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tv   Former U.S. Capitol Pages  CSPAN  June 26, 2016 3:05pm-4:01pm EDT

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is joined by politicos cyber security reported him starks. >> the federal government has .lmost 11,000 data centers facebook, one of the biggest companies in the world, has four. there is no reason that they federal government should have 11,000. through the scorecard, for agencies have realized $2 billion worth of savings over the last two years by moving into the cloud. announcer: watch the communicators on c-span 2. announcer: next, on american history tv, the u.s. capitol page alumni association recently held a homecoming event which included a panel of former house and senate pages. discussion,inute five alumni who served between 1967 and 2001 discuss their
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experiences. commentator npr cokie roberts moderated the program. >> my name is jerry papazian. welcome to the opening event of our adrenaline page homecoming. all former pages of the house, the senate and the supreme court. we have so far turned out over 450 participants. i think a lot more by the time the weekend is over with. the importance of the page program come i think, instilling commitment to democracy and public service and young people. as we all know, pages serve as an eyewitness to history. --ant to thank the u.s. cap
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the u.s. capitol historic society. you are about to hear two panels. the first pages through the decades. five former pages from five decades talk about the page a panel ofollowed by historians, house and senate historians and has curator with some interesting bits of fact about pages over the years. and a special treat afterwards, 50 premier screening of the version of our documentary, "document -- democracies messengers."
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it is me great pleasure and honor to introduce the moderator of our first panel. someone very much at home in this capital building. she grew up here in these halls, whose father and mother both served as members of congress. she also has a very special connection with the page program and i will let her tell you about it. an american journalist and author, commentator on npr and abc news and a regular roundtable analyst. without further do, it's cokie roberts. [applause] cokie: thank you. when i was the right page age, they didn't allow girls. but for julie, that rule changed because the special story jerry is talking about is the fact that my son and water law met as pages.
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so my grandchildren would not exist were it not for the page program. and it was after the change that it had to be the summer before or after your junior year. she lived in california. we lived here. it was a long time between then and marriage. they managed it. when they finally got my son smart enough to propose, which i thought was going to take forever, it did to actually take forever. so at the top of the dome. so it was great. it was very, very nice. i am deeply grateful to the page program. i have got to know so many of you over the centuries. the fact is that you are going to have a historical perspective, so i won't do that.
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oh, that is the key to turn off your phones, please. book the just came out last year, the capital them scum is filled with all kinds of wonderful references to pages in the civil war debates and how they were having to stay up all night, for little boys try to wake up the senator so that he would not leave the floor because it was important to stay there arid and it's a wonderful rendition. but a lot of you can tell similar stories. so we are going to tell some more stories this afternoon. oneow that we have at least page from the 1940's, john treacy is here. and i asked mr. treacy how old he was when he became a page and he said 10. and was a page for five years? eight years.
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so he basically grew up as a page. least one from the 1950's, bob bauman is here. there he is. bob was a page in both the house and the senate and a member of the house himself and he said he was more powerful as a page very good information. 1960's,have from the 1970's, 1980's, 1990's, right, and to thousands analyst. i will say one word about my friend jan schoonmaker who is a member of both the play -- the page lm's and the capital historical society board. he is here as your host and was a page for my father and then a very high staff member for my mother during so it was a family affair all the way around your but we will start -- we will go in chronological order.
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tom davis, who many of you know and has done many wonderful jobs in wonderful service over the years, he was a page in the 1960's, working for -- who are you a page four, tom? curtis from nebraska. cokie cohen had you get that appointment? tom: like everybody else. i knew somebody who knew somebody. [laughter] cokie: how old were you when you came? >> 14. the day i left it grade, i started. left atday before, i the college. cokie: did you live at a -- boardingse smart house?
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that is the thing i can't get over. these kids were 14 years old living in boarding houses making a lot of money for a 14-year-old. and set loose on the town totally. tom davis: my mother needed the money. i paid her rent. it was a great experience. cokie roberts: were you already interested in government? tom davis: i had worked for some local candidates out of arlington. i just loved politics. i wanted to do my thing. to get through government class i read the footnotes. i was very interested in it. i mapped out all the elections i could. i was nine years old i remember charting out the races. getting up the next morning to see what happened. it's just clicked. page school just said that even more. i did my senior thesis on politics. i was the president of the college republicans, they were
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only three of us on the whole campus. i ran for the county board in fairfax.
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it was something i always wanted to do. i turned down better paying jobs out of law school to take a job with a local firm in fairfax where i can stay local and politics. be a precinct captain and work my way up. it took me four years to get jaded. [laughter] cokie roberts: you were here when president kennedy was shot? tom davis: i was on the floor. i remember richard wright oh, the dormant, just ran up to the rostrum and whispered to ted kennedy who was presiding. we didn't know what had happened. the senator from hawaii took it. about 15 minutes later i remember senator aiken said the president was shot. i looked at another page. we went out to the new stickers and there was a crowd around the news ticker. senator bartlett from alaska said, son, you get up to -- you get up front. as his history. you need to see this.
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they adjourned the congress. we saw his casket when lay in state. we were there for the civil rights votes. all of those issues. so it was a great time. very different times. very different members of the senate. when i was there, you had statesmen in the house and senate and you ended up with guys like me. [laughter] cokie: that's what the nuns called humility with a hook. [laughter] nancy ambroise my friend and colleague at abc for many years. she didn't go into politics she went into political journalism. having gotten postgraduate degrees at london school of economics. you are here right after they let girls become pages. nancy: i didn't know anyone in terms of getting to be a page. i did want to say that for the record. [applause]
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and i'm sure there are other people who didn't either. i wanted to tip my hat to the first three female senate pages. they were really the trailblazers. paulette, ellen and julie price. i went back and i read the oral history that they did for the senate historian. it was really fascinating reading. i recommend it. i came in july of 1972. they had come in may of 1971. i was with lowell like her. -- lowellichert weicker. he was really good to me. you got all this attention. you are on the tv.
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you are in the magazines. in the newspapers. it was pretty heady stuff. cokie roberts: stephen iraqis wrote a piece for 17 magazine about the first female pages. nancy: my husband used to tease me that i think you've piqued when you were a senate page. i said i think your right. [laughter] cokie: did you live in a boarding house? nancy: i got really lucky. my sister had been living here and working for hew. i got to live the 28th he streets in georgetown. i walked in the front entry. and there was a liechtenstein painting. i thought, i can do this. so it was great. i lived there with mary. we would take cap's every morning. cokie: how old were you? nancy: i was 16 years old.
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i was always interested in government. my dad was really into politics. we would have discussions at the dinner table. i was i was raised watching washington week in review every friday night. i still watch it every weekend. i was hooked. this just reinforces my interest. cokie roberts: you didn't go into government. you went into journalism. nancy: i went into think tanks around town because i studied international relations as georgetown. i said i would like to go back overseas. and be a foreign journalist. i kept pushing and pushing. i got an interview with carl bernstein who was the head of abc's washington bureau.
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he said you have a very interesting resume that i don't see journalism. i became abc's house producer with charlie gibson covering the hell went to o'neill was the speaker. ronald reagan is the president. cokie roberts is covering the hell. wasn't that the best time? cokie: that was fun. nancy: i came full circle from being a witness to history to now covering history. it was a great time. cokie roberts: the friendship of tip o'neill about michael. and bob michael. that is something we don't see anymore. tom, when you are doing this, did you see a lot more wrenches across the aisle?
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tom: oh, yeah. the parties were not so ideologically sorted in those days. you had liberal republicans and conservative democrats. we had differences between the parties but they weren't strongly ideological. it has turned it into a parliamentary system. cokie roberts: john mcconnell, you will with bill proxmire but then you went into a republican administration. was a cause-and-effect? [laughter] bill: no, it was just growing up. [laughter] cokie: that heart and head thing. tell us if you are always interested in politics and government. john: i was always interested in politics from the time i was a little boy. when i was growing up in
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wisconsin in a remote fishing village on the south shore of lake superior we got our tv news on antennas out of duluth minnesota. the largest political figure was hubert humphrey. i think a bubbly -- i think probably humphrey was a big influence on me. in terms of becoming very interested in the senate. there were no other women in the senate. he went back to minnesota, became a freshman senator in the 1970's. unfortunately, he didn't live long and died in the beginning of his second term in the governor of minnesota appointed mrs. humphrey to succeed him. i thought this was so interesting. muriel humphrey is the myth -- is the senator from minnesota. i thought where are the other
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women in the senate? how long have they served? there were no other women in the senate. cokie: i remember looking down from the gallery mural humphrey. she seemed so lonely. always wore beautiful ultra suede.r -- ultra john: there were two senators paula hawkins from florida nancy kass about from kansas. when i finished serving as a page, i went to my high school history teacher. i want to do is thesis on all the women who ever served in the u.s. senate. he said, how many have there been? i said 15 total. today, 20 women in the senate. cokie: nowhere near enough. up until there were nine, there were never more than two to
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john: -- more than two. john: the day i started as a page, one of the older kids and said to me you need to learn the names and faces of all the senators as soon as you can. i said i know them all. i am so ready for this. sitting there on the rostrum, i neither names. i wanted to say hi. [laughter] hi, bob. [laughter] cokie: that would have been a mistake. so did you come from wisconsin and spend the whole year there. john: senator proxmire's style -- cycle of them through. he had at least three year. them through. cokie roberts: where did you live? john: the republicans had just taken the senate and proxmire didn't know what he was going to be having any pages. even though he was the senior senator. i didn't get word until just days before i was still in the senate. and when contacted the senate's office is where the pages later.
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-- where do pages live? said you can find yourself an apartment. there are some boarding houses, but they are all fault your cokie: and how old are you? john: eckstein. cokie: go, go, little wisconsin boy. get yourself an apartment. [laughter] john: i rented an apartment at 220 c street southeast. the congressional plaza hotel. cokie roberts: they had some interesting people living there. [laughter] john: my mother knows the story and she knew there was no stopping me. she and her best friend drove me to the airport in duluth and i was walking with a big smile toward the airplane with my little briefcase. as they disappeared my mom's friend said what in the hell of you done now. [laughter] everything worked out fine. cokie roberts: my mother burst -- my mother knew shi would be just fine. cokie roberts: my mother burst into tears and said to my father we have just left our baby at
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yankee protestant republicans school. [laughter] i understand you had quite a memorable meeting with president reagan. john: i'm not sure i know which one you're referring to. cokie: my notes say that. [laughter] john: i did meet reagan before he was president. in st. paul minnesota. i was hoping to meet him. my brother drove me a 500 mile round trip to meet ronald reagan. this is back in 1976. i was 11 years old i was very into this stuff. all the way to st. paul my brother said you're not going to meet ronald reagan. and i did meet him and mrs. reagan. it was a different time. you can get into these events.
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it was like that in the capital. i remember when i was 13, visiting washington and standing outside the senate floor of the senate was in session and senators came out through the swinging doors and i was collecting autographs. one after the other. you can't get anywhere near there nowadays. cokie roberts: don't get me started on the security. we had had in the 1950's the puerto rican separatists shooting up the house of representatives and still we didn't have the kind of security. we could wander all of the place. so, look, you are 90's greater you have gone into the coast guard and done incredible work there. you have lived to tell the tale of having been charlie wilson's page.
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[laughter] i can see why you went into the military after that. [laughter] not only did one need to defend yourself but i remember covering one of charlie's campaigns where he was running against the first woman paratrooper something. all of his women on his staff, one more gorgeous than the next, they were dressed in camouflage and he called them charlie's angels. so tell us your stories. [laughter] camilla: that's quite an introduction. charlie was absolutely larger-than-life. what you see in that movie with tom hanks is a fairly accurate representation. of course, i can't speak to whatever activities went on in the evenings or on the weekends i didn't hang out
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with him i was only 16. what i would tell you is his staff -- cokie: it wasn't too young. [laughter] camilla: he was a gentleman. he was also a friend of my dad's. so there's that. his staff, he was one of the first representatives to have women on their staff on the hell. -- on the hill. i read that somewhere. so it must be true. it was on the internet. [laughter] he did have a beautiful staff but i will tell you something about his beautiful staff they whip smart. they were intelligent and capable competent women. who went on to run for office themselves and they have more degrees and so on and so forth. he counted on them. he gave them total latitude to run the offices and take care of his constituents. it was very remarkable.
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cookie roberts: were you always interested in politics? camilla: i came from mount vernon, virginia. i know you are probably doing the regulations. regina, texas, there was a little bit of a connection there. i was interested in politics but i have to tell you, when i came to page school and i don't know if anyone else had this opportunity of this experience. when i came to page school all of a sudden i was thrown in a group of people who were really smart. really interested in politics. it was great. i felt for the first time like i belonged. it was awesome. it was just incredible. i am here for my 25th anniversary. cokie: bravo. [applause]
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camilla: we were here during such an interesting year. we had the most interesting year. we had a budget crisis in the fall. i know it happens every year now. then, it was a p big deal for us. we had the new civil rights act that they passed and then there was this little thing that happened where congress had to authorize use of force will and -- use of force in the gulf against the rack. and we spent many a weekend on duty. i think it says in error yearbook that we spent for weekends in session on the house floor as pages, for the nine or so since world war ii that held the house in session over the weekend. so many late nights, many weekends. cokie: those were quite inspiring debates, the debates over the use of force.
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really the house and senate at their best, people taking it seriously and serious conversation. iire were enough world war vets in the congress that they could bring their voices to the date -- to the debate and their voices were very important. camilla: and charlie wilson was from this little town and he was able to line up votes for certain things. he would trade votes. and was a time when the and i will probably speak about this -- i don't know if it will be included in the documentary, but i came from mount vernon high school. and my classmates at that public school were the sons and daughters senators and congressmen. they weren't going to private schools. a were going to public schools.
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they would see each other at swim meets and soccer games and school parties. there was a little bit more friendliness across the aisle. and they would have some good-natured fun, even on the house floor. i remember seeing -- we were talking about women in congress a freshmaner representative from new york and she had followed her dad and the congress. sneakers,he floor in took those often put on her high first and she argued her argument before congress to defend base in her district against brad. members in the other side of the ousted up and cheered her. cokie: you came after the quote
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unquote reforms. that really did change things because we did have pages living here who were living together with a house mother and a house father. and the school was much more organized as a school. so hello -- you just went for when you? camilla: most of us were here for a semester. i've -- it was charlie's executive assistant who asked for a personal favor to keep me for second semester. we lived in the dormitories of the third and fourth floor. cokie: the old congressional hotel. camilla: yes, it was very far away. he had the guys on one floor and gals on the other floor. you had alarms on the doors so you could not sneak around in the middle of the night. cokie: i'm sure you found ways. [laughter] one always does. when john mccormack was speaker,
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he lived there. and the way you would always know when congress was going out of session was when mrs. mccormick would start to pack her hats. it was very handy to talk to the maids at the congressional hotel. joe kip lee -- let me ask you one more question, camilla. you are in the military. camilla: thank you for mentioning that. it was towards the end of the school year when i went to go visit congressman wilson. i was nervous. charlie wilson is still huge and amazing. i walked in the office with all the kurds are could muster. toaid i understand you and the naval economy and u.s. to the summer program and can i get in russia mark he ended up saying, sure, i can get you a spot, no problem. and i said, can i bring for my page friends with me westmark so
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he picked up the phone and called the superintendent of the naval academy and got us five spots right away. wow.: [laughter] i wonder what he had on that guy. commander'm an active -- an active-duty commander today. cokie: joe, we are now in the 21st century. you were with tom daschle. and of course, one of tom's great interests was health care. you have now got into health care as the director of cancer services. know a lotlet us all about pack of mill mississippi over the years. you were here during the september 11 attacks.
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joe: yes. i had a week under my belt before we had to face our challenges. during the day, it was just a normal day. we went to set up for the senate chamber like any other day. we saw cnn was covering some breaking news of some things in new york city. eventually, that got too close to home and a capitol police evacuated us from the building when the pentagon was hit. so leaving the capital building, you can turn to the south and see the smoke rising from the pentagon. it gets real pretty fast. and was tom and the leadership at that point? joe: he was majority leader. cokie: so he had to go into a close location. attest to that.
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i am originally from south dakota to so i had -- we all know each other in south dakota. it is a small place in we had 30 senate pages and 10% of us, three of us were from south dakota. so that is a reflection on editor daschle's leadership ability to bring us to washington. [laughter] there math onoing the percentages there. joe: we were asked by our fellow pages if we were -- if we remembered to turn the lights off before we left south dakota. when you get in these dormitories with it's all of the the regionalget dialects. now i live in the deep south in mississippi. becauserow up real fast you learn about the country through the politics but also through your colleagues as pages. quickly about many different things.
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had you been one of those geeky kids that wanted to know everything about politics? joe: yes, to some degree. "rudy" a the movie lot. i was realistic about my football skills. family vacation to washington, d.c., we learned what a sad page was and i got a tour of the senate or and this is where the senate page sits. i thought, i want to do that. so i started studying all be faces of the senators so i would know who was who and could deliver messages. so from a young age i had big goals and was grateful to senator daschle and the senate page program for making those opportunities come true. cokie: and so you did go to notre joe: -- to notre dame. joe: yes. i talked to my colleague about her service in the coast guard. after my experience on september
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11, anthrax, and the war on terror. i went to notre dame. god closes one door and opens another. i got a medical disqualification and was not able to serve and that is right met my wife. that is why i am in mississippi. i am a proud military spouse of the in afghanistan veteran. [applause] cokie: i think of that being in biloxi. .oe: yes my wife is on the gulf coast there. cokie: there is a big differential in your time in the capital. do you feel late connection, tom? tom: we have a common experience, but different eras. different areas but the same at windows. it is a high school time.
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cokie: now that you are getting together as an alumni group, is their conversation about how things were and how they could get better again? in the congress? not the page program. [laughter] nancy: we rehash what went on back then. i am still astounded by the stories i cannot repeat because there is a television camera here. we do not really talked politics when we get together. but that could change this weekend. john the shared experiences in : many cases, you can be talking to people who served in different decades with a lot of the same members. when i was a page in 1980 one, -- in 1981, with just a couple years to go before they brought in cameras, i remember the thing that surprised me most about being a
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page was how the republicans and democrats mixed as if there were not in aisle to cross. cokie: the republicans were so surprised by taking over the senate they need a lot of help. the famous line as when bob dole became the finance chairman and he said who is going to tell russell law. john: i remember when that they were still making room for the desks. we also had the experience of when we put the congressional record on the desks and they came in with a little blue book with just the faces of all the senators and a buddy and myself put one on each senator's desk and there was a vote. they all came in and the senator from hawaii grabbed his and i remember him sitting here at the desk holding his book and he was flipping the pages and he would flip a page and go -- ho ho ho -- and flip over another one and go "ho ho ho."
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cokie: that really is a very good imitation. joe: -- john: and finally senator jackson said, what is so funny? it and the senator from hawaii said, "how many of these guys are still using their graduation pictures?" [laughter] cokie: when the now defunct bank was there, we used to call it the first communion pictures. [laughter] camilla: you talked about the first experience and bringing more stability to the hill. i was a house page. i think they need to bring pages back to the house. [applause] and not just because of our legacy because i think we probably contributed to members acting with a little bit more the core of -- more decorum than
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they do now. the mere fact you had 16-year-olds on the house floor with whom these members would occasionally strike up these genuinely innocent and very professional, polite relationships. i think each of us has our own story about interacting with a member. i will never forget the lead up to the boat and the beginning of -- the lead up to the vote in january tong of authorize force to the gulf war and tom foley had come in. almost everybody was on the floor. it was the middle of the night and tom foley was besieging everyone, let's get to the boat. and the senator from massachusetts, republican, was sitting over. i was a documentary page. i got lucky. mrs. donnelly tagged me out of the crowd to go up to the front. he was sitting 10 feet away, coughing. interrupting speaker foley, coughing. so rude. on national tv
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i snuck away from my desk and went back into the republican cloakroom and grabbed someone and asked for water and cough drops and kleenex and i will left to sylvia conti and said, sir, do you need any of this? because i notice you keep coughing. and he started laughing. he almost fell out of his chair laughing. in every time he saw me on the floor after that he would call me over and introduced me to his friends. he was amazing. cokie: he was a great guy. camilla: he passed away one month later. everyone of us, whether it was the pages in the republican "12:00 high"ching with bob dortmund, private screenings. it was hilarious. midnight. every one of us has a memory like that and i do think just our mere presence on the house floor had a calming effect.
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cokie: i think there is a lot of merit to that. the fact that there were kids there. camilla: and it was not just they had to behave but when they had to authorize the use of force, for example. they thought of us. because we were the next in the queue. cokie: are we doing questions here? there are microphones at the front of each side of the room if anybody wants to ask questions. the next panel begins in 10 minutes. but we do have questions if anyone wants. >> hello. my question is, [indiscernible] --
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nancy: i have to tell you, i told jerry before the session, do we have to prepare remarks? i was running some stories by my husband and he was like, honey, you cannot say that. [laughter] so i will just say because i was luckily at 28th and p, i missed out on a lot that was going on. but we had a great time, didn't we? i think the best part was, like tom said, there is just a connection the minute you knew somebody was a page. it was a surreal life. we all connected. you had to work together. i was asking friends of mine to share stories with me about what they remember it and joe was talking about how gregory came
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on the democratic side and joe on the republican side were told to sit outside a meeting when george mcgovern was about to dump tom as his vp running mate. these kids are 15-years-old, 16-years-old, and they were told, don't let anybody come in. joe said he got the cover of newsweek that had ingle 10 on -- that had eagleton on the cover and asked eagleton to sign it. he still has the cover. that is the same kind of thing that is so it -- was so wonderful about the experience. i think i will skip it about the extracurriculars. cokie: you have a mischievous look on your face. john: the things that happens, we still go back to in memory is one day one of the cloakroom guys, it might have been bob i don't remember.
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he said you have a drivers license? i said, yes. he said, come with me. it was a rainy day and we went out to a car dealership in suburban maryland to pick up a brand-new cadillac. i do not know if it belonged to the senate, senator, whatever. he gave me the keys to a brand-new cadillac and said, all -- follow me back to the capital. [laughter] i said, ok. and, i did. i was a good boy. but it was a rainy day and i guess i had a drivers license and headed for about 12 weeks. [laughter] cokie: right. and it was a wisconsin said drivers license. no traffic circles. john: exactly. i had never, ever driven in conditions like that. anything like it. so, we were going along and i am following him, i don't want to lose them. no cell phones, etc.
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and it's here in a day and i was holding on, i was not a big kid. anyway, there was a traffic light up ahead and i looked at some of the scenery and the traffic light had gone red and bob had stopped and i was still going. and i pressed the brakes and i am not exaggerating, i came within in inch of hitting him but i did not hit him. but my mouth dried up and i acted like nothing had happened, but it was -- cokie: terrifying. john: you would look back and say, i knew better. none of my activity as a page really, i did not do anything bad as a page. but that was the one thing that could've been bad.
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joe: a couple hijinks stories from the fall classic 2001. keep in mind the context that i was there during 9/11, anthrax, the rumor mill was we were one terrorist attack from them shutting down the page program. too much of a liability to have 16-year-old and 17-year-old kids around. we had the whole weight of the program on our shoulders to a certain degree. so it was serious. we were on our best behavior and did not want anything bad to happen. but the senators knew that we were under stress. so we had some hijinks. so too quick stories. you are at school in the morning early, you are tired, you fall asleep in the lobby. your friends will take your senate id, blow it up full-size, then stick it back on your shirt so you have a big picture of yourself right here. and then, who walks through the lobby? no reason to take this route, but then majority leader tom daschle walks through the lobby and says, there is a an alert page. one of the senate pages gives
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tom daschle a high five. apparently, he was not displeased. the other prank was we got in very late one night, worked until 1:00 a.m. or 2:00 a.m. and got back into webster hall and a page you is notorious for being late to school, we were in our suits and we look like we are ready for the next day. we set his alarm clock so it looked like the next morning and told him he had two minutes to get to the school. so the whirlwind of putting on a coat and tie, running down to the page's goal in the basement -- the page school in the basement of webster hall and obviously, it was 2:30 in the morning and not 6:00 a.m.. those were some of the cute, innocent pranks we did. cokie: you you can tell us the other ones later. nancy: kofi, can i tell wanted can -- one ted kennedy story?
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1972 and i am in the lobby behind the senate chamber with another page. we were yakking away. senator kenny walks out and stops and points and says, you two, shut up. and i am like oh my god. next to the crucifix at my catholic grammar school -- and he walks down the hallways, turns around and with this big smile on his face says, i'm bobby byrd. and it breaks out into laughter and walks away. and you remember, he had lost the whip race to robert byrd the year before and also i recall from my democratic for that mr. byrd could be sort of tough for the pages. i thought that was such a great ring about what a page gets to -- great vignette about what a page gets to see that nobody else gets to see. cokie: tom, did the house bring back the pages? tom: absolutely.
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the pages could not do anything wrong. it was the members. [applause] cokie on that note, i will put : my shoes back on and thank you all very much. there will be another panel and then a movie and reception. so, thank you all. >> are you going to bring them back? >> thank you, miss roberts. thank you, panelists. we have special thank you gifts for all of you. and a special one for you, miss roberts. you have written about capital days and founding mothers. we would like to present to you if it is still here -- your own lady of liberty. also known as the statue of freedom. the female figure at the top of the capitol dome. thank you very much.
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[applause] you all will get yours in just a moment. thank you, panelists. thank you all. we will break for one minute and have our historian come up will stop please do not go away. thank you very much. announcer: you are watching american history tv all weekend every week and on c-span 3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook. high-end please that the
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senate, as a body, has come to this conclusion. television in the senate will undoubtedly divide citizens with greater access and exposure to the actions of this body. this access will help all americans to be better informed of the problems of the issues which face this nation on a day by day basis. >> during the election, i had the occasion of meeting a woman who had supported me in my campaign. she decided to come to shake my hand and take a photograph. a wonderful woman. she wasn't asking for anything. and i was very grateful that she took the time to come by. it was an unexceptional moment, except for the fact that she was born in 1894. and her name was marguerite lewis, an african-american woman who had been born in louisiana, born in the shadow of slavery,
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born at a time when lynchings were commonplace, born at a time when african-americans and women could not vote. took our country, from the time of its founding until the mid-1980's, to build a national date -- debt of 850 million dollars, which was the size of the so-called stimulus package when he came over here. so we are talking about real borrowed money. announcer: 30 years of coverage of the u.s. senate on c-span 2. announcer: this weekend on american artifacts, we visit the smithsonian national air and space museum in washington, d.c., to see the artifacts that tell the story of air and space exploration. p is preview. >> when children look at this
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spacecraft, they say that doesn't look like a spaceship and because we tend to think spacecraft are always streamlined and maybe they look like rockets more than anything else. spacecraft has an interesting design. in many ways, it is fairly primitive given the job it had to do. to be streamlined on the outside because it was not going to operate in the atmosphere. it would only operate in the vacuum of space. and it would not be subject to strong gravitational field on the moon. it is actually fairly flimsy in some areas. the legs are obviously strong. enginent to the rocket is strong. but the craft itself and particularly the crew cabin was fairly spartan. it had to windows. two windows.
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standing,em were fully suited in their space suits. they pretty much filled that interior volume in that position with the space suits on a it was not really designed for comfort. it was designed for the purpose of landing, giving the crew on exit so they could spend a couple of hours on the surface of the moon and then launching again, along with their precious cargo of lunar spoil and rocks to demonstrate that they had been there and to have those materials for scientists to begin analyzing, to better understand the moon. it's also amazing to think that the computing power required in that day to send these craft to the moon and to program them for the dissent and the launch was done with fairly primitive
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computer programs. memory was miniscule compared to the memory we have now. that theoften said computing power we hold in our hands every day with our smartphones is vastly more than it took to send people to the moon and back. it gives you a sense of the inenuity of the engineers that day to devise the solutions to get people to the moon and back safely. announcer>> watch more on amerin artifacts, sunday. tv."is "american history only on c-span3. >> the smithsonian's national air and space museum is open to the public on the national mall were years ago. up next, president gerald fo

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