tell you his record. his record was he asked the city of new york to evict homeless veterans because they were a nuisance in front much trump towers. when he skipped the event in iowa he said he was doing an event for veterans.
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you know how much money they got? zip. we're going to take care of our veterans. when i'm president of the united states -- veterans they are good people at the va and if they are doing a good job we thank you. if you're not doing a good job at the va, when i'm president you'll be fired from the va. [ cheers and applause ] when i'm president, our veterans will not be their begging the va for their benefits. when i'm president veterans will be able to take their benefits to any hospital or any doctor that they want to go to. [ applause ] by the way, i was in virginia last night, all day. we had five stops there, four stops there and we were reminded many of our veterans do not just stop serving when they come home. if you go to any firestation in america you'll meet veterans.
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if you go to any police department in america, you're going to meet veterans. and yesterday or the day before a couple of days ago in virginia there were three police officers shot. one of them was her first day on the job. she was a marine reservist. she did on her first day. blue lives matter. not only do they matter -- not only do blue lives matter -- [ applause ] -- but i want to thank our veterans and our police officers and our firefighters for what they do for our country. [ cheers and applause ]d-÷ and that is why the stakes are so high. these are just a sampling of the issues before our country. if we get these wrong because we lost the election. because we nominated someone that has no idea what they are
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going to do about it. because we elect someone whose views on these issues are opposed to where we need to go as a country then i can just tell you that i honestly believe our children will be the first americans that inherit a diminished country. that's never happened in the 200 year history of america. but i'm running for president not because i'm worried about the future but because i'm hopeful about it. i know -- because i know our government is messed up. i know our government has a lot of problems. i know that our leaders in many instance are not the best and not doing the best but i know america is not a government. america is a country, a nation, made of its people. our government doesn't define us our people do. i month this morning people across this country got up and went to work. and they took their families to school. and they will come home tonight and raise those kids and feed them and they will go and start
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businesses and this weekend they will volunteer in their charities or communities and give hours and money to their churches. i know people all across this country are touching lives, one life at a time. i know there are people out there that aren't waiting for the government to tell them to do it. if they see someone in need of help they provide it directly themselves. [ cheers and applause ] and the great thing about this campaign is i have met so many of them. in south carolina i met an incredible woman who every single day is saving lives at a pregnancy crisis center in which she's taking in young and scared girls and convincing them that all human life is worthy, that all human life is led by god. [ applause ] i know people in miami, florida, who are taking care of homeless veterans not through a
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government grant but out of their own pockets. and they are not wealthy people doing this. [ applause ] you know why we do this? it's not because the law tells us we have to do it. we do it because this is a destination that's been shaped by our judeo-christian values. because this was a nation founded on the believe that our rights come from an all powerful ever living god. [ cheers and applause ] because this is a nation founded on the belief that our rights, our source is not the law. the source is not the constitution. the source is not our president. we all have a god given right to go as far as our hopes, dreams, talent and our work will take us. [ cheers and applause ] this is what makes us special.
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this is what makes us different. and i know it because i've lived it. because like nikki's parents mine came from another country and they came here with nothing. my parents had no advanced education of any sort. my father started working when he was 9 years of age. he never went back to school. he worked for the next 70 years of his life. when they got to this country they didn't know anyone. the first words they learned in english was "i'm looking for work." they sacrificed. they were discouraged when they first got here. but the miracle of america changed their life and the course of our family's history. less than a decade after my parents came here with nothing my father was just a bartender at a hotel but able to buy their first home. my parents never became rich or famous people. but they were very successful people. because after arriving here with nothing, they raised a family. they retired with dignity. and most important of all for
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them they lived to see all four of their children live a life better than their own. [ applause ] about to run out of cough drops here so i better hurry. [ laughter ] i tell you that story not just to you know more about me. i tell you that story to you remember who we are. for the story i just told you is not just mine it's ours. the vast majority of you i have never met in person. i don't know your personal stories. but i know you're americans and because you're americans i know that everyone in this room is probably just a generation or two removed from a story not unlike my own. [ applause ]
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who are we? who are we? we're the descendants of pill fwrims and settlers. descendants of immigrants and of slaves. of people who overcame extraordinary obstacles to stake their claim and a better life, to stake their claim in what is now known as the american dream. that is the blood that runs through our veins. every single one of us. i don't care what your last name is. i don't care how it's pronounced or the color of your skin or where you worship. the blood that runs in our american veins is the blood of a go getter. is the blood of someone who refused to accept the limitations of the old world. [ applause ] this is who we are. and now we must choose whether this is who we will remain. will we still remain the place where people can do what my parents did for me and what your
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parents did for you that's what's at stake here. if we stay on the road we're on right now many of these things will leave us because the american dream was never automatic. the american dream did not happen on its own. what your parents did four and what you're doing for your children now is possible. but because for over 200 years each generation before us did what they needed to do. there has never been a time in this history when any generation had it easy. a cursory examination of our history will tell you this was the nation that overcame having to take on the most powerful empire to declare its independence. this nation fought a brutal civil war to put an end to the evil institution of slavery. this nation fought two bloody world wars. this was the nation that had to overcome a great depression. this was the nation that had to work through the civil rights period that took us where we
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needed to be as we continued the work to advance equality for all. this was generation that was divided over the war in vietnam, long gas lines. we never had it generation. no generation before us had it easy. each had great obstacles. each time they did what need to be done. we're going break away from this and take you live to georgia where donald trump just walked to the podium beginning this rally live coverage on c-span 3. >> outside we have 12,000 people. [ cheers and applause ] and we set up speakers. would anybody like to give some of the people outside your position? please raise your hand. we'll get you out of here fast. all right. okay. i'm only kidding. we had a lot of good news today. cnn, cnn just came out with a poll.
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just came out. trump 49%. [ cheers and applause ] little lightweight marco rubio 16%. lying ted cruz 15%. good guy ben carson, 10%. and kasich 6. we're 49%. can you believe it? [ cheers and applause ] and we got the endorsement yesterday of senator jeff sessions who is an incredible man. and we have sarah palin and we have so many incredible people. we have, i'll tell you, jerry falwell jr. we're winning at every level with evangelicals. jerry falwell jr. was unbelievable and maybe that's one of the reasons that we've had such help the.
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but the evangelicals the tea party people we're winning with old, young, with highly educated. right? [ cheers and applause ] we're winning with a little bit less than highly educated. which is okay. i love you. and we're winning with the veterans. i love the veterans. we're winning with the military. [ cheers and applause ] in other words, we're winning with everybody. so i just want to thank everybody it's been so much fun. who would have known this would happen. so i have a special treat. i love nascar. do we love nascar? i love nascar. so we had an endorsement a little while ago, and you know my son don is very, very friendly with folks over at nascar, in particular brian france. how good is brian france. is this guy a winner? i've grown-up in george vine brenner, the owner of the
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yankees. brian france is nobody like this man. there's nobody like him. the job he's done. and the family is so incredible. so some of the nascar folks came over here today because guess what? they are endorse donald trump. can you believe this? you know, i'll tell you what. if the people that like and watch nascar vote for donald trump they can cancel the election right now. nobody can win. nobody. nobody can win. so what i want to do, i'll bring them up individually but these are incredible. first of all the owner of the whole deal, the big guy, brian france. brian, come on up here. come on up. he's getting pretty dapper. used to be on the beaches of daytona. you want to say a few words? >> just real quick i've known donald for to 6r years.
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i'll tell you one thing. you know about him winning in business and success. i'm here to tell you he wins with his family. he does. he does. i'll tell you one thing. if you believe one other thing any of thinks children you would be proud to have them as part of your family. that's how i judge a winner how they manage their family raises their family. >> all right. so we have some of the great drivers. one of the great drivers of the world in history, the great, the legendary bill elliot. come on bill. [ cheers and applause ] we love bill.
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>> i don't know what to say. i mean, i've known him just a little bit. but for what he can do i think for our country, i'm all for it. we need a change, guys. that's all there is to it. i think this is the man for the job. >> do these guys have guts. i could not press it. i'm telling you. you know, i want to go about 60. that's enough for most of us. we have ryan newman. come on up here ryan. we have david -- david lee regan. david come in. and then because of jeans he was
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really helped a3% bill and his incredible wife had a son and the son -- you got it -- and the son -- i don't know. will you be upset if he turns out greater than you, bill or are you going to be happy? he's going to be thrilled. that's a good father. i know a lot of fathers want their sons to be successful they are not happy. that's a great father. chase elliot. the hottest young driver in the world. >> i'm not sure why he let me say anything. i'm happy to be here. he's a great man. this is a man that can do some great things for us. thank you. thanks for having us. [ cheers and applause
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[ cheers and applause ] thank you fellas. that's cute. they just said keep the wall going. we're going keep the wall going. believe me. so it's been an amazing period of time, and, you know, i just have to thank nascar so much because that's something, to do is just incredible. these are incredible people, incredible athletes. brian is an incredible guy who i've known for so long and the job he's done is legendary. so i just could not be happier that they were here. i just want to discuss a few of the things -- tomorrow is a really big day. we have to get out and vote, you know. you know, i don't want your money because i'm self-funding. right. i don't even want brian's money. brian is good for some money but
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i don't want brian's money. what i want is i want everybody -- i guess we heard we have 13,000, 14,000 people outside. we have a good mike system. i want you folks to go out and vote. we have the head of "time," one of the head writers of "time" magazine he did a story three, four weeks ago talking about a movement. i said what your talking about? you going to do another story? where is david? where the hell is david? he did such an amazing story and talking about a movement. this is, in fact, a movement. this isn't about me. it's about you. it's about -- i'm just the messenger. and i'm just the messenger, folks. and there's not -- there's never been, they said i've gotten calls from some of the biggest writers. some are good. they are so terrible. they are so terrible. they are terrible. but, you know, 20% of them are
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good. 80% are bad. 40% are disgusting. but, you know, tend result it doesn't make difference what we have going is so special. it's incredible. it's incredible. the big thing and i will tell you one more time before we finish which will be in a little while we'll talk about a few things like the wall. [ cheers and applause ] like not getting ripped off at trade like rebuilding our military, like taking care of our vets. but i just want to say, i'm self-funding that means nobody is going to oh, please i gave you a contribution you got to help me with the pharmaceutical industry or you have to help me with something. no, no. there's not going anything like that. you know in bidding, we're the largest purchaser of drugs in the world. in the world. by far. drugs like to make you better, right? and do you know that in bidding
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we don't bid. if you go out to buy, to get some drugs at your local pharmacy the government is paying a similar amount of money. that we would save billions and billions of dollars. now the problem is that all of these guys i'm running against they are all taken care of by the pharmaceutical industry, they are taken care of by all the industries. and when it comes time to bid they say oh, no you can't have them bid they gave me a million dollars or $5 million. it's a bad system. we're going change the system. we're going clean it up. we're going clean it up. do you know, we could save as much as $300 billion if we went out and bid. $300 billion. that gets to be big money, right? that goes be big money. the numbers of fraud, waste, abuse in the system are incredible. we're going to take care of social security, we're going to cut in terms -- not in terms of what you're getting, we're cutting the waste, fraud, abuse
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and save your social security without cuts. mark my words. and we're going to have something that's going so exciting. look ideal with these people. i dealt with politicians all my life. oh, donald this is political. i got zone changes. i've been all over the world. we're doing 114 projects now all over the world. all over. and i dealt with politicians. i dealt with politicians worldwide. and i want to tell you, they are never going get to you the promised land. they will never do it. i saw this like this little marco rubio, this guy. i call him lightweight. i call him lightweight marco. no, i see him. i'm on the stage. you saw chris christie endorsed me the other day. great guy. tough guy. a few weeks ago we're at one of the many debates -- the debates are brutal. we have another one coming up i
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think on thursday. the last one i was double-teamed and i won every single poll had me winning. can you believe it? [ cheers and applause ] and these two guys, i see them back stage they are talk. you do this i'll do that. don't copy off. then they high five me. one picture i'm standing here in the middle -- i've been in the middle from the beginning. brian would like that. i've been in the middle from the beginning from virtually the time i announced. the middle means that's one that's winning. i've been in the middle since the beginning. these two guys, there's a picture in one of the newspapers. i'm standing here like this. there's a little bit of a break and both are behind me shaking hands isn't everything wonderful. so, every single online poll, drudge is an incredible guy, by the way, incredible. drudge. "time." everybody. every one of them. every single event i've been number one in this whole thing with the crazy debating.
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and the reason is, i've never done this before. i'm not a politician. these guys all they do is talk. it's all talk, no action. they debate, they talk. nothing gets done. they get campaign contributions. yep i promise i'll do this. will you give me a contribution. that's what they do. but i am so convinced that our country can being a greater than ever before. i'm so convinced. that's why i'm doing this. greater than ever before. but this guy -- i watched him and he's standing there. think about this negotiations with the chinese. i've done a great of great deals with the chinese. 1290 of americas, sixth avenue in new york largest floor just about the largest floor, massive building, chinese. ideal -- i have the largest bank in the world, chinese bank has 400 million customers. they are in one of my buildings
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in manhattan. i sell tens of millions of condos. dealing with the chinese are fine. but their leaders are too smart for our leaders. they are killing us. carl icahn is one of the great business people. i have the greatest negotiateors in the world. we use political hacks to negotiate these trade deals. even brian would say these deals remember big. bigger than any deal. we lose every year with china $500 billion. think of it. $500 billion. and this has been going on forever. we always lose. we got start winning. why are we losing? we get these political guys, they are in there because they gave campaign contributions or whatever, or they raised money, i have a good friend here mel i won tell you his last name. he raises a lot of money for politicians. he said i can raise money four.
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i don't want any money. you know how much money i turned down. i would have made jeb bush's $148 million which was so far the biggest, i would have made that fund look like peanuts. i turn down money after money. you know it's not my life. it's not my life. my whole life has been money. i want money. i want money. greedy. i was greedy. i want more money. now they come up, donald i would like to give you $10 mill tlourn campaign. i go i don't want it. it's hard. so i take money, take money. now i'm going to be greedy for the united states. i'm going to take and take and take. we're going to take, take, take. we're going to become rich again and become great again. a wonderful woman came up to me at one of the events. she said mr. trump i love i'm
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going to vote four. but please don't say you'll make us rich again. it doesn't sound good. it sounds good to me. we can't being a great until we make ourselves rich. we're losing all our jobs to china, japan. the cars coming in by the millions they come in. i was in los angeles. i saw the largest ship you've ever seen in your life with cars. it looks like a nascar track. they are coming off that thing so fast. i'm sure chase could drive the car this fast. they come off like just, you never saw anything like it. you know what we do. we do nothing. we give them beef. we give them beef. this is the trade. it's a tiny fraction. you talk about a trade imbalance. tiny fraction. you know what they do with the beef. they send the boats back. they don't take it. we go again and send it back again. third or fourth time they take
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it. by that time it's all rotted. you know what they do it? they sell it as kobe beef and charge you ten times more. it's terrible. but, no, they literally, the imbalance -- mexico, everybody talks about the wall. everybody. the wall is going to be built, folks. the wall will be built. we'll have a strong border. we're going to have a strong border. and by the way, by the way, who is going to pay for the wall? 100%. 100%. so cicente fox was on television throwing out the f-bomb. so he's saying there's no we're not going pay for the you know what wall. i watched this guy. i watched the anger.
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you know why he's angry. not because of the wall. nobody has never told them no. nobody ever tells them no. he can't believe that a guy named trump -- he even got the pope after me. right? the pope. the pope was after me. listen to this. i'm in south carolina. i love south carolina. by the way, i love nevada and south carolina and i do love new hampshire? new hampshire got us started. and i promised the people of new hampshire that we're is going to stop the heroin from flowing in. can you believe it? they have such a problem. we're going stop it. we're going stop it at the border. it's coming in from the water. here's the story. so the pope, we're ready to vote in south carolina, i'm doing great, i'm up, the polls are showing, servicing going to be wonderful. my people come. mr. trump can we speak to you? the pope, the pope that's big league. let's face it. is that bigger than brian france? i'm not sure.
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i don't know. i don't know. the pope -- the pope is big league. mr. trump the pope just made a big statement about you. now this is like eight hours before the election. i say, took a deep breath. is it good or is it bad. this is really bad. the pope is hitting me just before election in south carolina. i said what is it? he didn't like the idea that you're building a wall and that you're going wall off the united states from mexico. i said yeah but he doesn't understand tremendous criminal elements are coming in, tremendous drugs are pouring in, people are coming into the country illegally. he done under that. we have to explain to it the pope. he's not hearing that side of it. no it's very serious. the pope came out with the statement. he corrected the statement the following day just in time. just in time. just in time. that was a close one. that was a close one. now i like the pope again, okay.
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but with this guy fox i watched the anger in his face and he was really angry at the fact that somebody -- how dare you tell mexico -- because they have gotten their way -- i love mexico. i love the mexican people. i respect the mexican leaders. the problem is the chinese leaders, the mexico leaders, the japanese leaders, all of them, they are too smart for our leaders. they are killing us. they devalue their currency -- i know the game better than anybody. that new tpp pact, you know transpacific partnership we're make with it 12 different -- it's so bad. you know the biggest thing they have is devaluation. it's not even covered in the agreement, virtually not covered. that's how they beat us. they don't make a great product. they make a good product, it's fine. a friend of mine i tell this story all the time. he's an exokka vaokay -- excava
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buys caterpillar. he's depressed. i said what your wife is leaving you? she's been wanting to leaf him for a while. one of the worse relationships i've ever seen. i hate to said. i'm doing him a big favor. okay. so what happens, what happens is he's depressed. i say so what's the problem? he said i just order ad tremendous amount of komatsu equipment from japan. i said is it good? yeah. it is as good as okay terrify pillar. no. why? they have so devalued the yen that i owe to it my family, i owe to it my company i owe it to my employees, i have to do what's right for my company and he bought a tremendous amount of komatsu tractors. you take a look at caterpillar,
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take a look at their stock. a lot of bad things are going on. these countries are devaluing and devaluing like grand chess masters. china is the best of all. china is killing us, folks. china has -- i say it. it's the single greatest robbery what china has done the united states -- i love you too darling -- it's the single greatest robbery what they've done the united states in the history of the world. there's never been a robbery like this. we have rebuilt china. we have rebuilt china. because we don't have the right people negotiating for us and we have the best people in the world. we have the best business people in the world. we don't that have right people negotiating. it's goingd, folks opinion it's going to end. it's goingpz i like to say i'm a common sense conservative. i'm very conservative when it comes to the military and wall, we'll get rid of obamacare very, very much.
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[ cheers and applause ] [ crowd chanting trump ] we're going get rid of common core our education is going to be local. local. and i've seen it. this common core is a disaster. do you know in the world 30 countries in the world, we're number 30th. we're last. we're last on education. we're number one per pupil in cost and number two doesn't exist because we spend so much more than number two you might as well forget number two. you have denmark, sweden, china, norway, united states is number 30. and yet we're number one in cost. you know it's very interesting
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my campaign. somebody wrote an article, one of these people back, there one of these of many. oh, boy that's a lot of cameras. you know the biggest problem with my speeches they are always live. i can never make the same stump speech. these other guys read the same speech. ladies and gentlemen thank you. 12 minutes everybody is sleeping and then they leave. you can't do that if you're on live television every night. nice to have that ability. we don't want a teleprompter president again. do we? nor teleprompter. too easy. tell me what i should say. write it out i'll read it. you look what's going on in the world it's going change. it's going change so fast for us. i'm telling you we can do things so fast. my campaign, i spent less money than anyone else and i'm by far the front-runner. by far. my son don -- where is don, by the way? is don here? where's my boy?
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he's done such a great job. where is don? come here. my son don and eric and ivanka. come here, don. my boy is working on a big project on pennsylvania avenue. you know, he loves his dad and his sister and his brother they know -- those are the three that are grown-up and doing a great job. and they know i want to be on pennsylvania avenue. so i got from the obama administration -- can you believe this? the most value site, probably the most heavily bid on site in the history of the general services administration. it's called the old post office. it was built in the 1880s. it's an incredible building. we're converting it to the hotel. the reason i got it i had the greatest statement, one of the best statements they ever seen. we had a great concept. building a super luxury hotel. one of the aggravate hotels of the world not just of the country. it's a great thing.
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they did the right thing they chose trump. right now two years, right now we're two years ahead of schedule. two years. of course we're going by -- by the way the people at gsa are terrific people. really good people. talented people. if they didn't choose me i don't know if i would say this. they started out with over 100 bidders broke it down ten all the great hotel companies, all the great real estate companies and we got it because of the statement and the concept. i'll tell you, don loves that project and ivanka and eric because they know that we're going to make america great. they know i want to live on pennsylvania avenue. and they know if i don't make the white house i can still live on pennsylvania avenue because this is on pennsylvania avenue, right? right? say something. >> well it's great to be here and i just got say as i've traveled across the country for the last few weeks now that i've bean politician for 12, 13 days,
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it's incredible to see the outpouring, the warmth. we're just excited. i really love what my father is doing here. he really loves this country. [ cheers and applause ] he loves the family, the opportunities it's given him, the business that has given him. he can sit back and play golf and enjoy for the rest of his life. that is obama. but he doesn't want to do that. he wants to put what he's done in business and make it work for you guys and he'll do a phenomenal job. he'll fix the mess. he's going cut the nonsense. he's going to make america great again and i couldn't be more proud of him. thank you very much. [ cheers and applause ] >> i will tell you this. there are a lot of people asked me to speak on success and what it takes to be successful and all this. i've known a lot of very successful people. the most successful people are
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the people with great families. not the most money but the people with the great families. when you have -- i'll interject this in between trade, in between the second amendment which by the way we're going to keep and solidify. [ cheers and applause ] but i must tell you it's the people with the great wife or the great husband or the great children that love their children and adore their families, those are the happiest people. not the people with the most money. i speak against myself perhaps maybe not. i tell you what, cherish your family because there's nothing more important. just remember that. okay. now back on to trade. so, the second amendment is under siege and i'll tell you what else is under siege, christianity. under siege. i've had tremendous support from pastors. i've had such incredible support from pastors and ministers and
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clergy and, you know, it's amazing. i'm winning all of the evangelicals. if you look at south carolina, ted cruz was supposed to win that he'll and i won in a landslide and i won the evangelicals. jerry falwell jr. got up and made the most incredible speech. he talked about his father. he said nice things. everybody that walks through that go through they at go through liberty university. jerry is liberty university. knows all the candidates and he came out and endorsed me jerry falwell jr. which was a really great thing. and people saw it. but he said about me, of all of the people, he said that i most remind him of his father who he adored. he tells the story that in theory jimmy carter should have been sborendorsed by the evangel leaders and his father but they
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loved ronald reagan. jimmy carter was a school teacher, knew the bible, a very good person. a very good person. and ronald reagan was a little bit different. a little bit different. jerry sr. felt ronald reagan would be a better person. he was tougher, stronger, much more into the military in protection. and he went out and took a lot of heat on it, he went out and didn't endorse jimmy carter and endorsed ronald reagan and turned out tube great decision. great decision. [ applause ] >> and so jerry jr. felt similarly. for him to go and endorse, they don't like endorse, they don't get involved. i really think between jerry and paula and so many different people from the church and just the ministers and pastors i've had such incredible support. for the evangelicals among you i love you and we're going to do good things together. believe me. and one thing that came up, by
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the way, which i think very important. i was at a meeting with many, many pastors and ministers. "god bless america," you're right. good man. stand up. i like that. i like to hear that. by the way, when it's christmas we're going start saying merry christmas again, folks. okay. you better believe it. you ever notice the stores you go christmas time they will have like a red wall and won't be anything on it. i have friends that frankly aren't christian and i'm protestant, presbyterian but friends who aren't christian they like merry incriminachrist. these stores don't have merry christmas. we're going to have merry christmas in our stores again. [ cheers and applause ] >> so i was at a meeting with probably 55 or 60 pastoris,
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people of the church. they were talking. how many christian, evangelicals all together do you think we have in the country. they figured like 250, 260 million. i said so as a political bloc that's bigger than women and bigger than men. there. >> politic-- there is no politic like that. why do we get pushed around. i made a statement about muslims. but there's something wrong here fox. i said we have to do something temporarily we have to find out what's going on, we can't let the syrians come in, we don't know who they are. we don't know where they come from. we don't know where they come from. and i said we have to figure out what is going on. we have paris and you have los angeles and you have so many different things happening. the event that took place in california with the 14 people killed by the woman who radicalized the guy they get
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married, go and kill people, there's something going on. right? but i said -- i said to the people, i said let me ask you this question because to me it's so important. you have such power. you guys are allpower. but you guys are all afraid to use your power. what is it? i figured out. during the lyndon johnson administration the power was taken away because they're going to lose the tax exempt status if they get a little bit political. you have people incredible pastors and ministers and everything. and they're strong people and they're great people. and they're afraid to go out and fight for christianity in the truest sense of the form so i said, vaeshl, what you are telling me is that a man or woman on the street walking down the street has more power than you do and you're a minister or you're a pastor. there's something wrong. i said we are going to work like hell to get rid of that legislation so that you can have your power back. you got to have your power back.
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and we are going to do that. we're going to get that done. i don't know how it was allowed to happen but the fact is we have the most powerful group of people in this country by far and they're not treated properly because christianity, piece by piece by piece is being destroyed so we're going to get it back, folks. remember what i said. just remember what i said. so just in finishing up, second amendment very important. i talk about the case with the 14 people because they were killed. if there were guns on the other side of the room, if a couple of like this guy, that guy right there, that guy, the big guy with the beautiful beard, with the beautiful almost as good a head of hair as i have right there, that guy right there, better, better. he's got better. but if we had a couple of people in that room, as an example, the worst -- [ yelling ]
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[ boo'g ] quiet, quiet, quiet. quiet, quiet, quiet. all right. let him -- all right. get out. get him out! [ booing ] get him out. get him out. thank you. thank you. all right. that's okay. it's sort of crazy. right? you know, whether you're republican, whether you're democrat, liberal, conservative, we want certain things. we want to have a beautiful family, good, safe borders, a strong military. we want protection. we want to have jobs which are being taken away from us left
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and right. you know, you wouldn't think -- you think everybody is on the same side. there's like six or seven things you want to have. freedom of religion. things, certain things. and you would think that people would sort of all be in the same -- but every once in a while you have that happen and it's fine. listen, listen. paris is the toughest in the world forguns. you can't have a gun. france is probably the toughest nation anywhere in the world for guns. the only one that has the guns are the bad guys. right? so you have the strongest gun control laws in paris and france and you have these thugs, this scum, this garbage. they walk in. three or four different places and boom, boom. you, boom. you, boom. and you know what, folks? if we would have had a few guns firing bullets in the opposite direction, it wouldn't have been that way. wouldn't have been that way. it wouldn't have been that way.
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you have 130 people dead. you have many, many gravely injured lying in the hospital. many of whom who are going to die. a horrible scene they tell me. but you wouldn't have that scene. we'll protect that second amendment. believe me, it's not going to be touched. not going to be touched. so just in closing, you got to vote. tomorrow's a big day. and i want georgia, i want you the lead the pack. we'll have a lot of success. we're going to have a lot of success. but i love georgia and i want i want you to lead the pack if you can. we don't win anymore. we don't win on trade. we don't win at the borders. we don't win with our military. our military -- the great, greatest military in the world we can't beat isis. we'll knock isis out so fast.
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our health care is horrible. it's highly expensive. it doesn't work. it's broken. it's going to be terminated. so we don't win at health care. we don't win at anything. we certainly don't win with education. here's the story, folks. you're going to look back on this night and you're going to say in two years and three years and four years and 20 years, you're going to say this was an amazing evening. it is a movement. you are going to say -- you are going to say, you're going to say that was an evening when donald trump stood up and he said, and he said, and she will be a great first lady. say that again. she will be. you're going do say that was an evening when we really became great again. we are going to win at every single level. we are going to win with health. we are going to win with education. we are going to win at the borders. we are going to win with our military. we are going to win, win, win,
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win. [ cheering ] we are going to make america great again. greater than ever before. i love you! go out and vote! i love you all! thank you, georgia! thank you. we love you. thank you. ♪ ♪ ♪
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