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tv   Lectures in History Colonial Myths and Monuments  CSPAN  January 9, 2021 8:00pm-9:06pm EST

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pocahontas. this was provided by the university of delaware. , the national world war ii museum hosts an online panel discussion on efforts to document chinese-americans who as the nation.m. prepares for the transfer of power to the trump administration to the biting lustration we look back to past presidential farewells -- biden administration, we look back to past presidential pharaohs. prof. anishanslin: this is history of colonial america. at the beginning of this course i asked each of you to tell me what you think of when you think of colonial american history. whatof you do not remember you put but i will give you a synopsis. many of you focused on what historians would call the revolutionary era rather than
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the colonial era. george washington, thomas jefferson, alexander hamilton, taxation without representation, other offenders and the imperial crisis of the war popped up. a few of you mentioned places like jamestown, plymouth plantation, jamestown, and williamsburg. a few people mentioned the history of slavery. notably because either the 1619 project or the black lives matter project. there were a few omissions. no one mentioned individual women or individual indigenous people by name, and no one if i am recalling correctly mentioned anything west of the appalachian of thens, much less west mississippi or the rockies or west coast. this runs before contact with indigenous europeans to the end of the seven years war french
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and indian war. covers hundreds of years, millions of lives, and a which were women coming together of people from africa, mostly enslaved and not of their own volition as well as multiple europe,s and empires in england being the one among these and not even the first to establish a permanent settlement as well as indigenous people intermingling with africans and europeans. originaly it was all -- indian territory stretching from the atlantic to the cisco -- pacific. we do not even cover the revolutionary era because it tends to suck the air out of a room. it does tend to original -- overshadow the rest of the colonial period.
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about a fewthought white men searching seaboard colonies who signed the declaration of independence and fought the american revolution. this makes sense. most of us unless we take advanced history courses or to a lot of outside reading of a narrow conception of what colonial america is. we have a memorable example of one of your classmates showing a halloween costume that was laughable but typical of how americans picture the colonial past. there are a lot of silences in contemporary america and how we remember that and i hope this course has changed that for you. one of the things we will do next week is i will ask you to answer the same question so we can compare it to where we began in our conception of what people american history and where we are now near the end of the course. the relatively narrow conception of most americans is one of the
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reasons why we spend our first two weeks defining what the course means. in other words we talked about what does colonial mean? what does america mean and what is history? -- are pretty controversial. notably american. america encompasses north america, south america, people issuein america, take obviously with the united states were referring to ourselves as americans. what does history mean? who is in charge of fashioning it and whose interpretation of the past we focus on? today's lecture will be the chance to connect a lot of dots on the last few weeks we spent learning medically together. [indiscernible] particularreading in of the book past and production history which you are finishing
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up this week and next to think about the history of colonial america and other history is created and memorialized not just inside academic circles but also out in the broader public and two ways in which the concepts are popularized are the subjects of today's lecture and that will be myths and monument. i want to start sharing my screen. so far so good. began the course by introducing you to one of the critical concepts i hope students walk away with and that is history is not the same thing as the past. history is not a recitation of facts that happened in the past by people's interpretation of those facts. sometimes people believe in a street not even based on fact at all. when it comes to the history of colonial america i think how we
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define the terms about which we are speaking is critically important. who's past are we discussing, wind does it begin, where is the situation? these are basic questions surrounding history course but they are not and what encompasses american colonial history has shifted over time and how we choose to interpret the past matters to the american includebecause it does answers to the questions of what do we celebrate, it could be silenced and what people, places, and events we count as important in the past. myths and monuments to a lot of this work. they do it outside college courses. this is one of the reasons in addition to studying primary sources i asked you to look into historical interpretations of the colonial american past. everything from names on street signs to films to halloween
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colonialto williamsburg and monuments to people. treo puts it really nicely and silencing the past. andory has many parts academics are not the sole teachers in the land. aople get their history from wide variety of places. history is produced outside universities as well as within them. this understanding of how colonial history is constructed -- not just within but beyond the academy. people do get a bigger dose of colonial american history when they go to plymouth plantation in many cases than they do in their choices of reading or some of their k-12 history courses.
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history often takes this material form, and one reason we need to study objects, artifacts, and places as well as art, i always think of loosely culture is it is a great way to understand production and consumption of history, and that is one of the reasons why trudeau spends a lot of time in his book talking about history not just in books, history found in places like statues as examples. debates around monuments of which we have seen a lot in the lesser few years but a lot in particular this summer. debates around monuments and public art, whether they should stand and fall, which are to erected in the first place are actually debates about history, which is itself a form of monumental commemorating. what i want to talk about today is how the stories we do not tell are just as important as
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the stories we tell and when we silence a story it is kind of like tearing down statues in a sense. when it comes to colonial america comic historiography shapes not just how the past is interpreted but the parameters that we put around discussing that past as well. who's past is it? where is it situated? this is complicated but the celebrations of it really are. his quote here is a really great one. the mythmaking process does not operate evenly. celebrations are created, and this creation is part and parcel of the process of historical production. in other words we make choices with monuments, with celebrations like columbus day just as we make choices in terms of what to put in our history books and these commemorations are usually sanitized in the
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sense that they are simplistic, right? monuments tend to offer a very simplistic narrative, a pretty black and white one, and we know from discussions history is hardly ever a matter of black-and-white. it is usually various shades of gray. it is complicated is the answer to a lot of questions we posed. how many monuments are there that have things inscribed at the base to the memory of both sides of a messy pass. the usually represent the victor gain control of the narrative about the past. how we interpret the american colonial past matters to the american present and what is it we celebrate and what who we silence? we can see this in places and spaces around us. just to take one of the things we wrestled with in the early weeks, when do we begin colonial america is really critically important and it is such a
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seemingly simple question but it is so hard to answer and yet the answer predetermines how we view colonial america. we talked about whether she -- we should begin our example before contact between american -- european and indigenous peoples. disservice to the richness of the indigenous past, the idea that we should look at the historical artifacts and structures left behind by cultures like that as just as valid as written history that european people tend to leave behind, and yet we refer to indigenous history as per history and a lot of cases and what happens after contact is history. if we start in 1776 thinking about america than that defines america as around the
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nationstate when in fact there are hundreds of years of history by which it was no means predetermine the united states of america would ever be. similarly we discussed a lot about dates that are important as starting points traditionally and how we talk about colonial american history and what we should do with that. that columbus discovered is often the word use that doescussed how history disservice because it is about contact and conquest. many people live there before columbus stumbled upon it. 1492 is the beginning. we begin with 1607, the first permanent english settlement at jamestown, virginia but this ignores the fact that the english were not the first european power to establish a permanent settlement. those were the spanish in saint
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augustine florida. jamestown, the arrival of africans who became the first enslaved africans in an english permanent settlement or the establishment of the itse in burgesses or is 1620? these are all various options. one of the reasons i spent so much time with us discussing issues like windows colonial america begin, when does america begin is i think it helps us to determine what we discussed, who we celebrate, and who we raise monuments to among other things. choices arehy these important, i think they are important -- -- impose a silence on events that they ignore and they feel that sounds were there it a power about the event they celebrate.
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we can discuss the men who smith and monument we are going to begin with today, as you know we never step foot on what is the license america but begins our survey of its past. that is christopher columbus, who got a lot of attention this summer and has for a while due to the holiday celebrating them, columbus day, which is gotten a great deal of pushback for columbus and his reputation. there is columbus the men, columbus the myth, and a lot of monuments celebrate columbus the myth. we can talk about the man as we have in this course and one of the reasons the myth is gotten pushback is more and more people have become aware of why exactly he deserves analysis and critique from his enslavement of indigenous people to the raping,
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disfiguring, and killing of people done at his command in the name of pursuit of profit, specifically gold in the caribbean, and yet he is celebrated and we discussed this as the kickstart to the chain of events that led to the establishment of european colonies in north america, south america, and the caribbean without which the united states america would not be in its present generation. one common response to critiques of the actions of people like columbus whose actions we now condemn as deplorable in many ways is that he was a man of his time. we discussed this two and the fact that there were always people who stood against atrocities such as those that columbus ordered, participated in, noticeably indigenous people at the time. they did not approve of this and the europeans at the time. a former and sliver himself ver himselfsla
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participated in the 1513 invasion of cuba but came to have a change of heart in part as a priest and leave the enslavement of indigenous people was wrong. and -- who journeyed in what is now florida and texas in the 15 20's and 15 30's. alongside them was an enslaved african, which is an interesting point of contention some historians have made with the which is the first arrival of enslaved africans was estimate on -- estaban there. critics [indiscernible] besieged his fellow spaniards to treat indigenous people better
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than columbus had done for yet despite got -- pushback in his own time and since we have so many reminders of columbus, not just like statues of these, which has not been defaced because men stood around it and protected it this summer so it would not be defaced. just showing you the strong emotions that people have for as well as against columbus. the statue in the middle has been spliced with red paint, which is often something protesters use do defaced monuments of historical figures they feel have blood on their hands. on the right, a statue i will spend more time talking about, a statue of columbus enrichment -- in richmond that was toppled this summer and put into a pond. let's talk about the statue of this monument of columbus enrichment.
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i think -- in richmond. i think this gets upset how columbus is just a starting point in talking about power and how we view about colonial american history. the statue of columbus we put in the pond enrichment is in a park richmondrd park -- in is in a park called bird park. -- bird park name for a family of virginia colonists who grew quite wealthy and william byrd the second is one of the byrd family who helped found the city of richmond in the 1730's and who owned a lot of property on which the city of richmond was built. bird park was named for him as a founder of the town of richmond.
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this is something i think it is important to note. when the columbus statue was toppled this summer and put in the water in bird park a lot of the focus was on columbus and what columbus tells us about colonial american history. nobody talked about william byrd, for whom the park is named. how we it is important memorialize colonial america is found inmportantly parks and streets. these are just as hard to topple. people are very attached to the names of things, and if we think about christopher columbus, if we are going to go about tearing down everything related to the an we would have to tear down number of things, including the capital. if you think about william for the second and you start to learn more about them you start
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to question about whether his name should grace that park in which people gather to enjoy themselves. was veryyrd the second wealthy, and a fabulous library, wrote a number of books, including his diaries which he which was cracked by historians. in his diaries he records his serial philandering. he was married twice but he continued to have multiple sexual affairs, many of which were rapes of enslaved women, all of which he details in his diaries. habits ofd terrible interaction with enslaved people who he claimed as property. at one enslaved man had a habit of wetting the bed and as punishment william byrd made him drink his own urine after he wet
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the bed. not at all and attractive figure, sort of representing the worst of virginia colonial name inacy, and yet his virginia, the park is different. when we think of monuments that are toppled we need to think about the wider connections. the name of the park is also important. where do we draw the line with the questioning of these myths and monuments, because at a certain point things are so entangled it is difficult to separate them out. --umbus, washington dc cc washington, d.c.. lummis is celebrated in the capitol rotunda. as eightol rotunda epic paintings within it, these enormous paintings you can see.
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four of them to memory things of the revolutionary era and they celebrate the revolution. the other four are from the 19 century and they are described by historians as four scenes of early exploration in the united states. these are interesting word choices because these depict things like this painting, the landing of columbus completed, installed, commissioned by congress in 1836. they also include two photos, ,xposition mississippi valley and pocahontas. they depict scenes that arguably could be called not early exploration but scenes of disposition. ,cenes of contact and conquest
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indigenous people from their land. in the case of pocahontas we will discuss dispossessing her from her own culture and in interesting ways, ways that have been critiqued by scholars of u.s. history. what does it mean that these images are in the rotunda. -- rotunda? it is being monumental lies through the public part. it is not just the founding period but what happened in the 19th century gets wrapped up in indian removal act and in the concept of manifest destiny of the united states fulfilling a god-given right to spread across the continent from the atlantic to the pacific arguing that columbus and desoto and other , people fromrs european empires who conquered the land edits indigenous people are something to be celebrated
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in american culture, and these do not just a in the capital, these paintings. these paintings also end up on the backs of 19 century currency. this painting of the landing of columbus was used not just on a bank note issued in the 1870's but also on two stamps in the 19 century. if we look at one of the other paintings from the 19 century in the capitol rotunda we see the baptism of pocahontas. completed in 1840, and like the landing of columbus, it also appeared on the reverse of money issued in the 1860's and 1870's, and it shows a ceremony in which pocahontas is baptized and given the name rebecca in
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jamestown. the ceremony took place in 1613, .614 and jamestown jamestown is celebrated as the first permanent english settlement. even though as we know it is not the first permanent european settlement in the americas. pocahontas is often touted as being the earliest date of convert to christianity in one of the permanent english colonies, and so this is something seen as a success europeans idea that are going to come over and convert indigenous people to christianity is something at the endeavors,ny english, spanish, french as three notable ones. the idea that pocahontas should be celebrated for renouncing
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cultural heritage, for becoming english in many important ways, becoming christian i is what is being celebrated in this painting. a form of cultural disposition, i would argue. pocahontas the real versus the stylized one in the capital or even worse, the disney princess, at a much more complicated history. she was probably more of a go-between, a skilled interlocutor between indigenous people responsible for making connections, cultural connections and important connections through her marriage tieshn rolfe who cemented in this critical decade in the
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jamestown settlement. it celebrates her for conversion to christianity. here you see the actual pocahontas, which looks quite different from the romanticized version in either the rotunda or disney and the only surviving known portrait of her, which shows her as not looking indigenous at all, looking very much like a european and englishwoman wearing lots of including lacey and a feather likely to stand in place of her exotic indian origins. metallic thread, embossed, andoidered velvet jacket super expensive lace around her neck as well as something we which willa hat prefigure the very lucrative
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trade in the u.s. as commodities that comes to find a lot of interactions between indigenous and european settlers in the 16th and 17th century. one of the things it is interesting to point out about pocahontas and her persistent presence as a myth and monument in our collective understanding of the american colonial past is that she is one of the very few women we even know or celebrate her name as an individual. as i mentioned i do not think any of you, and it is understandable why mentioned an actual individual woman in your discussion of what crosses your mind when you think of colonial american history. it is not accidental that there is a connection there between the number of monuments erected periodn from any time and how often women populate our common historical
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understandings. less than 10% of figures in statuary hall, also in the u.s. , less than 10% are --en, and about 10% [indiscernible] there is a big gap between historical reality and what we are choosing to memorialize about the past in america. women who does have a number of monuments in america is a woman who again became like a lot of these figures celebrated before death, in particular around the same time in the 1860's and 1870's is when her monument started to up that images of the baptism of pocahontas appeared on the back of u.s. currency.
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areof these things entangled and working together to push the same cultural narrative, the same historical narrative. here inustin, pictured two of the monuments had a number of monuments erected to theis also the woman who is earliest publicly funded monument in the u.s. that is her monument in new hampshire. this is an interesting choice that tells us a lot about what americans were choosing to commemorate and celebrate in the 19th century. is a protestant byan who is taken captive indians from quebec.
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we discussed this in the class quite a bit. there were competing claims of french and english imperial interests for north american territory. in clashing interests among native peoples as well. people are taken captive in these indian wars. was one of these. she was taken captive along with her newborn daughter. she ended up in new hampshire. the indigenous people killed her daughter, who was only six days old, by smashing your head against a tree. duston returns the favor.
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she was taken captive along with the woman who is helping to nurse her through her pregnancy and help her recover from birth. when they arrived in new hampshire with the people who she,aken her captive, along with the other woman with and a teenage boy who had been captured separately, the three of them decide to rise up and unite and free themselves. they decided to kill and scalp 10 native americans. scalps asned with the bounty. only with the scalps as
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proof of what they had done. edition -- they petitioned the legislature to pay them. this was celebrated at the time. they were rewarded with money from the massachusetts government. so thatelebrated enough she has the statues erected to her. women are consistent in these complicated pasts as well as men. example is how we sometimes turn bits of the landscape into monuments as ways to remember the colonial past. here you see plymouth rock. that was something that was familiar to all of you before this course. a number of you mentioned the pilgrims, plymouth, puritans in
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new england. this is something that is worth diving into a little bit. you will see an emerging theme here. identifiedck was not or tagged as such until the middle of 18th-century. 1620, whenike in pilgrims landed in plymouth, they took out a chiseled and carved the year into the rock. this was something was done later. descendent of those pilgrims pointed to the rock as important. it was in danger of being obscured by sun tzu instruction -- some new construction. they decided to commemorate and celebrate as fast. -- this past.
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what are the reasons this is important in our conception of who we were as people is it speaks to something that we like to celebrate about the past. often full of dreadful things that happened. but is also a place where people as human beings strive to make the world better, themselves better. in some cases, they leave beautiful things by. .- behind the pilgrims speak to something that many people like to celebrate. seeking freedom from religious persecution. that is something very important
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to perceptions americans have of american culture and law. religion isractice first among the rights listed in the bill of rights to the constitution. rock is ays, plymouth way to celebrate that. these people who are persecuted for their faith in europe were able to carve out a new place for themselves. discussed this compact. tiny seed of people are very to come together. all of which leaves a lot out of the story. this element to plymouth rock that appeals to people for this reason. think aboutsting to
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why we celebrate this particular part of american history. why we focus so much on it. when we think about the colonial past. argue new england and virginia get outsized attention. so much of colonial american with thes unfolding vast array of indigenous people who are occupying this territory. of europeanarray colonizers and settlers who are often there. we have discussed how the french are often down the mississippi river. the spanish are in texas, florida, california. you have all of these european americans and indigenous people and enslaved africans coming
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together in new places. why do we spend so much time on territory?art of the as compared to the continent of the united states? why did we spend so much attention on this tiny element? i think it is important. this is one reason why we use our textbook in the course. he correctly tries to situate the history and continental rather than east coast parameters. talking about the history of religious freedom, thele's desire to pursue freedom to practice religion as historyh, much like the
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of colonial america, is a continental one. we shall remember that the history of people in america struggling to act as their religious freedom is not just in english or european one. the puritansy with but take us back to the u.s. capitol. and talk a little bit about the man on the right. he is one of the few colonial figures celebrated and statutory hall. he was a pueblo indian. holding someknotted ropes there. fair interval to the story i will tell you about why he is celebrated to the state. day.is john winthrop came to new england in the first wave of
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what has been called the great migration. this wave of puritan settlement s. puritans have a large mass migration to new england. and begin to spread out throughout the land. winthrop is famous for america being a city upon a hill for the world to marvel at. that is aat rhetoric bit of american mythology that is perpetuated and persisted, often referenced by u.s. presidents. ronald reagan was fond of it. we learn about john winthrop and the puritans. theot learn as much about man who was born around 1630 two his right.
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-- to his right. he wanted to practice his religion. in freedom. he was not allowed to practice it by the authorities and power. catholics.he spanish him alonghey arrested with other pueblo indians for practicing their traditional pueblo religion. they were charged with witchcraft. that shows you have the spanish viewed indigenous spiritual practices. a few of them were hanged. the rest were brought to santa fe and whipped publicly. a man whoad here is by all accounts is charismatic.
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he is transformed by this experience. this public punishment and persecution for his spiritual beliefs. he conspires to start the pueblo revolt. the most successful indian revolt in american history. a clever communication system they came up with two password about when the revolt should begin each day. the rope was passed around. this was still the most successful revolt in history. faye managed to take the spanish out of santa fe completely and it.py the fight for religious freedom was not just among european settlers.
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rock, iack to plymouth want to lead with this idea. rock ine study plymouth our conception of colonial america more than we study something like newspaper rock? are many elements to the collection of rocks in arizona and new mexico. sis is one in arizona called newspaper rock. petroglyphs have been carved over thousands of years by pueblo indians. as ways to leave traces of their families, offer spiritual interpretations. can like plymouth rock, it be seen as all of these things. the mark of the puritans. the puritan migration. spiritual meaning. this was a place where the
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pilgrims were memorialized. and calendar events. that are created by indigenous people on the one hand and european settlers by the other perform very similar tasks in terms of being monuments upon the land that human are celebrating and now what is the united states of america. why is it we tend to focus almost exclusively on things like plymouth rock? why do we include both more often? ist i would like to suggest i think america, which has been , is sodastardly america
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much more interesting than the 13 original colonies. it encompasses those 13 counties, but there is a lot more we can learn about the past. memory. not have a vast i am looking forward to some questions, which we have time for, or,. has their video off and i can't really see your faces to call in you, what are you just chime in if you have a question? if people step over one another, we will manage that. >> i like your point about why we don't focus on certain things. . know plymouth rock
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thatnk it is interesting we don't focus on other events. i did not even know about the native american who did all those wonderful acts. people need to open up their eyes a little bit and expand a little bit more on what is true and what is not. and do their own research and i case. ase.n that c >> that is the reason why i have do the primary source interpretations. since history is not the same thing as the past, your interpretation of history can legitimately be completely different than mine. you need to make up your mind about that. continue to look at the sources. things that is interesting about monuments is
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they are not primary sources. they are someone's construction of the past. you can talk about them like i did today but they are really someone's interpretation of the past. that is one reason why think they get so contested. any other questions? >> i like your comment about him. horrifiedself quite couple of weeks ago visiting colonial williamsburg. out portrayinge landon carter. that is in the same kind of caliber and elite group as william byrd. some equally deplorable things to his enslaved population. i was quite surprised to see an
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at apreter portraying him living history site. i would be interested to hear your take on that. >> that is another interesting point to make. know, if you have , how woulddeep dive you know? ofre is the simple story william byrd who collected a lot of bugs. it showed the racial bias of his time. it is a narrative of his journey. the dividing line between north carolina and virginia. if you start getting into him
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things personal life, get messy and complicated. something that would keep children up at night. it is a tough decision. clearlyome out most with something we don't talk about much in this course. important inecome the american story until later. he was controversial with his family.
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fact that you have these are in somee men cases the most horrifying thing about them is they are not unusual. this is a very american story. that is something to be grappled with. i hope they are making an effort to give you the flip side of that. the conundrum with places like this. you go and if you learn anything researchor do your own , it is mentioned that it is named for william byrd the second. he was one of the founders of virginia. he owned a lot of property.
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about his mentioned horrible mistreatment of enslaved people. the fact that that property he owned was dispossessed from in digital people -- indigenous people in the first place. mother nature tends to simple five things much more than the past. and something like plymouth rock, there is this inspiring story about religious them that we love to think about, for good reason. it is critically important in the american historical asked rance and narrative. are under an obligation to tell the other side of the story.
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i am just glad i'm not in charge of writing historical interpretations at a historical site. that would be a lot of tough decisions. anyone else have any other comments or questions we would like to offer? we perpetrate myths in school. especially starting in elementary school. where do we start to correct history? one of the problems is, if you are an elementary school teacher, teaching about columbus in kindergarten, how do you tell kindergartners the real story of columbus without horrifying them? that we the stories
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tell are not age-appropriate. what do we do with that? these are complicated questions. why not make more of an effort of indigenousy people alongside puritans? to dive straight into the brutal ugliness of colonial history. in its most terrifying iterations. in order to tell a more inclusive history. i think that is one way to do it. maybe we can pick this up next week. to discuss how you all would do this. changedthis course has the way you talk about history of thanksgiving with your family.
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think these are important questions. it is vitally important, regardless of the level of education you are about. due to a derided -- variety of factors. the accident of where you go to college and whose classes you take. don'ts why so many of us think about history as it is presented through these historical interpretations. places are doing some of the most cutting edge historical interpretation out there. williamsburg, it also does fantastic, groundbreaking work on enslavement in american
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history. say is,ly what i would include as much history as possible. half newspaper rock alongside plymouth rock. of someone else. to say they were in a dialogue. i also hope this has given you more food for thought. the moral of the story can be applied to our discussions. before i endds this? i have a question on the
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paintings in the rotunda. you thinkering how they should be handled. many people want acknowledgment inaccuracy. he is a great painter. renowned forare their skill and artistry and beauty. the confederate monument controversy, a lot of those statues are artistic trash. made out of cheap metal statues.
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different to talk about from an artistic standpoint. what do you do with that? when you bring up artistry? it creates new problems. one answer that is fascinating is contemporary art has taken to creating arts that protest against these. they are black artists, overwhelmingly. their work is really a fabulous way to allow the original work .f art to stay but also speak to its limitations and problems.
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the landing of columbus has been the subject of exactly that type of artistic pushback. i think it is really helpful. sometimes people just do not know the history of these historical artifacts. education is the first step to correct that. -- will aboutill the 6019 project, it has gotten people discussing jamestown and colonial history. that has not widely done in years. rotunda, ift in the a counter interpretation is presented carefully, it can be a good pathological tool -- pedagogical tool. not an easy question to answer. that, and less able
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wehas any parting words, will end this discussion. i really look forward to hearing next week what people think about myths and monuments. higher perception of what colonial american history is has changed throughout the course of this class. think each of you has shown wrestling withof the complexities of the past. considering how we choose to memorialize and celebrate colonial american history, which elements of it, i hope you do not stop thinking about it. thank you so much. i will see you all next week. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2021] >>
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>> we take you inside college classrooms to learn about topics ranging from the american revolution to 9/11. saturday at 8 p.m. and midnight eastern on c-span 3. >> you are watching american history tv, every weekend on c-span 3. explore our nation's past. american history tv on c-span 3, created by america's cable television companies. were brought to you by these american television companies who bring this to you as a public service. >> tonight on american history as the nationica prepares for the transfer of power from the trump administration to the biden administration we look back to past presidential farewells. here is a preview. >> there are real and growing dangerous to our most precious possessions. breathe, the water we drink, and the land that
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sustains us. the rapid depletion of irreplaceable minerals, the soil, the destruction of beauty, the blight of pollution, the demands of increasing billions of people all combined to create problems that are easy to predict but difficult to resolve. if we do not act, the world of the year 2000 will be much less able to sustain life than it is now. >> the story of this presidency goes far beyond any personal concerns. it is a continuation really of a far larger story, a story of a cause thata cause, a from our earliest beginnings has defined us as a nation and given purpose to our national existence. the hope of human freedom, the quest, the achievement of it is the american saga. i've often recalled one group of
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early settlers making a treasurers crossing of the atlantic on a small ship, when their leader, a minister, noted that perhaps their adventure would fail and they would become a byword, a footnote to history. but, perhaps, too, with god's help, they might also found a new world, a city upon a hill, a light unto the nations. >> we annually spend on military security alone more than the net income of all the united states corporations. now, this conjecture of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the american experience. the total influence -- economic political -- is felt in every city, every statehouse, every. office of the federal government we recognize the imperative need for this development. yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave
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implications. , resources, and livelihood are all involved. so is the very structure of our society. of government we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought by the military-industrial complex. >> now it is time to leave. i hope it may be said 100 years by workingat ourther we helped to make country more just. more just for all of its people, ensure andto guarantee the blessings of liberty for all of our posterity.
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i hope.hat that at least itve will be said that we tried. [applause] programsthe full tonight at 10 p.m. eastern, 7 p.m. pacific, here on american history tv. you are watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. to join the conversation, watch us on facebook @c-span history. national world war ii museum hosts an online panel discussion on efforts to document the more than 22,000
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chinese-americans who served in the armed forces during world war ii. speakers include an author of a book on the subject, a researcher who assisted in her efforts, a chinese-american vietnam war veteran, and the daughter of one of the 22,000 veterans. the national world war ii museum provided this video. >> welcome, everyone. thank you for joining us this evening. >> thanks for having us. >> i want to begin by talking to samantha. so, samantha, how did your work on the stories of chinese-american veterans begin? samantha: this actually started, a documentary i did on the mississippi delta chinese. and i needed to find the right hook to sell the story of the chinese-americans in the mississippi delta. chinese-american history is not sexy. it took me almost 20 years to find t

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