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tv   Discussion on International Efforts to Fight Terrorism  CSPAN  February 13, 2016 12:35pm-2:42pm EST

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the world. it publishes dozens of articles, seminar findings, and books every year on almost every aspect of terrorism. how it is being carried out around the world and a different parts of the world are dealing academics ended in an scholars can come up to offer ways to deal with it and to do with the underlying causes of terrorism. -- haser has come initiated a number of books on the issue from the islamic state, which is just recently out. to theon nato terrorism consolidated writings of osama bin laden. all of these are available from and wesite and amazon, will be very happy to direct you to them, and the many
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publications that have been published on terrorism events around the world, and what can be done to deal with them. i would like to report to you in summary, after 18 years of looking at the issue at the potomac institute that things are improving. i was to put a happy face on it, those focusing on the issue, the academic study of it, the political focus of it around the world, is increasing by vitally and with great purpose. unfortunately, the threat is still there growing, metastasizing, and involving more people. unfortunately, this is something that is most like we are gradual deal with. it is up to us to give them the tools. to ask you all to join me at this moment in recognizing professor alexander.
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his contributions to conduct is academic, but to the world, are something we should all applaud and encourage and hope it will go on for the future. professor alexander. [applause] brought together today -- we brought together today a very experienced and senior panel to discuss these issues. we have a keynote speaker who is currently serving as the director of the defense intelligence agency ended in i would like to introduce general outbreak, the 29th, don of the marine corps. is going to kick me out the state, i know. published by the potomac institute, which
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-- general gray. [laughter] >> i want to add my welcome to all of you. we are honored this afternoon to have a very distinguished officer speak to us in this keynote address. general vincent stewart is a great leader, and a great moraine, and i am very honored to tell you more about it. is in your notes here, so i won't go through all that, but i do want to mention that general stewart not only has had and held all of the key command assignments in the single intelligence arena and marine corps, and combat intelligence arena in the marine corps, but also served in command positions.
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you name it, he has done it. he is also a distinguished communications officer. he is an armour officer by trade. he has been too many, many schools. in fact, eight different military schools. five of them were on my watch. that is my fault. [laughter] i say this because i think it is crucial that the intelligence ammunity be infiltrated with number of non-intelligence people, operational people. do not just the intelligence analysis, but the operational analysis, data analysis etc. from that standpoint. some of our greatest and allence victories to our history was created because you had operations and intelligence operating together,
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working together, and making together. . am very proud without further do, i will turn things over to you. [applause] >> thank you. >> thank you. general gray promised he was going to do a very short introduction. he has never called me distinguished. that is a purse. so, thank you, sir. i am going to try to talk a little bit about the terrorism topic. then i want to touch a little -- think weat we are doing to counterterrorism. first of all, it is truly an honor to be here. to sit next to governor ridge on the podium with senator our distinguished public servants, it is truly an honor. so, thank you all for inviting me to this event. combating terrorism is
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unmistakably an important topic on everyone's might. today positive agenda constitutes a significant opportunity for sharing, debating ideas, and defining the threat, as well as to identify opportunities to undermined forces that use terror. i emphasized the finding of the threat for this reason -- i have heard, and will talk more about this in detail, but i have heard it is all of islam is thanks and criminals. until we settle upon which of -- we will not be able to define a coherent strategy. we will take the opportunity to highlight what we are doing. terrorism is a direct assault on humanity.
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terrorismtnessed transform into a continuum of sheer barbarism covering best areas and shrouded in religious symbolism. although terrorism is not new, it is a reality with increasing intensity. the time i pute on a uniform in the 1980's, tools.sts use violent paris, san bernardino attacks has become a direct terrorist threat around the world, especially europe and here in america. more information is coming out about operatives allegedly here on u.s. soil. may be just attacks
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the beginning of violence their lone wolf fighters, andn directed coordinated attacks. , we areious simultaneously confronting with a quasimilitary force with state like features and transnational terrorist organizations driven by religious ideology. like a state that claims territory, it has an executive, a commander and control structure, a set of loss, a taxation system, army, and supposedly provide services as well. while not recognized as a stated by modern nation state standards, it has been recognized by affiliates around the world who have accepted dioecious goal of a global
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caliphate. they have advanced this notion tomarrying its notion transform cyberspace into another dimension. one with immediate effects on nontraditional battlefields marked by terrorist attacks all over the world. the idea that the caliphate physical andin diocesedomain, is demand. libya,t globally to afghanistan, nigeria, algeria, saudi arabia, yemen, and the caucuses. it even inspired terrorist attacks in beirut at the same time as the pairs attacks. this year, dioecious has grown more dangerous to emergent branches in mali, somalia,
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and indonesia. it would not surprise me to see them extend further into egypt. to increase likely their tax -- their attacks. we know that they do not represent islam with a 1.5 billion muslims around the world. yet, dioecious claims to be claiming by force a true caliphate. it is important to know that it takes all three of these words together to describe the environment. in this setting, dioecious not only to seeks -- not only seeks invoke -- m, but to
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the group c to created -- the create violence. middle east countries fear external and internal threats. some nations have even attempted to eliminate their adversaries under the guise of combating terrorism. that you may be at the forefront of our thoughts today, they are not the only fairies organizations in town. increased international focus on dioecious allows al qaeda to recover from its state and enable similar groups to flourish. we must not forget al qaeda and
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its affiliates still exist. we cannot count them out. the afghanistan ended in pakistan bauder -- -- while they may have goals, similarir ideology ended in a necklace tools of terror drive them. furthermore, the jury is still out on the largest state-sponsored terrorism -- iran and its affiliates. we do not know yet if iran will behave responsibly, or how they will invest $100 billion they receive as a result of the joint comprehensive agreement. forget, that since january 19, 1984, iran has been listed as a state sponsored terrorism. we will not take our eyes off of these threats. we also face uncertainty in south asia, the taliban has
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launches first ever defensive in order to make a comeback in afghanistan. it has increased attacks in pakistan, the ie's is also attempting to expand their enterprise in the south and central asia, as well as southeast asia. draw your attention to africa, -- creating permissible environments for terrorism. in north africa, several -- strongholdstablish a n libya. has contended with a
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number of violent groups. the recent terrorist attacks in highlights the terrorism threat. , terror attacks by , are the most violent dioecious affiliates. they are likely to continue they arey since aligned with dioecious. parts of central ended in central africa remains at risk of instability over the next year. al-shabaab attacks in control of role areas will persist in mali. of episodic violence in the central african republic, the democratic republic of the congo, south sudan will continue this fight for peace and stability efforts. ,he key causes of instability
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lack of political transparency, corruption, suffocated civil societies, violation of human rights, religious extremism, insufficient economic opportunities are some among many. they will continue to serve as drivers were civil conflict, social cleavages, instability spillover, and regional spillover involvement. all of these dioecious claims upon. and therrorist threats drivers of conflict alone, are not taking into account the many other global concerns, the economy, technology have profound impact on the way the -- h --
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where one of three of all intelligence agencies effectively incorporates operations analysis as well as toence and technology support a mission. we face a complex security environment marked by broad spectrum of threats. from aggressive nation states that have adopted nonstate actors. many of these threats wage war in the war fighting domains in multiple regions. all of these have implications andfuture joint multi-partnership on all levels. especially to counterterrorism in the gray zones. whether we are talking about the mountains of afghanistan ended while thesee, efforts continue in the military
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realm, military action alone is not sufficient. collaborationugh is also a significant force multiplier. therefore, we must think about how we do business. we have to take a broader approach to partnerships, --laboration across collaboration is no longer enough. fully integrated partnership with our allied nations is now imperative. our relationship with our allies, military responses, and the way we practice intelligence must therefore adapt and' the future. we must be prepared to operate with greater speed, flexibility, partnership, ended in accuracy. the way to do this is through integration. not as an in-state, but as a means to an end. to address this challenge, our -- sittingers
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analyst next to collectors. collectors next to collection managers. all in close contact with a full array of intelligence capabilities. this reflects the success we expense on the battlefield in afghanistan ended in iraq. y andizing efficiency ende -- we integrate critical defense
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collection to enable precise action within the war fighters operating environment and their network. we maintain a broad set of capabilities. we build identity intelligence. we have integrated our foreign partners because in today's complex environment, we can understand the work without them. when it comes to our partners, and other key partners, it is unlikely we will go to war again without them. we will be in combat as a coalition. fight andn't we integrate as a coalition today? almost two years ago in march of 2014, we set up our center cast with integrating dia in commonwealth capability.
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the center advocates improvements, collection, analysis, crisis planning, operations, and information planning. i would like to inc. the dia is on the forefront of international intelligence integration. acrosse we can expand our agencies, the more we can advance effective policies and operations. the goal is to take dia from an enclave to an agency that inks thinks and acts as an agency. before encountering terrorism around the world, whether in afghanistan, iraq, syria, north
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africa, we maintained lateral intelligence sharing and other intelligence. partnerships with the majority muslim countries are violet -- vital. integration, innovation, monetization -- it gives us an edge due to the multitude of challenges. in closing, let me go back to the topic at hand. let me take a moment to share with you. year,er the of this past in the british house of commons, sir hillary been spoke of his support an action against dioecious. while he explained that dioecious in poses a threat, what struck me was his description of the enemy. faced bywe are here fascist, not just their
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calculated brutality, but there believes that -- that they are superior to every single one of us in this chamber tonight. ,ll of the people we represent they hold our believe in decency innd contempt. they hold our democracy in contempt. but we know about fascists is that they need to be defeated. the caliphate must be destroyed. this movement must be defeated. this is definitely something to think about. betterome to a understanding. thank you for enduring me this afternoon. i am paired, i think, to answer your questions. i inc., topared, answer your questions. [applause] >> how are you? >> norm used to be one of my instructors.
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the reason i went to a lot of schools is that i could not learn that quickly, so i had to keep going back to more. [applause] >> but you have done very well. i have a question. can you give us an assessment of iran as a de facto coat facto and -- as a de the challenges it prevents? conflictderlined running across the middle east is the saudi-yuan conflict. odds which complete makes getting after dioecious in iraq and syria very difficult. i always say that we saw this
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kind of terrorism that goes back to 1979 with the irani in revolution. they play a difficult role on the battlefield because they continue to use, or advocates, state-sponsored terrorism. they comforted actions across the region. -- theyave action complicate actions across the region. they are not terribly helpful. i do not know if that answers your photo. i am -- i do not know if that answers your question. sir? >> i am wondering -- >> i generally stay from the , but here i am at a
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national press form. >> is there anything that you can share with us -- >> no. [laughter] i am going to ask anyway about the north korean missile launch and what you might be able to tell us about that launch and whether it put a satellite into orbit? >> i continue that they conducted a space launch that looks too many of us like the characteristics you would want to have for an intercontinental missile. fair to say that the launch achieved its orbit. um. might stop there. it did achieve its orbit and think i may be safer to stop here.
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[indiscernible] >> are those objects being tracked? >> i don't know if it would be a good idea to talk about how we track it. but the fact that it is in the open does not mean i should confirm it. i am not going there. nice try though. [laughter] i think i probably told you that i should have. i am very, very careful. sir? thank you for your keynote speech. [indiscernible] our government legislation is bad.
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[indiscernible] we have very effective, meaningful cooperation of the u.s. government to combat terrorism. i would be happy if you -- >> if i could -- >> in bangladesh. >> dioecious their own publication offers five characteristics of someone to join being an affiliate of days. unityation of allegiance, and nominated a leader, develop a strategy to implement islamic law, establish contact with isill leadership -- leadership. whether to define the scope of it, elements in bangladesh are on their way now to meeting all
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five criteria that dioecious has published in their own publication. [indiscernible] there is no -- the government has successfully contained the -- the country is free of any islamic groups. will probably, i not take them off my list just yet. i will take your word for it, but i will not take them off my list just yet. sir? r. was program manage i was not able to get anybody in
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united states government interested in using any of this fantastic technology. that dioecious and the chinese and the russians is up to this point, god completely unchallenged. i don't see that changing any time soon. ideaser if you have any come our way to see it go that?d and to change >> those adversaries cannot confront us and be effective using conventional military capabilities. we will augment their win theties by try to warfare in the information space. that must be countered. my agency will not do that. that they's important are starting to do some things now in a number of different
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agencies that will counter the narrative and confront dioecious and the information space. it requires that we find the tools and approaches and techniques to present a more compelling narrative to our adversaries. i can get toose as giving you an answer. i agree with you, but i don't like this conversation. tools now record, the exist. it is only a question of having a will to use them. our adversaries are using them spectacularly well, and we are not. >> anti-agree with you. -- and i agree with you. intelligencened integration. can you talk about the challenges of timely
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intelligence attacking isis. there has been some criticism that the u.s. bombing operations are not vigorous enough. some people claim that they are being super cautious. can you discuss the difficulties in getting good information. also confirming targeting. i did an experiment many years ago where we tried to find small, fleeting targets in a large desert environment. that is difficult. they are not massing their movements. finding targets gets after the critical vulnerabilities, we are starting to pick up the pace on that. youink you may read, if have not already, some attacks --have done on some of their
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we are going after the oil infrastructure. i am comfortable with that space because it separates us from other nation states who are not as careful in how the employee weapons. i think we are seeing an increase understanding the systems that make up this state. i think you will see increased decision targeting of those critical vulnerabilities, but we err on the side of limiting our casualties to civilians. >> thank you very much. [laughter] [applause] . [applause] .> moving on just a few hours ago, the president of the united states announced a $1.8 billion program to deal with the zika virus.
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which is a relatively innocuous, can be deadly, can cause problems virus that is moving up from south america, but has not resulted in any widespread casualties, or problems in united states, except for fear. thethings cause fear and potato to terrorize as. and hashings cause fear the potential to terrorize us. in the last year, a blue-ribbon study panel was empowered to look at bioterrorism and inform washington d.c., the congress, and the president on these threats. we have with us today the two chairman of the panel. they have just released the first report from the panel with recommendations on how to deal with one of the most frightening terror scenarios that could ever be brought together.
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the two chairman i have speaking of our two of the most distinguished, bipartisan, public officials that washington has seen in the last century. both of them have served on national security issues for many decades, and we are privileged to have them in the country, we are privileged to have them here today. i would first like to introduce governor ridge, and later on, senator joe lieberman, cochairman of the panel. let's start with governor ridge who served as governor for quite a long time and the first secretary of homeland security and has spent the last couple of decades going with the issues of terrorism, national security, and most recently, bio defense. joe lieberman. [applause] : thank you michael for the very kind introduction. we are glad you are here.
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think you for taking the time. michael, i do want to say, the is thankfulpanel for the strong participation. we relied heavily on professor alexander throughout the year. on behalf of all of our panel members, we are grateful that we can continue to maintain our relationship as a go forward. ladies and gentlemen, senator lieberman and were asked to cochair the panel. we did not want to write just one more washington report. we insisted that the one it -- -- we made a very specific recommendations to the congress of the united states. i am grateful to be here with my and look forward to
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working with the institute as we take these recommendations and hopefully convince the congress of united states how serious it is. i don't know how many of you figure that when you showed up today, you would have is great briefing from general -- from the general regarding the connecticut threat of terrorism. we all know there is a digital thread. -- we al there is a world of bioterrorism. it is one of the lesser discussed aspects of the terrorist threat. inquiry, notof just in washington dc, but around the united states, he concluded that the threat israel , it's growing, and quite frankly given the nature of the threat, we don't think the country is sufficiently prepared for it. one of the interesting , frankly, whether the
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byeat is stored at you mother nature, or a terrorist and thehe impact consequences are the same. whether you are doing with the zika virus, or a terrorist the -- or a terrorist threat, it is still the same. nature has already forcing us to deal with a great many infectious diseases. we all witnessed the event of the last two years as ebola ravaged three countries in western africa and across countries in europe.
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ladies and gentlemen, shortly after i accepted the opportunity to work with president bush, i -- obviously i drank to a fire hose, one of the briefings, included a passage that we should be concerned that if he fell into the hands of the terrorism -- terrorists, we would have to deal with it. one of those passages was ebola. you can draw your own conclusions that we thought it was serious enough been in 2000 in 2001. we have the infrastructure to respond as quickly as we did an 2014 and 2015. about sars. global a wealth of the community to become aware of this because it took a while for the authorities in china to let
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the world health organization know. avian influenza return to our poultry facilities in the midwest this year. now we have the news about the zika virus. congratulations a,nd it is admirable that the administration has recognized the need, understand that we have what we need to deal with it. hopefully, you have listened to some of our recommendations. i will let senator lieberman conclude. reflective -- is one of the purposes of the panel is to build an infrastructure internally both from a scientific technical point of view and a medical infrastructure point of view so that when these things happen, you don't necessarily -- scribble multiple agencies, in
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order to bring specific focus on a potential pathway. i don't think we should forget as well, the ever present danger from pandemic influenza. the rise of antibiotic resistant organisms, like drug resistant tuberculosis. let's not forget about the spread of disease syndromes like sars. the terrorist threat simmers quietly, but just as insidiously than ever before. the aspect of the bio threat, the combination of intent and capability, these biological weapons is pretty difficult to quantify. i think we can agree on that. it is an enormous challenge to collect intelligence on the development of bio weapons. how does our country, or any country, no whether someone working with pathogens in a laboratory, is working for the
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benefit of that community in the world, or to its detriment? if you -- it are some of the open source that's about the threat which you may be aware of . but it bears repeating. we know that al qaeda started to develop biological weapons. they lost a program in afghanistan to develop anthrax into a mass casualty weapon. the u.s. discovered evidence of that unsuccessful, or not fully realized program after our military entered. we know that i so has publicly expelled biological weapons -- publicly et isil has
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spoused biological weapons. syria iran, russia, and continue to engage in suspicious, dual-use for biological weapons and that we believe were in violation. cachets of old say programs cannot be accessed again. then smuggled to other regions for today's war by proxies that includes some of today's terrace. possessesat isil now what he means to get a biological weapons program going. infrastructure, like labs and manufacturing facilities. scientific expertise,
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professional military personnel who would know how to best apply the weapons. so, we believe this is part of the panel's discussion. we need to do a better job. the resources it needs to address the biological threats properly. frankly, our assessment of the believes the threat that the limited resources are far disproportionate in a negative way to garner the emphasis we need and have the community pay attention to biological threats. let me be very clear about something. even with intelligence on a fair nefarious intent, it takes a significant amount of knowledge in the institution of
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some sort of program is necessary for the execution of a mass casualty attack with a biological weapon. these are really large hurdles to jump over. it may explain why we have not seen a large-scale biological panel yet but our study and many of the experts that spoke with us in give us guidance, are concerned that as a biological -- as biological science becomes democratized and increasingly ubiquitous, these hurdles become easier to jump. still, our weaknesses in the bio intelligence precludes us from having situational awareness. we intend to work with congress on the upcoming intelligence authorization bill to realize the kinds of improvements the nation needs in supporting ic.
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finally, we are expressing concern reflected in the testimony of many groups and individuals who appeared before us. the interface involving between the digital world and the digital threat and the biological threat. experts told us at the united states -- the united states is not ready to address cyber threats that affect the biology the biology sector. we are not sure how well pathogen data are secured. our panel recommended the u.s. government in partnership with the private sector move quickly address thely to threat. we need a national strategy. and we pathogen data
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to secure the data as well. although we came up with 33 recommendations to help formalize the bile defense enterprise in this country, and to make it function more effectively, there was one -- proposal event at the epicenter of building a national strategy. let me say this. we identified over 50 political appointees who are given some narrow responsibility in the area of bio defense. you can well imagine the number of agencies that have as part of their jurisdiction responsibility. we have a multiplicity of people in agencies. perhaps you can understand our most basic recommendation.
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our formal proposal was at the vice president of the united states as a focal point for coordinating responsibilities. we need someone at the top who andget multiple departments multiple agencies together moving simultaneously in the same direction so we can make progress. matter of leadership, organization, and implementation. all things that americans are pretty good at. once we bring a focus to it with someone in charge to hold others accountable for the mission in executing a strategy we propose. we also made several other recommendations and support the vice president, including the members of both the private sector to build out a strategy upon which these recommendations
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would be implemented and execute the strategy in building infrastructure we think we need to identify the threat, built the infrastructure internally to in the eventecover that a terrorist or mother nature throws a contagion. i think my friend and colleague senator lieberman will take your aestions once he has had chance to share his thoughts as well. thank you very much. [applause] lieberman served 24 years in the u.s. senate, but awardsis many 100 anti-done declarations was an award from the potomac institute that recognize his leadership in policy done law derived from
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science, technology and rationalism. peoplehe academy of what say does not exist in washington anymore. working across the aisle anti-done getting things done. it is a real privilege to have him here today and igo privilege privilege to have him working on this. ladies indefinite, senator lieberman. lieberman: thank you. of all the awards that i have gotten from potomac is one i still have because it is a beautiful piece of wood work anti-done has a clock in it. work and has a clock in it. i got in political trouble back at home. all. you thank you, mike.
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foricularly thanks alexander for the support that they gave our bipartisan blue-ribbon panel. we could not have done it without you. -- general gray, thank you, too. also, secretary tom ridge. my work on this panel proves there is life after the u.s. senate. life be constructive and can be more bipartisan that anything happening on capitol hill today. a great pleasure to work with tom. i want to add a few points to .hat governor ridge said he covered it. it was about america's state of preparedness to detect, prevent,
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threat,ond to a bio whether it be from terrorists, or from nature. it is hard to look at the current state of terrorism in the world, particularly, with the coming of the islamic state, which seems to have built its and in a sense, popularity in a radical group, because it went beyond the standards of brutality. particularly with the beheadings. kneware not working as we -- al qaeda using biological weapons against us. presents prevents -- every day with the announcement president obama has made about ,esponding to the zika virus the increasing threat of a naturally occurring pathogenic
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bio threat to the u.s. and to people all over the world. this is a program about international cooperation. about international cooperation dealing with terrorism. i do want to seize the moment as the governor did and talk about international cooperation with regard to naturally occurring bio threats. one of the things that i have inwn before from my work homeland security, but really, learned a lot more on the panel, but also learned a new word that i am embarrassed that i have not known before. natic -- diseases that reach human beings through animals.
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we learned a lot about that subject and what i would call the generally prevalent, artificial separation between animals and antienvironment -- the environment. among the biological threats at the u.s. department of homeland security has issued a material threat determination, all of smallpox arefor zoonatic. the same is true for emerging infectious diseases. 20% of those into the human population via animals. i saw an article a while ago that started with a question -- what is the animal, or not human
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being, that has the deadliest effect on the human race? you can make a lot of guesses. it is the mosquito. this study i saw said the mosquito can be blamed for around theths a year globe. aviandge talked about influenza devastated parts of the poultry industry in our own midwest last year. birds -- 48 million million birds had to be euthanized. that doubled the price of eggs. billionpayers nearly $1 and reminded us that there were no vaccines available to prevent the spread of the disease.
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what is actually as alarming is how these diseases spread. avian influenza began in asia and was carried by migratory water fowl. it was able to spread to poultry. how it got to the united states and south america are fascinating questions. there is some theories to they meet in the arctic or antarctic and things like a spread the disease to bring it back to where they are. out for international
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cooperation. that individual countries can limit the spread of disease by applying public stealth and -- standards in immigration plans to stop people who show signs of the disease, ultimately that will not work. ultimately, the matter what your immigration policy is a wall, the mosquitoes are putting up the disease which really tell us data plan had to cut the incidents of these diseases. there was an expert who predicted that in the next two to three decades, and leslie, with better prevention devices measure -- medical
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countermeasures that at some point there would be an infectious disease pandemic. it would make as many as one billion people sick and would cost the world over $1 trillion. maybe trillions of dollars. we need international cooperation to work to prevent that, of course, from ever happening. let me focus quickly and go to two questions on international organizations that the u.s. and a lot of countries represented here are part of. one is the biological and toxin weapons convention, the so-called b.w.c., which has presented a lot of challenge to all of its signatories, given the dual use nature of much of the work done in the life sciences, it is difficult to verify that countries are not doing that work in support of an active biological weapons program.
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as opposed to more benign and constructive activities, including dealing with the threats that i have just described, the naturally occurring infectious diseases. you've got to recognize that is our -- as our panel did the difficulties inherent in establishing effective verification protocols. america's representatives to the b.w.c. have expressed that clearly, but just because verification is hard does not mean that we can in any sense disengage from this international process. we've got to keep trying to establish a verification protocol that makes sense and enables all nations of the world to differentiate between legitimate work and that used -- or being used to develop biological weapons.
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that from our point of view means that the united states must stay at the table, engaged with the rest of the world, to make progress on this problem. the second organization is obviously the world health organization, which has worked hard to maintain awareness of what i call global disease pathogenic surveillance.
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in other words, which diseases are where? and to alert the world when serious diseases appear and spread. but w.h.o. does not have the resources or capabilities to do it all. we've got a responsibility, our panel concluded, to lend our resources and expertise in the global disease surveillance endeavor. i understand the united states has participated sending c.d.c. personnel to work at w.h.o. headquarters in geneva. donating fund to the global outbreak alert and response network, and sharing a lot of the information that we get from our own disease surveillance efforts. i also know that the obama administration, fortunately, has placed a high priority on global health security. we've got to maintain and increase those efforts in our own self-interest and self-defense. let alone to protect the rest of the world.
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governor ridge talked about recommendations under action items in our report. we don't have time to even begin to describe those, but it's online. i urge you to go to that panel. i do want to say on a day when president obama, and i thank him, president obama, for announcing the $1.8 billion to take preventive and responsive action to the zika virus, on a day when he's announced that, that the finding of our panel was that the federal government is simply not coordinating the enormous number of efforts in this area of detection and response to biothreats. therefore -- while i'm grateful for the statement the president has made, i'm also concerned about whether this money will be used in a well coordinated and most cost-effective way for our government. that's why, as tom said, we recommended something unusual which is the office of the vice
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president be put in charge. to give it the power and clout of the white house and also to be able to coordinate what's going on. bottom line, bioterrorism, naturally occurring infectious diseases, are a clear and present danger in our time. that is growing. and we concluded that our response to that threat is not growing as fast. we need to pick up the pace and to go to the topic of today we will do it best if the nations of the world are working together to meet this challenge,
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which is to all of our citizens. thank you very much. [applause\] mike: some questions for governor ridge and senator lieberman? >> nature of diseases, there's been incredible progress in the ability to analyze massive quantities of data that would be necessary in order to detect early naturally occurring diseases as well as people trying to create bad things, and this type of data would include things like social media data, hipaa protected data, it includes financial transactions of all sorts, so where there has not been any significant progress as far as i could tell, isn't gaining access to that kind of data. so my question to you is, have you guys done anything or looked at anything to provide access to that kind of data to the researchers and the practitioners who need to use it? >> let me try to respond because i thinks think it's germane. first of all there is disparate data all over the united states with regard to zoonotic diseases, but unlike personal
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health and requirements, there's not a national registry of animal health diseases. governor ridge: you might want to start with the basic. we don't have basic information to give to you with regard to a reporting requirement either from the department of agriculture, department of the interior. one of our recommendations clearly if you're looking to build a one held concept, people, animals, and environment you better accumulate the data. one, we have to have -- meet that responsibility in the united states as well. secondly, engaging the broader global community to share with us timely and relevant information to the w.t.o. or whenever the mechanism is. we have to be re-engaged in the global community in order to develop both access and credibility that we are interested in being a leader in this space.
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we have kind of pulled back from that over the past several years. it's not incriminating anybody. we have to be more engaged if we want to gather that data. finally, we made very specific recommendations that the intelligence community is focused on the kinetic threat, digital threat. spend a lot of time and resources, too many people using whatever capabilities we have to
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determine both intent and capability of other countries, nation states out there, as well as terrorist organizations to see where they are in the development of a biothreat. your question is germane. it's the heart of several basic recommendations we made to congress. >> so what about the legal and policy problems. even if the data, you knew where it was, you still can't look at it. it's enormous. senator lieberman: because it's classified? >> it could be hipaa protected. it could be just ordinary social media data, which the united states government is not allowed to look at on a large scale. it could be financial transactions of all sorts. purchases of different types, movements of different kinds of materials. we know where the data is. we know how to get it. we are simply not allowed access to it because of legal and policy problems and that's preventing us from doing anything really useful.
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senator lieberman: i must say we didn't directly focus on that. it's a good question. if you have any answers to it, you should -- i'd welcome that response. i would say this is part of the lack of coordination of the whole counter biological threat apparatus in our government. i'll give you an example. it's not directly on point but it will tell you what the problem is. we estimated, we found estimates that the government, federal government, is spending $5 billion to $6 billion a year to counter the biological threat of the two kinds we talked about, but we didn't get that from the federal government. we got it from a university group. i think it was university of pittsburgh. the federal government has no unified budget in this area. that's one of the things we have asked the vice president to do if we can get him authorized to do it. i got to tell you, i build on everything that governor ridge said, maybe this is one -- it's not easy. as you know some information just -- it's hard to share, but it's in everybody's interest to make as much of this available as possible. now if you have left you can go on social media that stuff -- that's ridiculous, isn't it?
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>> it is. for example, i was at a meeting the intelligence community organization, and i was on a panel about open source intelligence. and i made the observation, i said, you know, isis, the russians, chinese, everybody in the world has complete access to public u.s. social media data except the united states government. what's wrong with that picture? senator lieberman: a lot. good point. >> colin egee with the united states army, we haven't forgotten governor ridge is one of our veterans from vietnam. didn't realize until i read your bio, you went back in the bid middle of law school and finished. that's unusual. the question i have is about asking if you looked at the genetic aspects of bioterrorism and the prospect that some nefarious actor could manipulate a disease such that our existing vaccines and treatments were ineffective? senator lieberman: it's a real
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danger, but the nature manipulates the threat regularly. we don't know that the next -- by the end of the avian flu outbreak last year that killed of course people, killed almost 50 million birds in the u.s., chickens mostly, a vaccine was developed. the experts told us we don't have any confidence that that's going to be adequate to meet the next avian influenza outbreak. this is not simple but we have to figure out a way to coordinate our efforts better. we seem to be somewhat lucky in the sense that some of the work that was done on previous viruses may help us at least expedite the medical counter measures to the zika virus.
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what you're saying is a real threat. if nature can do it, people can do it, too. governor ridge: one of the major deficiencies we believe exists within the multiple pieces of this infrastructure, and the senator and i are very aware of washington's a siloed-based operation, first thing you need to do is get the silos, other times you need to build new capabilities in addition to the ones you have, is that there is no permanent it infrastructure to take research capability, immediately to focus on a pathogen that suddenly appears not only in the united states but elsewhere.
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mother nature can change the genetics. we see that with the pandemic. mother nature does it all the time. with the democratization of science and more and more information out there about how you can -- since so many of these diseases are zoonotic in origin, the notion that somehow we will be fairly risk free because nobody's going to get access to that information, that's saying that they secure it by a digital breach, which they could do. and we are very concerned about the pathogen data and some universities to make sure they have raised their level of cybersecurities, we don't have a infrastructure. we have no capability internally to devote resources and intellectual capital to finding an antidote, counter measure.
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again, one of the recommendations we make, we suspect even if we could get the vice president to accept that responsibility, build out a strategy, that would be a substantial improvement. right now it's transactional, ad hoc. i thank the president, $1.8 billion, where's it going? who is going to coordinate it? they'll be responding to the threat rather than having a permanent infrastructure that says ok, we haven't seen it before, but there's enough information out there, how do we identify the counter measure? do we have a surge manufacturing capability to deal with it? we don't have that. we are going to need that in the future. senator lieberman: we spent a fair amount of time on this, which is -- there have been efforts, barda and other programs, that have been established that have aimed at creating public-private partnerships, particularly with the pharmaceutical industry, but the academic community, to give us the capacity to quickly respond, ideally to be ready before there is an outbreak with a vaccine or a treatment. some good work has been done under barda, but i worry -- i know that the naturally occurring infectious diseases are -- they are ahead of us. we are not ahead of them. of course i worry that the terrorists are as well. it's not easy to draw the
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incredible capability of the -- for instance, the pharmaceutical industry into this, without incentives and subsidies. there's not a given market for a vaccine they developed because we all hope and pray that an outbreak doesn't occur. we got to find better ways. we made some recommendations in our report about how to do that. the ideal is that we would be ready, in a sense, on the shelf when one of the naturally occurring diseases, or god forbid, a terrorist attack occurred, to be able to respond and stop it and treat people. >> hi, ron taylor. for senator ridge, i have the honor of working with you in the
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early days when you were in the white house and when you became secretary, not senator, secretary of homeland security. that was my honor there. for senator lieberman, i always enjoyed our collaboration because i worked in science and technology at d.h.s. i enjoyed our collaboration. collaboration with your staff. and i got to understand your
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rationale totally through the many questions that came my way, either formally, informally, written, unwritten. wow, what a thrill to get to ask you a question. it's his question. senator lieberman: usually when this happens on the senate floor, one of the colleagues would say, my colleague from connecticut, really one of the finest people i have served with, and i so admire his position on many issues. but -- on this issue -- >> anyway. the question really is for both of you. you both have touched on it. i have gone on, i work now internationally. i'm with george washington university cyber and homeland security, senior fellow there. i stay in the business and stay alert to the problems that you-all have discussed. for me, the issue is about safety, security, and prosperity. ensuring that for the nation. i was once a director of a study that was called making the nation safer. the role of science and technology encountering terrorism. i very much appreciate, senator lieberman, the comments about the science base, because a lot of the solutions and a lot of the problems are mixed up together in what scientists do. so we have to keep track of that, and they have to participate. really yet i have, and i think that the solution is, what is the role of the private sector?
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you can throw academic in there if you want, but it really is the private sector. i have heard you talk about the strategy with the government. and i have heard you talk about incentives. i'd like to hear a little bit more about that because i think the strategy with the government, maybe it's too slow. the threats are too fast across not just bio but other, particularly when you mix in information technology with bio. how do we get the private sector to stand up for its -- to stand up for any responsibility it has and sharing some of this information that it owns that can be of use? when we need information we go to the private sector often and get it from people as opposed to the federal government. senator lieberman: let me start, and i -- we are lacking in this. we are living in an age of miraculous progress in so many areas of human life based on
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information technology, the advance in the biological sciences has been extraordinary. we are all living longer on the average as a result of what pharmaceutical industry and medicine are able to do to help us. but we are not adequately harnessing the -- what's out there for this public purpose. part of it is a lot of the companies that -- the companies that are doing some of the extraordinary work are profit making companies. they are accountable to their shareholders.
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they are likely to invest more money, obviously, in something that has a mass market than significant -- than something that is going to be on the shelf for a disease, outbreak, pandemic that has not occurred. we looked at different -- barda has tried some incentives. we looked at different incentives. one of them that we looked at is, for instance, would give them essentially not exactly a free pass but quick pass-through the f.d.a. in a case where they are dealing with a current threat and they have a response to it. we have haven't reached the depths how to do this yet, but we have proven our capability as not only a society but a global society to do things that supposed to be impossible not so long ago. so do i think we can come up with medical counter measures that can both prevent through vaccinations and treatment, both biological terrorist attack and naturally occurring infectious disease? i do. but we haven't organized ourselves to make that happen yet.
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governor ridge: you take a look, get awe copy of the report, there are four or five elements to t we want barda to take a contracting authority to go back to barda. we think that will expedite it. we understand in our -- you have to do more with funding, hospital preparedness. we speak broadly about incentives to the private sector. it's pretty difficult to convince any company, anybody in phrma, to take on massive expenditures on their own for a potential market. we want them to build medical counter measures. frankly, we look at the existing counter measures. we know they have search capacity for that. some should be shifted into
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innovation, some to the private sector to be more innovative rather than cranking out additional counter measures. there are very specific recommendations. we want to streamline the process of contracting. we want to create with the collaboration of the phrmas, talk to them about the kind of incentives they need to take the collaborative investments with the federal government. you're going to have to pay for the counter measures if we preposition around the country? taxpayers. it's not like you go to your doctor and write out a prescription for a medical counter measure in the event of an emergency. that's all focused in the report. we think particularly if we have someone like the vice president making those very specific recommendations, we would like to think at the end of the day find bipartisan support for encouraging the private sector. we don't have the capability to build counter measures in the federal government. figure out a way to incentivize the private sector to do it.
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>> thank you very much for both your presentation and for answering the questions. as was noted earlier, the blue ribbon panel on bioterrorism will continue on for the next year. mike progress is being made, but there's quite a bit more left to do. hopefully the co-chairman will come back next year and give us an update. hopefully much more will be done by then. with that we need to turn to our international partners, a couple of whom have joined us today. our effort as been noted by our distinguished panelists, terrorism and all the aspects of terrorism, are a human and international problem not a foreign -- not a domestic problem per se. it's a problem for all of us. the international center for terrorism studies led by professor alexander has been partnered with international academics and organizations and governments for quite some time, and it has been our annual tradition to have some of our partners here to discuss their views and actions on terrorism over this past year. i'd like to now turn the forum over to professor alexander who will introduce our two
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distinguished speakers today from jordan and sri lanka. professor. professor alexander: thank you very much, mike. as you indicated clearly the work of the academic community cannot be conducted without international cooperation. fortunately for decades we had the opportunity to work with international organizations like the united nations, the european union, and specific countries as you mentioned. i'd like specifically to recall the many contributions in this particular field in terms of identifying terrorists, what are the root causes, what is the outlook for modus operandi, both on the conventional and finally what's going to -- strategist can be developed.
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i would like to recognize and acknowledge specifically the role of nato and nato centers of excellence. for example, in turkey, in ankara, and the partnership for peace, as well as specific countries such as jordan. and again the contribution of jordan well-known in terms of advancing the cause of peace and stability in the middle east. the peace treaty with israel, for example. and also the role of king abdullah who, after 9/11, we
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should not forget that he mentioned that what "this people, those perpetrators of 9/11," completely against the wishes, the thinking, the principles of the arabs in the muslim countries. with this introduction, i would like to invite our next speaker. you have his bio right here in terms of his academic role. it's a very long list of academic achievements. in the field of technology, for example. mechanical engineering. he was educated in the united states and the u.k. and major general engineer, i would say dr. omar will make some presentation and answer a few questions.
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>> thank you very much. i would like to say a few words before i begin my presentation. i'm very, very honored, honestly, very, very honored to be speaking in such distinguished organization, as well as alongside with this distinguished panel. i would like to thank the audience for bearing with me for the next 10, 15 minutes. if i carry on, please stop me.
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this is the history of our area. the home of the three great religious, plus, of course, civilizations that have existed for thousands of years. and those religions have always complemented each other. judaism, christianity, and islam. started along like that. and whatever that came out from that area, has always been the product of either that culture or the integration of these religions. in the so many centuries ago, the -- anything that happened in that area that was related to those religions, it's always been a fact, very well-known fact, that people have actually used that. but the fact is that these
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religions, they complement each other. they talk about same values. exactly the same values. none of these religions, they will say, will harm somebody. none of them. not islam, not judaism, not christianity. in fact, in the last maybe 100 years, 70 to 100 years, it was elaborated more and more on these own religion that has become what i do, it's because i'm a muslim or because i'm so and so. so i think that in the last maybe 30 or 40 years we have discovered that certain groups from all over the world, not just from our area, from all over the world, that views islam
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to dwell on all that is jihad, that is this, that is that. when we know very, very well, because muslims like his message stay -- majesty abdullah said, when i grew up, i group in a community, wherefore we see each other. the jewish people like the muslims, we always start with salam, which is the same in both religions. which means that fairs of all, before we start, before we see anybody, you wish them peace. these organizations they forgot that. and they have used islam in order to become -- or to give certain achievements, and most of it was, of course, against islam. in the last 20 years, they have used that and we knew that al qaeda were a terrorist organization.
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purely terrorist organization. people started to know that through the -- the way that they finance themselves. the way that they got themselves or had the resources drawn from certain things, lots of people in our area, they knew that it was against islam, and then al qaeda, as they started, they started to surface. the people started to know it is -- it has absolutely nothing to do with religion. now if i talk, the last thing i would like to talk about daesh,
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i would like to quote her excellency, theresa may, when she said isis, iraq, and syria, islamic state, or islamic state in syria and iraq, it's not islam. it's not islamic, and it's not a state. which is true. it is true that it isn't a state. and it isn't islamic at all. if we talk about daesh, what i would like here, don't want to repeat what the general said, thank him for his keynote speech, i would not like to repeat what he said, i would like to complement. daesh have always, always managed to go to things and think of two things and elaborate on two things. the physical entity of daesh and ideology. the physical entity, which we know from jordan and from our intelligence, with the help of the several organizations, that there always, always have support from somewhere.
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they cannot exist on just what we have. they must have logistics. i did my ph.d. in logistics. they must have had some very, very powerful and strong and very, very deep logistic support from somewhere. and the problem is that they still do. so that is something to do with their physicality with whatever they are doing at the moment. the most important issue for us, whether it is here in the united states or in our area, is the ideology that they are using. the ideology that they are implementing in order to radicalize people. the guy in california, i can't imagine that such a person with nice wife, nice home, nice job, and he does something like that. when the bombings in london in 2005, i was there.
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i was stationed at the embassy of jordan in london, the four people that -- the perpetrators, criminals, whatever we want to call them, you can call them anything, these guys, they were very nice people, very good people. so the problem is how do we go from here? how do we look at ideology and look at it from the point of view where how can we counter that ideology? communication is very, very opened for everybody. social media is very open for everybody. transportation now -- in europe you can get into your car from glasgow and you end up in berlin or whatever. with nobody asking you whether you go or coming from. communication as well as transportation, social media,
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and the vulnerability of the muslims that we in our area thinking that, you know, they are jihaddis, this, that. there is no such thing. we all started to realize that these guys, they are actually implementing their policies and their strategies on how vulnerable we are when it comes to ideology. the last thing i would like to say is that in jordan we have suffered so many conflicts in our area. the problem is that we had no interest in any of these conflicts. if i talk about now -- if i talk about development, social development, scientific development, any kind of development, we have always talked about, we have always studied whether here in the states or america or wherever, you always have short-term and long-term plans. in jordan, we have never been able to have a long plan development.
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i'll tell you why. in 1916, there was a conflict. in 1926, there was a conflict. 1936, 1946, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1991, 2003, 2011. each and every 10 years period we always had to come up against something that was actually thrown at us. now we have 1.5 million syrians. everybody talks about syrians. we have 1.5 million syrians that is about twice, according to -- could be as much as three times as europe had in the last three or four years.
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we have iraqis, we have egyptians, we have yemenis. we started in 1948 with 200-- we started in 1948 with 2.5 million people. now, in 1967 we five million or six million. now we are about 10 million people. education, health care, economy. everything. housing, when i went to buy my apartment in 1982, it was about 21,000 j.d.s which is about $25,000 dollars. my son last year, he bought his apartment for $130,000. j.d.s. and all of that was implemented with jordanian. the king last week said in london that 25% of our budget was to refugees. 25%.
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imagine that. that is a lot. i would like to finish with saying that we have had a wonderful relationship. magnificent relationship with both the government of the united states as well as the people of the united states, and we still having a wonderful let's say period where we are working with each other. we are trying to implement peace over there. we have a wonderful relationship with our neighbors. and excellent relationship with our neighbors. and hopefully in the very near future we would like to think that that region will have a peaceful time where our children and grandchildren live in peace like they live here in the states, like they live in europe. thank you very much. [applause]
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? any questions, please? >> how would you say the u.s. could help jordan became an even more effective partner in the war against terrorism? what could the u.s. do that it is not doing to help jordan be more effective? if you had a wish list. maj. gen. al khaldi: first of all, as a soldier, i would like to think that the united states has done its share towards jordan tremendously in the last 50 years we have done a lot together. and we have always, always experienced that support from the united states. but to answer your question, we know that terrorism is our common enemy. funny enough, if i count now you would be amazed of the syrians, the russians, the saudis, iranians, the americans, the jordanians, the israelis,
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everybody think that daeish is bad. how much are we doing to try to get rid of daesh? this is something that we have always, always talked to our neighbors, talked to the people that have always supported us. the united states in particular, what we would like, the united states to do now, is to be and to stand as they stood before against tyrants, against dictators, and hopefully jordan will benefit from that because we in jordan, we have always, always thought that peace is the only way for social development and economic development and eventually providing goodness for our children and grandchildren and our generations to come. >> thank you very much, major. i'm presenting in washington and am very pleased to be here today as a newcomer. major, i'm very aware of what
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you are saying and everything is clear to me. thank you for clarification. but to say the role of the arab league in cairo and washington, i would like to answer the question of what is role of the united states to combat the terrorism? i think international coalition is very well-known. most of our countries are joining the international coalition against daesh and other type of terrorism. so we are all agreed that daesh or al qaeda has nothing to do with islam and they are very extremist and very barbarian and barbaric attacks affecting us as a muslim, thank you very much.
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maj. gen. al khaldi: thank you very much for that. when i see something like that, this is very, very nice. each and every single word that was written in here is chosen very, very carefully and very, very nicely. but the first thing that you see there, islamic. and we are muslims, christians, jewish from such an organization. this organization was collected from criminals. we know that. everybody knows that. they were originally criminal but very clever criminals. they used social media. they used lots of knowledge about communication.
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and they started to employ people into their schemes, but they have absolutely nothing to do with islam. you are 100%. >> i appreciate your candor. most americans if they pay attention to the relationship we have had with jordan appreciate the strength of that relationship. and there's so much discussion about the impact of refugees on europe, i'm glad you brought it up. governor ridge: it's a disproportionate impact to one of our strongest allies in the region, and that's jordan.
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until somebody understands or deals with the instability in syria and elsewhere that generated the refugee problem, we are still going to be dealing with the consequences of instability. that's a separate discussion. i'm very curious as to the kind of support, financial support you are get interesting other countries in the region, the kind of support you are getting from the united nations, the disproportionate burden of refugees, in my judgment, because of the failure of the global community to deal with the crisis in syria and the genocide that's going on in syria, has fallen on the government and the people of jordan. would you lay out for everybody here what the rest of the world is doing to support your efforts? you didn't cause t the rest of the world has ignored it. what's the world doing to help you? maj. gen. al khaldi: i would
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really, really like to very, very much thank you for such a statement. i'm not a politician i'm a soldier. normally i speak from my knowledge as a soldier. and to talk about politics and things like that we don't -- i don't. it's very, very valid point that jordan is paying a lot. you are listening to his majesty, you are listening to me. you are listening to lots of people who come here and talk or go to europe and talk, but there are millions of people who are actually affected by this crisis in refugees as well as in security. at the moment jordan is with the help of our allies, especially the united states, i would like to thank each and every single state that have actually contributed towards our stability, which is now very, very vital, it's very, very important. but the problem is that we are crying out loud that jordan cannot withstand that pressure anymore. jordan is crying for help. it's not just a matter of 300 million or 400 million that is going towards new mission and f-16's or something like that. what we would like is that we would like the people of jordan that have actually expressed
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themselves when the syrians started to come in, i was on duty and i knew exactly how people felt, lots of people they have actually accommodated them into their homes. they did not wait for us -- help from the government or the united nations. what we would like to see is that our allies from everywhere, not just from the united states, the united states, like i said, i have been a soldier for about 60 years. always a time, we have always, always experienced that magnificent support from the united states. the problem is that we would like the arab league, it's very, very important, the gulf countries, as well as europe to do more. more, not just for the war machine, but as well as for the people of jordan to try to support that conflict, which is -- it's coming out, it's getting out and becoming bigger than the government of jordan. thank you very much. thank you.
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[applause] professor alexander: thank you very much, general, for your insights. i think issues that you raised and the challenge to jordan now on the human level as well as security. just a footnote i want to mention i think the definition of bankruptcy that we are struggling with economically as well as policymakers for many decades, one of them, as i mentioned, the definition of that you raised about the so-called islamic state, and i think, again, it is really fundamental to say that we cannot attribute terrorism and violence to any particular country, any particular vision, any particular religion. no question about this.
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i fully agree with you that we do have common ground of islam and judaism and christianity. if we save one life it is as if we save the entire world. the point i'm making is that i think we have to focus on what the so-called islamic state is. and i fully agree it's not islamic, it's not a state. but they attribute at least the so-called, they declared the caliphate and certainly the muslim world, to provide some guidance. but at any rate this is an issue for some other, i think, seminars or discussions in the future.
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now, let me move on to our families today. i think it is rather very significant to talk about a different kind of support and combating terrorism for many decades and the experience of sri lanka. with great sadness i would like to report to you that a former foreign minister of sri lanka who spoke at our seminar right here at the potomac and elsewhere, he was assassinated by the extremist, and sacrificed himself on the altar of peace.
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we see, of course, we know other leaders as well. we know the story of. as far as sri lanka goes, i think it is important to have some historical perspective. from someone who spent decades as a historian to deal with identity crisis, for example, security and peace issues. the deputy chief of the embassy of sri lanka is uniquely qualified to deal with this issue with both sri lanka, and canada, for many, many decades. he has a role of both a diplomat and historian and academic.
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i asked him to share with us some of his insights related to the history modus operandi for example. as well as how to end insurgency and waves of terrorism in his country. perhaps this would be a lesson for some other nations to follow. >> thank you very much, professor alexander. first, may i ask your indulgence to say it is a great privilege and honor for me to be here. i'm particularly grateful for
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giving me this opportunity to sit on the panel of distinguished scholars. with that said i must state that i'm here not as the sri lankan embassy but scholar who has studied the conflict for years. the diplomatic mantle that i'm wearing is very new. i am more comfortable in the academic cloak i have been wearing for nearly four decades.
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as a historian, prospect is keith to track future prospects from this perspective, terrorism is highly relevant to the discussion today. carried out an armed struggle for nearly 30 years. it was long considered the most well organized terrorist group in the world. with a sizable suicide squad of a sort, in addition to having -- finally, the sri lankan forces were able to militarily defeat the l.t.d. in may, 2009. after seven years we should be able to review there is some
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amount of terrorism in sri lanka in order to draw lessons to avoid the recurrence of this types of episodes. what other political and strategic messages that the military defeat of l.t.d. sent to the world? can the collapse of l.t.d. explain in temples military strategy effectiveness? these issues i intend to address. first, i intend to analyze the political anatomy of the l.t.d. then i will address the factors and conditions that contributed to the outcome of the conflict. finally, i will -- primarily l.t.d. was a terrorist organization. militaristic, well planned assassinations remain a key tool
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and hallmark of the l.t.d. party behavior. the political driving force of the l.t.d. was nationalism. hence without reading the politics of the l.t.d. it is not possible to analyze its character. ultimate objective of the use of terror was to separate the state for the people in sri lanka. in order to understand this militant face of nationalism that the l.t.d. represented, it is necessary to project it in the singular nationalism since independence. there was a symbiotic relationship here. furthermore, the structure of
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crisis of the post colonial state in sri lanka and the reaction of the state, dissident -- another key feature -- the dissenting view was severely -- strategy always took precedent over the political strategy. dte nationalism of the ltt presented -- prevented from having political dialogue with the south.
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defeat of ldt has been analyzed from different perspectives. a number of factors were militaryd with strategic factors given primacy. the role of the political and military leadership of sri lan effective strategy of the sri lankan forces and their dedication, and the newly -- the impactower of the democratic changes in the north, and the changes after 9/11 were given attention. discounting the validity of these factors.
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my argument is that it cannot be adequately explained only in terms of military, strategic factors. its organization was fraught with a number of flaws. to -- however, it suffered from amber of organizational and conceptual with this -- from a there was no room for discussion.
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the authoritarian character and leadership called deprived of the means of feeling the true faults of the people living under control. in the final day of war, atp planned a human shield. but failed to present a further democratic agenda to restructure the sri lankan state. ltd did not want to change its political objective and military strategy to settle for a solution.
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the terrorist faced rather than that of the fighters was illustrated more and more by the nihilistic fascination of individuals. political crisis of the postcolonial state in sri lanka and the failure to address tamil'ses of tamil, -- authoritarian character of the organization couples with a failure to compromise on any political solution other than separate states.
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the emergence and collapse of highlighted the plight of the people in the north for democracy, justice, human rights, good governance, and accountability. lesson that can be derived from military defeat of ltt is the need to bring democratic political reforms to the forefront of political agenda. thank you. [applause] we have time for one or two questions. let me ask you a question, in terms of the role of diaspora, , in termsf propaganda
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of support of extremism and violence in sri lanka. is diverse. it normally we have mainly two kinds of diaspora. even tamil diaspora, there are various threads. ltt wanted tod, maintain widespread thernational network, using in order to the .etwork
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through the passage of time, the more diaspora became much divided and there are many forces. areai lanka, in north there was no timid craddick space. here with the passage of time, democratic political space emerged within the ds bora. the diaspora view the extremism of the other. therefore they wanted to counter. to find a solution, we have to defeat both extremism's ltthe diaspora as the .iaspora thank you very much.
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>> as usual, i'm invited to say something when the program is over and late. i want to thank our distinguished panelists for joining us today. it is a privilege to have you aboard and listen to your sage advice on where we are at. this biogood update in study on the future and where we are headed. we are on the right track. let me say from a personal standpoint, i want to thank you and your country for all that you quietly did during the iraqi conflict and the like. inr knowledge and experience the region, your understanding of the sunni tribes, understanding of matters in economics saved a lot of
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economic lives. [applause] some people don't know just how many years you have and how diverse your capabilities are with respect to study and bringing peace and working to that end. not just in our great country and the like, but you are well known in japan, well known in india,ia, well known in and well-known here. thank you for joining us as well. thank you all for joining us. there is hope. i'm an internal optimist. therefore you will have to suffer with me here. inare going to be successful all these endeavors because we are building the right kind of teamwork, the right kind of partnerships around the world. we are doing the right kind of
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things in many places and we understand it is not just a military thing. a is an economic challenge, political challenge, a societal challenge, a technology challenge, and again, we've got to make sure that the people who are right now supporting this and the rest, these people need to understand that isis and what they stand for is going to get beaten. once you beat them, the people are going to leave them. that's the way it happened with the former soviet union and that's the way it's going to happen in the future. thank you all very much. [applause] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] republican presidential
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candidate ohio governor john kasich tweeted this afternoon that he is preparing for tonight's candidates debate in greenville, south carolina. reports theed press governor's second-place finish in the new hampshire primary as moved him into contention. his challenge now is to use the exposure of the debate to build a campaign in south carolina. tonight all of the republican presidential candidates are in greenville, south carolina for the debate. that will be live on cbs. if you miss that debate or want to see it again, watch it tomorrow at 4:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. >> this presidents' day weekend, booktv has two days of nonfiction books and authors on c-span2. here are some programs to watch out for. sunday night at 9:00 eastern, a criminologist tracks the factors behind the surge and down surge in violent crime in america in the 1960's through 21st century.
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the seniorviewed by advisor for the policy group at the urban institute. >> we had this demographic all chapter the war when the soldiers came home, given the prosperity of the country, we had many people marrying and having children, having families, and these children, the baby boom generation, reached their most crooner genic years in the late 60's. and the early 1970's. "geek heresy, rescuing social change from the cult of technology." solvesechnology sometime troubling problems, it is not the main driver of progress. watch booktv all weekend, every weekend, on c-span2. television for serious readers. a


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