tv The Civil War Union Seventh West Virginia Infantry After the War CSPAN September 29, 2019 10:45am-11:31am EDT
platforms that are beginning to distribute news and have a newsfeed, individuals want to see them have a news director. >> monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span 2. next, on the civil war, a talk about the activities of the union regiment during the war and after, including the dedication of a monument at gettysburg. he has taught at the united states military academy, shepherd university, and the graduate school of norwich university.
in 2008, mark served as the visiting senior lecturer of war studies at the royal military academy at sandhurst in the united kingdom. he is the author of eight books and he currently has two other books in the works. his presentation today is taken from his most recent work, "the seventh west virginia industry." it is co-authored. [applause] mark: thank you. before i give my presentation, i want to give you a little background about the seventh virginia infantry regiment.
that is how it started out. it was recruited in the summer and fall of 1861, primarily from the north central part of west virginia. let me bring up a map. primarily from north-central west virginia, and also monroe county, ohio and ring county, pennsylvania. greene county is here, monroe county is here. the recruiting area is basically this area, plus a little bit of greene county and monroe county, ohio. their initial service was about 50 miles west of winchester, virginia. most of their early service was in the lower part of the shenandoah valley. they fought in the shenandoah valley campaign of 1862. they gave themselves the nickname the bloody seventh after the relatively bloodless romney campaign, only a handful of casualties. unfortunately for them, that nickname would become prophetic.
they were transferred to the army of the potomac second corps in july of 1862. they participated in all of the army of the potomac's major campaigns in the eastern theater, from the maryland campaign through appomattox. they suffered or than 45% casualties during their first really big battle, the battle of antietam. primarily from the sunken road on the roulette farm called the bloody lane. at gettysburg, they were assigned to samuel carol's brigade, sometimes known as the gibraltar brigade. the charge of the louisiana tigers, at this battle, three days cost them a lot of casualties in they went from regimental strength to battalion sized strength. the survivors of the battalion
who reenlisted in 1864 became members of the seventh west virginia veteran volunteers. west virginia becomes a state of the union, june 20, 1863. they officially begin calling themselves the seventh west virginia at that point. prior to that, they were unofficially calling themselves the seventh west virginia. the west virginia veterans who returned to the new mountain state came home to a new state government only to see that government return to the hands of ex-confederates after 1872. even though the regiments bloodiest battle was at antietam, the veterans chose to put their monument in gettysburg. with that background, let me begin. the war is over. robert e lee and his army of northern virginia had surrendered.
the army of tennessee with jo johnson in command capitulated on april 20, along with the remaining confederate troops in the carolinas, georgia, and sort -- florida. a few days later, nathan bedford forrest gave up in alabama. kirby smith's army of the trans-mississippi, the last major confederate force in the field, surrendered on may 26. in indian territory, now oklahoma, brigadier general stan walkie and his native american confederates in the field, kept them in the field for nearly a month after smith gave up the trans-mississippi army. on june 24, june 24, he acknowledged feet and surrendered. except for a lone raider out of contact with the world, the conflict had come to an end and
the armed forces of the confederacy had been disbanded. by late june, the same could be said of the huge volunteer force that had once been the union army. what remained of the proud army of the potomac was prepared to go home, including the seventh west virginia regiment. by now, it was a battalion down to 570 soldiers. 24 commissioned officers, and 431 men present, two officers and 101 men absent. on july 1, southwest of arlington, virginia, the seventh west virginia infantry was mustered out of the federal service. only 127 of the men were veteran volunteers from 1528 overall and most men -- overall enlistments. after, the battalion under
francis baldwin, rode the train to wheeling, arriving the morning of july 5. they camped on wheeling island in the ohio river, where they anxiously awaited to be paid off and mustered out of the west virginia service. three days later, a thankful city gave a celebratory dinner to honor the men. the town's ladies provided an abundance of food on well spread tables. announcing the gala, the wheeling daily intelligence newspaper reported, "the old seventh is a tried and gallant regiment and has participated in more hard-fought battles than any other regiment which west virginia has sent to the field. this is probably the last entertainment for some time to come, let it be the best that
can be provided. the brave boys will be leaving for home this evening. they will be joyfully received by their waiting friends." the governor offered his welcome and thanks, to which the seventh commanding officer, former commanding officer, jonathan lockwood, responded. the men cheered, frolics, eight, and drink to their hearts content. after dinner, the final farewell was at hand. with the hallowed regimental colors turned over to the governor, the seventh disbanded. veterans of the seventh who resided in wheeling before the war might have picked up a copy of the daily intelligencer and found an advertisement on page four promoting the sale of prosthetic devices and crutches, claiming they were a great improvement. three army surgeons testified to the artificial limbs, sound
construction and monetary value. a one legged pennsylvania veteran a valid, "i cheerfully recommend to all of you who unfortunate to need one to give him a call." private swayze chris of company b might have been one of the early customers, having had his right leg removed more than a year earlier as a result of a gunshot wound sustained during a fight. 19 when he enlisted in 1864, the 5'8" blue-eyed, black haired farmer was an army hospitals until his eventual discharge in 1865. assuredly he was in need of a pair of crutches and an artificial leg. he was one casualty lucky enough
to recover from his amputation and return home. many more of his comrades were killed outright, died of their wounds, or succumbed to disease or accidents, or as prisoners of war. a celebrated nurse, clara barton, who attended to the wounded and would found the red cross in 1881, set up a missing soldier's office near the capital in washington, d.c. on june 20 8, 18 65, the intelligencer reported that "clara barton of washington city publishes a role of missing men as far as they have been reported," and provided a list of men unaccounted for. one of the missing on the list was corporal william e carruthers of seven company a, who unbeknownst to ms. barton
and her clerks had died of chronic dire area -- died of chronic illness. the 577 survivors of the west virginia seventh volunteers who received honorable or medical discharges began to make their way home. the seventh veterans who claimed pennsylvania or ohio as their domicile returned to areas largely unaffected by war, but the men who resided in western virginia came home to a new state with a new seat of government, and in a few years, a rapidly changing economy. one that would shift primarily from subsistence farming to attractive industries, particularly timber and coal. not every west virginia would engage in farming, logging, or mining. cities like parkersburg, moundsville, morgantown, and charleston would become centers
of industry, trade, government or higher education. wheeling, for now the state capital, thrived during the war not only because it was the seat of government for the new state, but also because it had been a bustling army camp and its existing industries likewise benefited from wartime contracts. now the governor and the west virginia legislature would have to leave the mountain state in a postwar world. as the years and decades past, the seven survivors formed a veterans association, with members meeting from time to time for annual get-togethers, sometimes part of larger state or national meetings of the union army veterans organization, the grand army of
the republic. soon after, the legislation that created gettysburg national military park was signed into law in 1885, the secretary of the seventh monument committee who had survived the battle of the but was medically discharged, received a letter from the gettysburg national park commission granting permission to proceed on the erect and of a regimental monument on the new park. the seventh veterans group and west virginia gar post were instrumental in lobbying state legislature to appropriate funds to mark the positions of the west virginia units that fought at gettysburg and vicksburg. in february, 1898, two months before the united states declared war on spain, john gene kelly, the seventh's first kernel, asked for maps showing
the proposed location of the monuments. kelly had been appointed by the west virginia governor to oversee the placement and dedication of the seventh memorial. as well as those of other west virginia monuments to the first, third cavalry, and first west virginia artillery. of the four memorials, three are small and plain looking, while at seventh is the most ornate. but even the seventh is monday and. -- is rather mundane. a typical, off-the-shelf, standing soldier statue of the type that was mass-produced in the postwar era. depicted in his winter overcoat and facing eastward in the direction of the july 2 attack by the louisiana tigers, the stone sentinel looks more like
he was fighting the winter battle of fredericksburg rather than the midsummer fight. the part of the seventh monument funded by the west virginia legislature served as the base of the memorial, while at the seventh veterans association paid for the soldier. the second west virginia infantry regiment, national guard unit activated during the short-lived war with spain, was tasked to support the dedication ceremony. the brevity of the conflict prevented the second west virginia from deploying to puerto rico, cuba, or the philippines. it spent most of its active service in nearby middletown, pennsylvania, near harrisburg. they left camp, several hundred men along with baggage laden wagons and ambulances, marched from middletown to gettysburg,
more than 50 miles. they reach their campground along seminary ridge on september 25, three days before the scheduled ceremony. the west virginians were greeted at the outskirts of gettysburg by the local company of the pennsylvania national guard. the seminary ridge campsite was dubbed camp snyder in honor of joseph snyder, the seventh's second regimental commander. several prominent west virginia is including the governor were scheduled to attend the ceremony. in addition, colonel theodore f lange, formally of the west virginia calvary and author of "loyal west virginia," one of the earliest accounts of the west virginia statehood, came to the ceremony, and even some of the states confederate veterans would participate.
keep in mind that west virginia is the most divided state during the civil war. more than maryland, more than missouri or even kentucky. roughly the same number of men, 20,000 to 22,000, served on either side during the war. the master of ceremonies was professor thomas c miller, principal of the preparatory department of west virginia university and a veteran of the seventh west virginia infantry, having enlisted late in the war on april 1, 1865. miller served for three months before his muster out in july. 20 years after the ceremony in 1918, miller became the president of schappert state normal school, now shepherd what -- university in shepherdstown, west virginia. the first administrator of the school was a veteran of the
confederate stonewall brigade. the ceremony began at 11:00 a.m. on september 28, 1898, with the parade to commence on chambersburg street at the hotel. company m of the second west virginia was in the van, followed by the four west virginia units that carried the tattered that all flags of the first and third cavalry and the seventh infantry. after them, the governor and his acting general, and staff officers of the west virginia national guard worse -- proceeded on foot. appleton was a twice wounded civil war veteran, having commanded a company in the celebrated lack regiment, the 54th massachusetts colored infantry. governor atkinson was also accompanied by the pennsylvania governor, daniel hastings.
a reporter from one of the newspapers in town effusively opined, "the remarkable sight of two governors with staff and full uniform marching on foot in procession was a thing never witnessed before in gettysburg and could only have taken place in a free country like ours." i guess he had forgotten that 35 years earlier, something really important had happened here. next in the parade became the second west virginia band and the rest of the regiment. the procession halted on east cemetery hill, stradling and baltimore street, across from the soldiers national cemetery. after the neighbors of the official party had taken their places, the band played america, and a reverend from west virginia gave a brief invocation. before professor miller
introduced governor atkinson, he pointed out that in the audience was a young, blue clad lieutenant in the second west virginia whose father, a former confederate, also was in attendance. atkinson arose and said, "my countrymen, we come today to pay homage to the heroes and west virginia." the mountain states chief executive continued, "in the city are the dead under the shadows of trees where shot and shell rained like hail. we now consecrate these monuments to the memories of those whose bones are quietly reposing beneath the sward, upon which the feet of living, loving friends are now standing. no granite or tomb of ancient or
modern splendor, and no play of genius immortal can adorn the memories of the soldiers who sleep upon the slopes of gettysburg. their deeds are there monuments, which will keep their names enshrined in the hearts of patriotic men and women." this flowery address continued for about 10 more paragraphs and included several verses of a reconciliation or a poem that for atkinson recited those lines, exclaimed, "all honor to the south as well as the north." in the wake of the spanish-american war, when ex-confederates held important ranks in the army, atkinson's proclamation of reconciliation was heard by the white audience. lost was the comprehension that
reconciliation came with a skewed memory of the primary cause of the civil war. general appleton took to the dais next and recounted the military operations that were at gettysburg, including the seventh. "the infantry comprised seventh west virginia volunteers, regiment whose proud banner, although covered with inscriptions, is not large enough to contain the names of all of the battles in which it was engaged." eventually, john g kelley, chairman of the veteran core of the seventh, addressed the audience and introduce his young daughter, anna, who unveiled the seventh memorial, revealing the inscription here. anybody want to read this inscription and give me a break?
thank you. loud enough so the cameras can hear you. >> [indiscernible] on arriving there, we found the battery about to be taken charge of by the enemy who were in large force. whereupon we immediately charge the enemy and succeeded incompletely routing their entire force and driving them beyond our lines. mark: thank you. below the words son of the mountains, hard to make out, was a large bronze replica of the seventh veterans metal, a horizontal bar with a superimposed golden horseshoe, with sprigs of laurel and the words "we have crossed the mountains." the bar in real life had a red,
white, and blue-ribbon holding a trefoil with the inscription, "seventh west virginia veteran from romney to appomattox." since the granite mountaineer is facing eastward toward the confederate assault, his backside faces the actual front of the monument. on the rear of the monument come up below the front side of the soldier, these words are engraved. erected by the state of west virginia to commemorate the valor and fidelity of the seventh west virginia infantry. after the unveiling, governor hastings accepted all four of the west virginia monuments on behalf of the gettysburg national park commission. the ceremony came to an end with the benediction and a rendition
of the star-spangled banner by the seventh industry band. the seventh veterans also placed three small position markers on the field to indicate their movements on july 2 and third. one indicated their initial position on cemetery hill just east of the grove, one designated the location where their nighttime assault came to a halt halfway down east cemetery hill, and the last one at the base of east cemetery hill, marking their defensive line on july 3. although general appleton briefly mentioned the names of the slain troopers from the first cavalry and the artilleryman from battery c burned in the national cemetery, he did not reveal the names of the seventh dead that repose there. but most certainly, they are all
but forgotten resting places were visited by their seven comrades on that early autumn day of 1898. what appleton did say was a proper tribute to those who lay beneath the sod on cemetery hill. "fit it is to mark with enduring stone and bronze the heroic deeds of the men of our state." i would like to point out that most of the west virginians who fought here in july, 1860 three, -- 1863, would not have considered themselves west virginians. they would have called themselves virginians, and they wore gray and that are not -- butternut uniforms, not blue. although the ranks were thinning as quickly as their hair, the survivors of the seventh would continue to attend annual reunions, like the time they gathered in toledo, ohio from september 1 through second 1908, for the national encampment of the gar.
a few of the seventh veterans even returned to pennsylvania, to the 50th anniversary of the battle of gettysburg in july, 1913, known as the peace jubilee. some 1125 west virginia veterans attended the commemoration, with almost exactly half of them having fought for the north, 562, and half for the south, 563. numbers that attest to the divided sympathies in western virginia from 1861-1865. many of the seventh veterans were not fortunate enough to attend reunions and commemorations. either because they continued to suffer from wartime injuries, or simply because they had fallen on hard times. certainly some just wanted to forget the terror of places like antietam, fredericksburg, and
the horrific conditions they endured in southern prisons. on the other hand, the regiment's second commanding officer, joseph snyder, led a successful postwar life. he was a resident of monica haley of valley -- he was a delegate of the first and second wheeling conventions and of the general assembly that replaced the richmond government. this is the part of virginia that did not secede. after mustering out of the seventh, he commanded the fourth west virginia calvary, a 12 month unit, and commanded them from november 1863 until august of 1864. he returned to politics as a radical republican after the war. he was one of the two delegates representing his county in 1872,
having unsuccessfully run for the house of delegates in 1871. after the political counterrevolution of 1872, which returned the west virginia government to the ex-confederates, he was one of the few successful republican elected to the house of delegates and subsequently was reelected in 1875. he was also elected president of the agricultural association in 1880 -- and in 1881, was named president of the local board of education, a position he held for many years. he was elected to the state senate in 1887 and 1889, and served as chairman of several committees, including the militia committee, railroads committee, and most important, the judiciary committee. he passed away on january 8, 1904, in pennsylvania, and was laid to rest in mount union cemetery in west virginia. perhaps no other soldier in the seventh west virginia infantry epitomized the spirit and
tenacity of the regiment then its erstwhile commander, jonathan hopkins lockwood. 53 years of age at the war's onset, he probably was too old to volunteer his services to the union but did so nonetheless and served his regiment, state, and country until his incapacitating wounds prevented him from performing his duties. upon his discharge, the lieutenant journal -- lieutenant colonel returned, with the hopes of continuing the life he had left. if you're not familiar with west virginia geography, the northern panhandle between pennsylvania and ohio, just south of wheeling, is a little town of moundsville. his battlefield injuries nagged him for the remainder of his
years. in 1869, he filed for a federal pension. lockwood was partially disabled by his wounds and was worthy of the government allowance. further, the doctor determined that lockwood would probably become permanently disabled and pronounced him on able to perform -- unable to perform manual labor, thus preventing him for providing for his family's subsistence. he was left with a painful hernia, a sunken right shoulder, a jagged scar on his head. despite that he was forced to wear hernia truss, lockwood tried to remain active and even was one of the founding members of the mounsville g.a.r. post. according to the senses, his assets totaled $12,750. in addition, the federal government awarded him $30 a month for his wartime injuries, basically pocket change for him.
a dozen years later in late march 1892, lockwood had a violent coughing attack that displaced his hernia, causing it to protrude and inducing terrible pain. he never recovered and died on march 28. although lockwood and snider probably were the best well-known members of the seventh west virginia infantry -- their gravestones are there only public memorials. soldier received two special tributes. private jesse taylor, company f, the first soldier of the seventh to be killed in action, lived
near jolly town in greene county, pennsylvania, when the civil war began. i hate to say it, but this is almost literally spitting distance from the west virginia border. that's how close. he enlisted on august 31, 1861, mustered in at morgantown on october 2, and met his demise three weeks later in a skirmish on october 26, 1861. this is what gave them their name, the bloody seventh. shortly after his death, the hamlet he called home changed its name to hero in his honor. three decades later, in 1892, several of his surviving comrades, members of g.a.r. post 450, also called the jesse taylor post, decided to erect a monument to jesse's memory, close to the side of his homestead. he grabbed just before his first fight with the rebels, he was going to take his hat and catch a rebel cannonball in his hat. he caught part of one, but not in his hat.
the inspection reads jesse -- the inscription reads jesse taylor, private, company f, seventh regiment, west virginia seventh infantry, aged 21 years first soldier killed from greene county pennsylvania october 26, 1861." over the years, there were several items placed on the memorial. more than a century later, another plaque was erected on the abandoned site of what long before had been the historical village of hero. the years rolled on and the ranks of the seventh kept closing, as more and more veterans parted for the great beyond. they and their children undoubtedly were aware of the
terrible labor strikes and industrial disasters in west virginia, southwestern pennsylvania, and southeastern ohio coal mining regions, and perhaps they experienced first-hand the terrible squalor that had beset appalachia at that early time -- late part of the 19th and early 20th centuries. those who resided in mongering -- in monongalia county witnessed the birth of west virginia university, morgantown, a school whose very existence was a result of civil war legislation in 1862, the moral act, which permitted the establishment of land-grant colleges by using the proceeds of federal land sales to states that agreed to establish a college emphasizing agriculture and engineering, a measure that was made possible only when southern congressmen vacated their seats in 1861.
of the regiment's original members, company c's captain william biegel lived to age 94 and died in 1932. his death was front-page news in tyler county, west virginia. company e's jonah bail survived to age 92 and passed away in 1935. he was buried in a cemetery bearing the name of the governor of the restored government of virginia, that of francis pierpont. on the eve of world war ii in 1938, the final official reunion of the blue and gray took place here in gettysburg, with the seventh west virginia -- where the seventh west virginia had come to the rescue of their comrades. apparently, only one of seven survivors attended. in march 1865, lorenzo had substituted for a drafted man who subsequently paid him to take his place on the firing
line. according to the writer of the obituary, "he was one of the few west virginia veterans who attended the national encampment this year. last summer he joined in the blue and gray reunion at gettysburg." allum died a year later and was apparently the seventh west virginia's veteran --last surviving veteran. now all the sons of the seventh had crossed the line between life and death. they lie in scattered graves across more than 20 states, they live in scattered graves across -- across 20 states their deeds , largely forgotten. we have crossed the mountains. thank you. [applause] questions?
yes, sir. you have to wait till they get a microphone up there. >> what was it about the seventh west virginia that spark your interest enough to write a book about them? >> a couple of reasons. i was born and raised around here. not in gettysburg, but not too far away. for some reason, there is something about east cemetery hill that i always felt drawn to it. when i started reading books about the battle, i found out that it was a night battle. there's never night battles in the civil war. there is no command and control their troops. this is one of the very few that ever occurred. that made it even more interesting to me. then when i took the job as director of the civil war center
at sheppard, we had to put it on a database, that our charge was to put on database all west virginia soldiers, union and confederate, that served in the civil war, and we did this based on our compiled service records in the national archives. the first two that i asked my employees to put on record where the seventh west virginia, by virtue of the fact they were the only infantry unit, and the second virginia infantry, also primarily from what becomes west virginia, and part of the army of northern virginia. they never fought against each other eye to eye. there were times where they were not that far apart, especially in the shenandoah valley. that was my interest. my co-author, his interest was that he has a whole ton of relatives, ancestors who had fought in the regiment. he has been interested for years and years. we decided a couple years ago to collaborate and put out this
book. did that and to your question? anymore? well, i'm going to ask the young man, i didn't know him at sheppard. i already retired. maybe if the cameras can get it, he has a veterans metal that was issued by the state of west virginia of your great-great-grandfather? >> great uncle. >> would you bring it up and show it to everybody? sorry to put you on the spot, cameron. come on up. tell them about your great uncle. >> well, this is one of the only metals that was still in charleston up to a year ago, when i finally was able to claim it. several years ago, when i started digging into west virginia history, i was a reenactor. i found out i had family that
fought in the seventh west virginia. but as i started digging more, i come to find out i'm related to 15 family members all from one company of one regiment in the seventh west virginia infantry. so, after two years of hard work, i was finally able to claim this medal, the last one of my ancestors' down there. james of the seventh west virginia infantry. i'm very proud of my family heritage. my one ancestor of company i was the company commander and was killed at antietam. i had to others that were killed there -- had two others that were killed there. >> the company commander was captain daniel shell. this photograph is in the book. could you take that over to the camera and show it to them?
i just met him about a week ago. i just bumped into him here in gettysburg. he said, i will compare talk. i said ok. he brought that medal and showed it to me. thank you, cameron. you can't tell he is from west virginia, can you? any other questions? ok. [applause] at 2:00weekend, today eastern, the psychological impact of flying on world war i pilots. at 7:00, women in the apollo program and the challenges they faced. >> there were cameras all over the place. i had no idea how long it had been on me.
i did not say anything about it and we did not even know the term sexual harassment or hostile workforce and there are two different things to think about that. it is a little voyeuristic on the part of the dude watching you and it is harassing and uncomfortable but the other way to think of it is, let them look and let them all know, let everybody know that there is a woman here, i am here, get used to it. [applause] past onre our nation's american history tv every weekend on c-span 3. q&a, as the house watches -- launches a formal impeachment inquiry, hear from james banner author of the book presidential misconduct.
>> john doerr, who had been counsel, the general thoughts of the utility ava report like this -- utility report like this and turned to his friend and asked woodward to be the commander-in-chief of the project of preparing such report, which was unprecedented. the introduction to the original volume -- and he asked three people to be his field generals and they identified and recruited about 12 historians to write one, two, or three sketches on that many presidencies and i was chosen to be one. we had eight weeks to do it. email and itbefore was done by telephone and mail and we managed to do it in weeks. professor woodward submitted it
to john doerr and that is the last we heard of it. six weeks later, the president resigned. >> watch tonight at 8:00 eastern on , vice president pence delivers remarks at an event in warsaw, poland commemorating the 80th anniversary of the start of world war ii. >> [speaking foreign language] >> ladies and gentlemen, the vice president of the united states by michael richard pentz will now deliver an address.