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tv   Discussion Focuses on Civility in Election Discourse  CSPAN  October 28, 2016 11:00am-11:56am EDT

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if you do lose, what will you do over the next year or so? sen. ayotte: one thing i will do is sit down with my husband and my children, figure out what i will do next. i will probably spend time with them first. gov. hassan: this is about the people of new hampshire working together to build a stronger and more vibrant and more inclusive economy based on good economics. paul: candidates, thank you so much. keke: time for our closing statements. again andn: thank you everybody viewing. i talked about my dad who was a world war ii veteran who fought in the battle of the bulge and was not unusual for him to look at us and ask what we would do
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for freedom today. , byad and his generation believing and a cause greater than themselves, save the world from hibbler and built this country -- from hibbler debthitler have built this country to what it is. that's what i've tried to bring with my work. it's the spirit and perspective that shouldn't firm -- and form our work in -- that should inform our work in washington. we don't want a senator who puts special interests but you can have someone like myself who puts the people and small businesses first. keke: senator? --thanksan: thank you you at home for listening.
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i helped address our heroin epidemic and solutions i've working to help small businesses and make it easier to create good paying jobs or preserve medicare, make college and health care more affordable for our families. as the wife of a combat veteran, i am proud to support those who keep us safe in a dangerous world. our military and first responders, the men and women at the shipyards, there is more work to do. it will take someone who will stand up to both parties when they are taking else in the wrong direction and find common ground to work together to deliver results for our state. that's what i have done in the senate and that's why i'm running again. i ask for your vote on november 8 so we can continue the work we have started together for our great state. thank you both very much. that is it will stop if you
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missed part of this, you can watch the 10 -- you can watch it again by going to our website. to our viewers watching a new hampshire, we hope you found this informative. thank you for watching across the country as well. we are 12 days away from the election. we will be your campaign and quarters on election night. keke: thank you for watching, have a good night. host: [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] debate inrd and final the race for the new hampshire senate seat is coming up next week. we will have it for you wednesday, 9:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. we will take you live to the newseum in washington. they are gathering political journalists and academics to talk about political rhetoric and media coverage of the campaign.
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it's just getting underway live here on c-span. >> we are just 11 days away from election day. i look forward to a discussion with our panel. is to promote, defend, and explain free expression and the first amendment which guarantees our trout tradition of political discourse. includes respect and rationality. what is happening this campaign? by all accounts, it has been ugly. insults have been flung fast and furious in person and social media platforms. we have watched the debates and seen the stump speeches and heard the rhetoric on the campaign trail. donald trump and vice president joe biden challenge each other to a fistfight. discuss the state of civility in this presidential campaign and maybe walk away with ideas on how today's youth
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represented in this audience can revive the health of our democracy. we have a stellar panel this morning. hadas coles is a media reporter. she was an international reporting fellow on crisis reporting. rchers covers the blog the fix at the washington post. he was a political correspondent and a business reporter with the boston globe. alexander heffner is the host of the pbs series "open minds." bill miller is the senior vice president at business roundtable. outreach to capitol and the ministration on
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behalf of the association of chief executive officers of leading u.s. corporations. he has been an active supporter of no labels which is a national movement of democrats, republicans, and independence dedicated to a new politics of problem-solving. onlan is with franklin pierce university. his research is in deliberative ethics, democracy, and the teaching of philosophy. please welcome our panel. [applause] i thought i would go down the line. in's acknowledge that yes, civility has been around for a long time. what makes this year something truly different? thing, it has risen to the level of the candidates themselves. candidate in particular throws insults of the other
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candidate returns that and i think it's an ugly undercurrent that has probably only does always existed and is a minor portion of the population who feel as though they are now emboldened and can speak their minds on issues that for most of us we would not consider that the waynormal society some of these people speak. as a person who is a victim of some of that, it's a little bit arresting to witness this and realize its 2016 and some of these issues are still coming up over and over. it's not that the country has moved past day, it something we have to work on. >> to me it feels more personal. also more serious. i was thinking about contrast between this election and the last one. i was thinking about a story that we wrote when we were covering mitt romney stuff in boston.
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we went through old sec filings them are reporting that mitt in hishad stayed ownership and executive capacity of spain's capital longer than he said. bain capital. the campaign pushed back against it. a were not happy with the story and it felt like a game. it felt like they were going to the motions. you get a store you don't like and complain about it and move on all stop mitt romney did not call me scum or dishonest. he did not threaten to sue the boston globe. those are things we are getting in this campaign so that's what feels different. it's more serious and personal. we are not playing within the typical boundaries of that back and forth tween the press and the campaign. what they said is true and
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its unprecedented. i look at the incivility in terms of bigotry and obstructionism and the incivility of political correctness. perhaps thehat is most critical incivility which is the unprecedented inequality of wealth. instancesn many emboldened the candidacies of antiestablishment outsiders but it is that condition that is uncivil in its very essence of american life. from a media perspective, i think there has been a complicity, a kind of incensed in terms of the relationship with his bigotry that is perpetuated the norms we talked about shifting. the firstassaults on amendment, freedom of speech, assaults on civil discourse. an outlook that is
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bigoted, it i think it leads to of kind of -- a kind irreconcilable obstruction. we see this with the nature of politics broadly. i think this campaign speaks to incivility not just in terms of the candidates, in terms of the rhetoric they employ in the campaign trail -- it speaks to the obstruction we see with the u.s. supreme court nominee whom the senate refuses to hear or consider to listen to. it culminates in this kind of incivility of political correctness and a refusal to upset the status quo. the political correctness argument israel. i have visited many college campuses in the last two months. there are students who are fed up with the climate of political correctness but it does not give a license to engage in the kind --ad hominem assaults
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bigotry. ash secretary clinton said far as the basket of deplorables would look at exit poll surveys, we will see to what extent our body politic is uncivil and not just rhetoric in their actual behavior. it's that cycle i think is vicious and torturing not just this campaign but politics more broadly. myselfrtainly associate with the previous remarks but i would make a couple of observations. ignore theot elephant in the room and that is donald trump. he has caused the incivility to exist at this presidential level. if we had any number of other republicans running against hillary clinton, this would be probably a substance oriented campaign. it is not because of him. that's my first observation and my second is along the lines of
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what has created the opportunity for someone like mr. trump but also what has created the opportunity for the incivility? i have often thought that if you think back and look at the growth and birth of the occupy wall street movement and the tea party movement, they were both kind of driven by similar problems. it is this notion that politicians am a big business, big organizations are not listening to me. they are more concerned with themselves and therefore i want to do something extreme. itselftremism manifests both in the individual actions of individuals who created these movements and then politicians who have taken advantage of them and taken them to the four whether it be amount media, more fringe oriented media but then
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the individual candidates who see that restoration that truly does exist around this country and whether it's on the left with bernie sanders or in this --d of populist, natch nationalist xina phone like just xena phobic phobia from the donald trump campaign, these are real things happening in america and they really began -- i think it really began through the crash of 2008 and the aftermath but it has been going on for longer than that. i think about the incivility is in part an accumulation of issues that the american public has felt and i just have not had the proper outlet. in this campaign, they are looking at the proper outlet right or wrongly on the left with the bernie sanders campaign and on the republican side with the donald trump campaign who
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was willing to speak to their darker side. >> has incivility risen to dangerous levels this year? >> i think we see it at a different level that we have not seen before. oflso think as a culmination trends that we have seen developing for a long time. it has risen to the presidential level. one of thetor, consequences is i am having a harder time engaging my students and discussions about the election cycle. want to respect and i have my own position but i want to respect the political positions of my students. i don't quite know how to toe the line that i have in other election campaigns.
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ethicist, i am concerned that the incivility is callmining what i like to the ethical foundation of democracy which is not just a form of government. it's a form of government i think we want to have. going back to historical developments, i think democracy is an attempt to realize an idea that human beings can be self legislating and autonomous and free. if we don't listen to each other and it don't work our problems through together and it we're not willing to take people we disagreed seriously or calling them names, then we are not including the very people we need to include to fix the real problem that we have. of politics but the sense of governance and confidence and the ability to
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govern has challenges we are facing. the media'sou think role has been in covering this campaign in terms of -- it has been ratings for the debates. in -- is thereng any way that is contributing? because peoplelt look at the media and they say you should just be an objective deliverer of the news and you should not put it through a filter. on the other hand, people say no, you need to show us what is right and what is wrong ethically and whatnot. cnn saying that maybe we should not have put up all of his rallies so early on edited with no context.
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i remind people that the media to show this but the people of ultimately cast their vote. the media is not the one who votes. i hate to put us all in the same but in the beginning, they did not pay enough attention to bernie sanders for sure. they also did not pay enough attention to donald trump in the sense of him being a legitimate candidate representing something important in the republican -- but with the voters at large. they saw him as a joke candidate and they should have taken him seriously sooner. i have brought all these up in the past about donald trump's conduct with women and the 2005 tape in his tax returns --
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that's not's stuff that just materialized last month. that has been existing now for almost a decade in some cases and we just happened to have found them now. whether you think that's a conspiracy of the media, i don't believe that. ofelieve it's the symptom the media not taking him seriously from the beginning and not digging into his history like they could have been. how do you handle the vitriol that has been directed toward you. >> one of the challenges we have all felt is the media has a role disrupting the civil some ofe but it times, the decision-making power has been taken away from us. enquirernational reported on the slew of suppose it extramarital -- marital
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affairs that ted cruz had, for probably three or four days after that, almost everybody in the mainstream press totally ignored the story. i think most people said this was garbage and its unsubstantiated. surrogate named wasana cohen from boston live on cnn and was on with amanda carpenter, the former ted cruz director and on live television accuses her of eating one of the women. now been thrust into the conversation and is no avoiding it. what do you do? someone said this on live tv and to deny felt compelled the allegations. we feel we have to cover it. we have note choice.
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it, --e had responded to just because someone says something on tv, didn't donald trump also bring up the conspiracy? >> that's right. cruz father ased a jfk assassin. >> that's a different kind of innuendo. we have somewhat normalized the raunchy, sex innuendo but what has been normalized? they admitted to conflating the normalization of hate speech with an entertainment achievement potentially and that's what was so devastating with the media this cycle. representing public television, i have to say that our imperative has to be
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independence not just from a political campaign but from that profit incentive. taking the money out of the news division. i raise money for our funders as an independent production house as do dozens of pbs programs. that is fundamentally different in the architecture of how we do business which leads us to a more fruitful outcome when it comes to accountability and the media being accountable for the truth. democracyt contextual . there is nothing more important than the truth being the truth the last thing i would say with toxicity is it is leading to a kind of gerrymandering of our discourse.
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we think of gerrymandering as a structural flaw within our democracy that state legislatures are building and perpetuating partisan rule and abandoning free thought. the techt's really space and silicon valley that has to take more responsibility for importing a set of values into her modern communications apparatus whether it's facebook or twitter. i don't inc. there has been a firm enough acknowledgment on the heart of those organizations of the problem and the blueprint for charging a future whereby we can have free expression but don't have to tolerate the kind of hate that we have seen this campaign. that's something we can expound on, certainly. >> i mentioned no labels which the goal is to have elected officials reach across the aisle and get ink done.
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become so polarized as a nation and is there a scenario of that ending? the gerrymandering is an interesting way to think about it. some of the disruption and massive change that's taking place in the media industry is creating news for you. news for you is absolutely -- if you want a liberal viewpoint on your news, you can tune into msnbc or read the huffington post. if you want a conservative view on that, you can go to fox. or breitbart or red state. those sorts of things are media but- it is the it is the media for you and it is not really tolerant of other viewpoints.
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when you have a situation -- i sometime inorget the summer of 2015 in all the on ancameras were trained airstrip in alabama waiting for the donald trump plane to land. there is nothing substantive about it. the only thing related to it was they believed that would actually drive more eyeballs to see this. it -- envy anyone trying to run a media empire. is a way to think about the peace after the war first up --. this organization was founded by citizens and has been embraced by members of both hardee's in the house and the senate in terms of we now have over 60 members of congress who are
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say thatolvers, who when ronald reagan and tip o'neill worked together or ill clinton and newt gingrich, that there has to be a governing element to the individuals we send to washington whether it be the president, members of the senate or the house. there has been a very long and serious process of work to identify the issues where there can be common ground. culminate with the conference that will bring labor leaders and the conference that will bring labor leaders and him members of the house and governors to look at the agenda items that people can not check their ideology or philosophy but look at things that they can collaborate on. i want to get back to the point about fragmented media -- antop you wrote an si
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essay for the university. one question that intrigued me was where's the responsibility lie for our current state of political ineptitude? it's not strictly our political leaders. going back to the moral , itdation of democracy tries to embody a particular view of the human being as someone who can be self legislating, autonomous and free but that means the community has to come together to find common ground. you cannot pretend you're not a liberal or a conservative. if we just have civil discourse and it becomes polite, we are not having discourse at all. if we are not having discourse where real disagreements are aired and adjudicated, and it's
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not discourse. it's banter. thinking of that is the moral foundation of where democracy lies, it's of the people, by the people and for the people so where is the responsibility of the people not to listen to their own gerrymandered television station or what have you. it was interesting hearing from the journalist, the desire for object tivoli and the desire for truth. many people say if it agrees with me it's true. how can we go beyond that to understand that i need to recognize even though i disagree with you at a fundamental level that we probably share many values like security and safety and prosperity and education for our children. you express those in different ways. level fromtalk at a
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a shared understanding to what it means to be citizens of the united states to talk about not great writers but small steps toward better understanding and then working toward trying to make progress on many of the hard issues we face. >> if we are ever going to disagree to agree which is what we are saying, as opposed to accepting that we will agree to disagree and think of a different model, it just doesn't work. it's a dysfunctional system. if it's plausible, we have to that for this generation of millennials, twitter and facebook and arechat, formerly vine, analogues for public affairs in societies of the pleura for asian of the malicious activity causes you tone
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be fed information based on your friends and network. a lot of that leads to whichmony and a system in state legislatures, mark zuckerberg and basically the entire political system are insulating us. how we extricate ourselves rum this requires incentive building. in terms of civic education and how these organizations and websites are adopting new rules of the road. right now the give the impression that not only are we stigmatizing people fractured as a country but there is no possibility for unity. i didn't event yesterday and the western from the students were do you see that civil discourse could be foreseeable in the near future? no.said
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i think there is a huge void in terms of the media's necessity to bring together the fact checkers and those who were a new wave of activist/journalist design to fix problems. how has social media challenged your reporting or helped it? there is a great quotation that says a blog takes care of 300 million people. >> there are many dissertations written about social media and i can go on many different tangents. important fors how we do our reporting.
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alerts ander as my how i publicize the reporting and use them and how i interact with readers. i would like to ask the audience, how many are on twitter? ok, the front part which is older in the back part was not as much. trump made lewd comments, how many of you learned about it from watching cnn? raise your hand. nobody. how many learned on facebook? how many learned about it on twitter? how many learned about it on snapchat? how many of you learned about it from texts from your friend question mark it shows you that nobody learns about it from what we normally
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think of as traditional media. they probably saw it later. -- theder of gerrymandering of news matters but fewer and fewer people will aach out and go to breitbart.com or a huffington post.com. some people do but when you look at the percentage, it's less than 50% coming through the front page. more more people are coming through facebook, twitter and these are people who have big followings and will post a link. ellen puts a news story up on her feet, that's when you will likely see it. it's important because it speaks caree echo chamber that we about. sometimes that editors will write headlines because they know all this they know it will
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get more pick up on social media. when someone is yelling at you over a story, it's because of the headline, not because of the substance of the story itself. on the flipside of that, social media has made my life more difficult because not only is it .4/seven constantly streaming when i want to get anything done, i have to turn everything off. you can miss a worldwide event in such a short time. you can never escape it. the vitriol that comes from social media is astounding. i am jewish and was born in israel but someone had been posting pictures of me with a bullet hole through my head. ofy were sending me photos
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my face on bodies of holocaust victims. imagine getting that and trying to do your job and going to trump rallies. -- areists are feel full fearful for their safety and some are being escorted right police or secret service and that's because of social media and because of what gets built up in the storm of social media. you can see what happened to leslie jones from snl and a -- it causes people to leave social media and it makes it more difficult because we are trying to reach all of you to read our stories. we sometimes have to do that through the prism of social media. >> i learned about the access hollywood tape on the washington post mobile app. [laughter] get that out of the way. me,ar as social media, for
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twitter is a useful newsgathering too. in generally disappointed the ability of twitter to improve discourse between the press or trust between the press and readers. my style on twitter tends to be a one-way street. i disseminate my own stories and my colleagues work. a student from cornell yesterday reached out to me on twitter and wanted to ask me some questions. that can be easier but i -- one of the hopes or problems of twitter was that if we are more engaging with their audience and respond to them -- i have not
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found that communication to be the case. >> there appears to be a backlash. npr removed its comment section. knight foundation in partnership with the times and the post and firefox have an barked on some extremely work to improve the comment sections on websites so they reflect a kind of civil discussion that we should prize. that work is ongoing but there are no clear answers in terms of how those values will be adopted. in terms of facebook, they have unleased the monetization of hate groups by watching a video on facebook and there is often an advertisement and you can click that feature.
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an ad by will commence in the same monetization of advise on facebook lead to the most viral stories. they are absolutist, sometimes factual and sometimes not anti-clinton and anti-trump propaganda al. there has been an abdication of academic and civil participation on facebook and twitter which is irresponsible. we will get to audience questions in a moment. and youmicrophones here can raise your hand and they will come to you. talk to us about what you think the effect of the campaign will be on the first time voters and how many do we have in the audience today? wow. think the effect
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will be overall? -- if yout imagine are a first-time voter, that this is a time when you feel most proud about participating in our democracy. i would urge you to vote in the selection, recognize that not all of elections will be as ugly as this. there will actually be policy oriented elections that talk about different viewpoints based where individuals want to take the country. i think this one is devoid of what does the incivility mean and what does it mean when all of the shooting is done and the election is over and we have to go back question mark i spend my day job as a lobbyist and i work for 200 of
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the biggest ceos in america. almost all of them are american-born and almost all of them run multinational american-based companies and they want to see more jobs in the want to see more investment and they want to see a more competitive america but the risk reward dynamic for members of congress today does not work towards compromise in solution. whether it is the ceos of america or every individual who works for a company or want to see their children and grandchildren do better than them, they are hungry for solutions that members of are incentivized not to provide. the risk reward dynamic as it relates to the media and -- as aty is to republican, to compromise with the democrats in a way that ronald reagan would have said, i will take half a loaf to the --
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today and get the other half next week. that dynamic for each member of congress who can go on media and talk about how they were instrumental in blowing up the compromise, it would have been good for america. that is part of this perpetuating incivility where it's forefront during election time but when we move beyond election time, my hope is that all of you who have been disappointed with the lack of discourse around the future of america stay involved. we are going to have opportunities i think to bring people together and maybe have the radical center take the stage. >> you touched on your students earlier -- cycle, theelection
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personality and policy difference is the reason people are voting. that's not an illegitimate way to determine your vote. it's not unheard of in past presidential election cycles to say we are not having policy discussions. that has been repeated for most of my adult life. we are certainly not having it this time out. think it becomes a question of temperament and personality. that's with the bases of the boat will be. i worry about what's next. is a crisis moment, ametimes crisis moments allow deep inward look and a way of doing things differently where maybe the radical center will assert itself. we have headlines the past few
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days about stirrings of rebellion against the republican establishment represented by paul ryan. i don't know what that means. i don't know frankly if donald to thes an anomaly nature of our political discourse or that will become normalized. that worries me. but want to take questions normalizing political violence is relatively -- you had the river light -- the revolution in the civil war and the kkk and lynchings and we have been progressing and we seem to be regressing in terms of donald trump's endorsement of the kind of political violence which is transcending incendiary words
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allowscite behavior that a sitting congressman to say i will pick up my musket if my opponent wins. that is problematic. the musical hamilton popularized this me know about the caning. the new technology brings complications to this whether this is rampant but fundamentally with respect to millennials, the reason i think the incivility is important because in the most recent harvard survey that came out, clinton has retaken the lead in a substantial way more than president obama had. i think it's because millennials look at themselves in the mirror and see the kind of girl listing vision being put forward by the democratic candidates and that's their identity and donald trump is almost engaging in a dis-ownership of a modern
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american society. hear from you now so if you have a question, raise your hand. write a. the middle, is there a question? give the microphone to her. we are live on c-span. go ahead. >> i am from capital city. i'm a first-time voter and many of my friends save they will not vote because they don't believe in either candidate. what do you believe the negative affect that the lack of young voters has on this election? even up -- even if the support is greater among millennials, if the turnout is not enough, that can severely affect the vote. even if your friends do not believe either candidate, that can -- they should still vote to exercise their right to vote
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especially because for many years in this country, women were not allowed the right to vote and neither were minorities so exercising your vote is worth it. pay attention to the presidential election. if you don't like the way your school looks or the way your roads are paved or if you think there is too much trash in the street or you think your teacher should get paid more, you should vote because you need to vote for your local elections. the people who said on your city council and state legislature have way more power than you think. they are more likely to affect her everyday life and the president of the united states. the president of the united states cannot issue a bill that opens your school earlier so kids can have breakfast. superintendent or the city council or your state legislature can control that. you can leave the presidential box open if you want to.
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inyou can write yourself just to go there. don't vote for whoever is president will stop not voting is also voting because that's giving other people the vote. they might like donald trump a little more than hillary clinton. some might want to see what happens if he becomes president. that's fine, go vote. the act of voting is more important than who you vote for sometimes. >> over there we have a question. >> i prefer to remain anonymous. i'm a student from capital city. i would like to disregard the term millennial because it's unnecessary. i prefer people keep it serious.
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electing either presidential candidate is because most people are wondering how did we even get here in the first place. was presented as a joke at first but you noticed people were going to come to the man who speaks his mind. that issue is how people rally up. >> do we have a question? ask, how doike to in the upcoming election -- i feel like the next of meaninglesst -- the next four years will be utterly meaningless. i think secretary clinton has
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the opportunity to be a national healer in this campaign. she has demonstrated over the course of the debates her capacity to tolerate intolerance. donald trump's capacity to tolerate intolerance is not something she will stand for. governsstion of how she and she has to deal with divisions are own party as republicans have to do, there is no magic bullet in terms of executing domestic policy that would enable her to cross partisan lines well simultaneously giving a bone to the sanders voters. i dispute the idea that you have to like the person you're voting for. oprah said that comment about being likable and voters in new hampshire heard that. basis ofote in the ,emperament, character, policy
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like is not a strong enough word in terms of conviction in our democracy. >> as someone who spends a lot of time thinking about how we can put together packages to move the country forward from a legislative perspective, i think secretary clinton has an opportunity. i think there is a lot of political what i would call pent-up demand for action. her discussions around making investments in america and bridges and ports and upgrading america through that is a job creation opportunity that would be mirrored with making american workers better skilled and better prepared for all of the dislocation that is taking place because of globalization and technology and automation. there are people up on the hill, a lot of people and that's part of the reason i think no labels will provide an important
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backstop and backdrop for thinking through what those kind of things are where we can move forward. i think what we saw over the last eight years, one of the most important people in the obama administration in making these deals was joe biden. the reason he was important was because he was very well regarded by the senate colleagues where he spent so much time. secretary clinton spent a lot of time in the senate and she was well regarded. tim kaine is a well thought of person. i'm not suggesting that's the way the election will go but if that is the way it goes, there are opportunities including making some big deals that actually can help people. when people are helped, they will believe in the institution more. that is really important. >> another question right in the front. i am from franklin pierce
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university. what do you believe young people can do to bring civility and more of a policy argument back to presidential discourse and political discourse postelection and currently? >> let me turn the question around. what can institutions of education do to help develop that skill set? into theudents coming voting rolls? there have been a few plugs this evening. i will get my own in. at franklin pierce university, i am proud to be the interim director of civic life. there are similar centers around the country. it's to build capacity within be able to engage in
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difficult conversations with people they disagree with in ways that seek common ground and productively move a set of issues forward. my colleague is in the audience today at the end of last fall, she brought a group of students together to talk about school shootings and what to do about random gun violence in educational institutions. conversationf that was a moderated structure with a set of guidelines. the students recognized that franklin pierce perhaps do not have quite the policy they should have. given the circumstance of a shooter on campus. year, for that reason and other reasons, we are having workshops and figuring out what needs to be done.
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i think it goes to a couple of points. the presidential election is exciting and gets all the publicity but there are ways of being an active citizen throughout the year. how did we get here? we got here through primary process that has abysmal voter turnout. i vote every four years because that's when it counts. that's not when it counts. what can we do is institutions of education to build those capacities? >> go ahead. i'm a graduate of >> franklin pierce university. i would love to hear more about the connection of the echo effect you mentioned that we're engaged in of hearing our own opinion. and maybe a lack of understanding of that connection between the history, the boston
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tea party and the protests on wall street. i was raised by a father who spent his adult life studying american history. he went all the way through to the age of 91 without social media or owning a computer until last year through reading the newspaper and watching public television and a couple of others. alwaysable to really have relevant, current conversations all the time with all of us of all different ages because of his deep layered understanding of american history. he always brought it back to us. a little conversation about that. a lot of it comes down to responsibility to seek out news sources beyond the ones you know are just reaching out to you in your existing world which is difficult and uncomfortable. it is so easy. comfortable with
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certain information. i had a comical exchange with a reader by e-mail maybe a month or so ago. it was a standard complaint like how come the washington post zver covers x, y, and negative story about hillary clinton. i decided -- he was very polite. he was really upset with our coverage. i thought i would pull his leg and i wrote back and said do you read us in print or online? i told them he should talk to his mailman why he is cutting out all those stories out of his newspaper or maybe use a different web browser online. [laughter] i sent him a list of a dozen or so stories that addressed the topics he said we never covered. i thought he would not resnd

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