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tv   Global Health Leaders Discuss COVID-19 Vaccines for Developing Countries  CSPAN  April 10, 2021 5:07am-6:26am EDT

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a topic that is very much top of mind that most of us have been affected in one way or another by this global pandemic. i felt the wrath of this pandemic. my father passed away early this year. who would have thought little over a year after the world health organization declared a pandemic that safe and effective covid-19 vaccines would already be used? still, great challenges remain. while the rollout of the vaccine is critical to protecting lives, willing human capital, and stimulating economic recovery, the current crisis is exasperating inequalities around the world. without access to vaccine, the gap will widen further. ensuring developing countries can access, as well as safely distribute vaccines, calls for
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strong partnership and cooperation. we will be asking how developing countries are preparing for large-scale rollouts of vaccines, and what gaps in access and distribution remain. how will the private and public sector help to address the challenge? how can efforts to address this crisis help us prepare for future pandemics? there are plenty of ways to watch, we are streaming this event in english, spanish, french, and arabic on world bank live and across our channels. world bank live is where our experts are taking your questions right now. share your comments at any point using #vaccinesforall. we have an amazing lineup of guests. take a look at what is coming up. ♪
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>> some really big names and big conversations to come. first, we wanted to hear from young people, who have been
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particularly affected by the pandemic. schools and university, facing unemployment, often -- family members, health issues, and encountering gender-based violence in some cases. but they also have hope for a better tomorrow. >> nobody was prepared for the challenges of the covid pandemic. >> virtual classes meant frequent power outages and a difficulty to my learning. >> education is going to be. >> one year -- if we truly wanted to change this notion of never being a developing country to a developed country, i believe education is what would take us there. >> scientists are making achievement with vaccines, and i will be able to return to university and get the complete
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and thorough education i'm craving. >> being a developing country is fine. the biggest challenge is how we get back to where covid has worsened -- >> our biggest challenge is to secure the supply chain. >> -- over 17,000 islands. especially when we have to mobilize vaccine distribution. is one big problem. >> our biggest challenge facing vaccine distribution is -- the vaccines are safe and effective. >> we will only be able to go back to how things were, we will have social interaction without the risk of getting sick.
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>> spending quality time with my family. >> it's good. good vaccine. i can move -- >> with the vaccine, it will have revitalized -- and -- >> hearing from those young people, he really understand how important, how urgent it is global vaccine district -- deployment is successful. it is my pleasure to introduce the world bank president to share his perspective on his vital work. over to you. >> thank you. the covid-19 pandemic has taken a heavy toll on the health and welfare of billions of people in the impact threatens to reverse a decade of gains in human
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capital. access to covid-19 vaccines will be critical for saving lives. we have made up to $12 billion available for vaccination programs. together with partners, we have supported over 100 countries to undertake rapid readiness assessments identifying gaps, whether with cold chain infrastructure or health workers. where there are gaps, we must move quickly to fill them. our projects aim to do this. to have enough vaccines for developing countries, you must address two things. first, we need more production. our private sector development arm has 4 billion dollars available through its global health platform to help manufacturers produce vaccine, support production of essential medical equipment, and strengthen health services. second, we need greater transparency around contracting arrangements between pharmaceutical companies that develop the vaccines, and their
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contract manufacturers to create opportunities for increased and direct flow of approved vaccines. further strengthening of private public cooperation is important to rebuilding and strengthening health systems. throughout our covid-19 response, we are paying close attention to the need to protect and invest in people. investing in health, education, gender, and social protection helps build resilience when countries face crises, whether from economic downturns, pandemics, or climate change. as countries return to sustainable growth, it will continue to face intense physical pressures. it will need to prioritize smart investments in people that deliver dividends for the future. it is critical to get economies growing faster and keep more families from falling into poverty.
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these steps and our partnerships together within countries and across regions and globally, are the essential building blocks to a sustainable and inclusive recovery. annamarie, over to you. >> thank you, david. we will be hearing a lot of great ideas on distribute in vaccines. but we want to know what you think. we are running a special poll through this event, asking what you think is the most important factor in ensuring the fair distribution of vaccines. is it increasing vaccine production to meet demand, overcoming logistical challenges in storing and transporting vaccines, or building trust through education and awareness campaigns? cast your vote. while you are there, there is also an opportunity to upload your favorite question. we will be putting some of those directly to two of the group's
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top experts at the end of this event, when we will be revealing the result of the polls. let's take a closer look at the work and the preparation for large-scale vaccine rollouts. i'm honored to be joined by a truly top-level panel of experts. the director general of the world health organization, henrietta ford, the executive director of unicef, and acts of on proctor and berg is the managing expert at the world bank. thank you all for joining us today. at the head of the organization, the forefront of the pandemic, you have the global solidarity needed to fight it. can you share what you mean by that? >> as you may remember, when i called for global solidarity, i
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said national unity. national unity and global solidarity are important. i will start with national unity. as we know, this pandemic is politicized. especially at the country level. the gap between the different political positions could be exploited by the virus. we have seen that in many countries. the first thing countries should avoid is politicization of this pandemic at the country level. if it is politicized, it will explode, the virus will explode. at the same time, if there is national unity, that is the basis for global solidarity.
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already at the country level, that can bring global solidarity. so coming to the global solidarity, global solidarity means, may be simple terms, sharing information, information about the outbreak so others can understand. it could be sharing the pathogens so others can use it to produce technology. then when technology is produced, it can be sharing technology, like vaccines. sharing vaccines in solidarity. not only that, solidarity means working together, collaborating. coordinating the response together. . but to be honest, since the pandemic started, solidarity and
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national unity have not been as good as one would desire. so going forward, we still need to advocate for global solidarity, because the virus will not be defeated in a divided world. we need to share everything we have in order to defeat this virus. and the sharing, or supporting each other is not charity for m e. it is in the best interest of each and every nation. as you know, the virus is changing quickly. we have mutation going on, and we have several variants from different countries. if the change of the virus is
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significant enough, the behavioral change is significant enough, even the vaccines we have now may not work. so if you take one aspect of solidarity, sharing technology, or vaccines, unless we increase the making of vaccines quickly, and the virus will get a space t o continue to spread, circulate, and mutate. then you will have more variants. even those countries who have high coverage of vaccines will not be secure. because the new variants that may not be stopped by the vaccines we have will invade the countries who may have been 100% in a few months with vaccines. so it is in the best interest of all of us. thank you. >> thank you very much. let's go to the executive
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director, henrietta ford. there are many issues and challenges, in terms of vaccines. what is unicef's position on those challenges at the moment? >> one of our challenges is financing. the world bank has come forward with ida financing, it makes a big difference in country readiness, in the procurement and the livery of these vaccines, and the replenishment is coming. it will be critical for us to be sure that we are able to reach the poorest countries in the poorest areas. world bank financing makes a difference. it is part of this global solidarity approach. for unicef, it is on the ground and in many countries. this is important. unicef usually is distributing, procuring vaccines that are
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routine immunizations for children, things like measles, polio, and other vaccines necessary for child health. this is usually about 2 billion vaccines per year. now we are procuring 2 billion additional vaccines for covid. it is a massive procurement and supply operation. with the world bank and who, we do country readiness assessments so there are national development plans and they can prioritize where the vaccines should go. but this enormous undertaking means you need a lot of pieces in the supply chain. after we are able to procure the vaccine and deliver them to the countries, it is very important countries are ready for them. we have been working for years on cold chains. but this covid time period has really tested the cold chains, and how cold our chains are. but we also need to work with
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the ministries of health, preparing and training health care workers. every vaccine is different, and you need to be sure the workers, the health care workers, the frontline, have personal protective equipment, but also the knowledge to know how to do the vaccination campaigns. then we also have a great need, which is communication to population. every population needs to know vaccines work, that they are safe, so that people do get vaccinated. this is an important part of building trust in societies. it is important for every country. there's many pieces to the puzzle, but country readiness is very much on our mind. it is what we are working toward. a big undertaking, a lot of partners. we do it with the world bank, who. we are there to help children and their families. >> allow me to turn to mr. acts
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von totten berg. getting vaccines are the first hurdle. there are many more hurdles, getting the vaccines where they need to go before any outreach. how are the banks supporting countries on those two fronts? >> let me go to the first hurdle. we need international solidarity. i would add actually, we need to add fairness and urgency. fairness is all of the developing countries, particularly low income countries, have access to the vaccines. this is currently not the case. this is a huge concern to all of us who -- has been calling for it. fair distribution of vaccines. we need to reserve a certain amount of capacity for low income countries.
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otherwise, there is a huge risk they will be left out and only get the bulk of the vaccines year. there is urgency. we cannot wait. we have to keep on that urgency. i think we are pretty much unified. then we need the money. i think we have made available $12 billion for vaccines and their deployment for middle income and low income countries. and i think by the end of april, we did have a commitment of about $2 billion. we are working with 40 plus countries on this. as i said before, the money is great, but if you don't have the vaccines, we have no results. go back to urgency, fairness, and deployment.
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on deployment, there has been very effective and good cooperation with all the agencies helping developing countries. the who, unicef, the global fund, the regional organization. what we need to look is at the readiness assessment. i think we have come this far together. and you see various degrees of readiness. therefore, what we are doing in our operations in coordination with the who and unicef, to see how we can support countries in the effects of implementation. it will be a continued effort, as well as the need to monitor it is correctly implemented. who has established a useful priority list, who deserves the
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vaccines first. we strongly urge countries to follow that advice so that the most vulnerable get the shots first, and you work your way down. what clearly is needed, we don't see this readiness specimen -- assessment, will there has to be medium-term health care system strengthening. this is the longer-term agenda on which we have to work. >> what are the main bottlenecks when it comes to vaccine deployment and manufacturing? how do we address this global, regional, and country level? >> there are many bottlenecks. the first is many countries have
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this narrow nationalism, rather than enlightened nationalism. that is why they are moving into vaccine nationalism. in many bottleneck areas lack of political will. i think it is better to say properly. if the countries agree to solve this problems to solve the vaccine entity, they can do it. they have everything to do it. so the political will is missing. and if you move into other issues, with regard to manufacturing, one is there is excess capacity to finish, we are not using that. so we have to identify companies with excess capacity. the other is voluntary licensing.
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there are companies who would hopefully be willing to license their patents. to a specific company they want. there is compensation they can ask, but that is the second one. the third, we have a coordinating mechanism to put patents and use them as a means for technology transfer. that is one bottleneck they are not using. we have the mechanism, but it is not being used. the fourth is lack of use of waiver in the intellectual property. that is actually the elephant in
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the room. that is one major bottleneck. the provisions in the agreement was meant to waive intellectual property during emergencies. we haven't seen any emergency like this in our lifetime. if we cannot use it now, when are we going to use it? so these are the major bottlenecks. but the mother of all of these bottlenecks is lack of political will, even the first question, week global solidarity. thank you. >> thank you very much. we hear women and children are bearing the greatest brunt of the pandemic. how differently our women and children being impacted? >> you are right. women are often the primary caregivers, both as health care workers, but also at home.
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as a result, they are torn in every direction. what happens is women, their participation in work and paid work is reducing around the world. it is in decline. we are concerned about women and their employment, and very concerned about all of these services women and children usually access in their normal lives. they are able not to get to them, or they are not available. as the world bank have been talking about world poverty, we have 140 million children likely to fall below the poverty line with their families. 168 million children have been out of school for more than nine months. one out of three children do not have access to any form of remote learning. many children are getting lessons online. either through a cell phone,
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tablet, or radio or television. very important for children to get the services, but it is not always available. often the women in the household become not just the parent, but a teacher. it is difficult to be out of the home and holding down a job. we are also worried many children will not come back to school. particularly girls. once girls are out of school, parents often think they can help their elders in their family and look after them. maybe child marriage would be safer. it means for every two boys returning to a classroom,, maybe only one girl will return. it is having an enormous impact on women and children. we cannot trade one crisis of the pandemic for another crisis in which we lose the women and the girls, and the children in
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our world. >> beyond addressing the ongoing health emergency, what advice are you giving to the countries in which you operate today, in terms of being better prepared, and seeing resilience for future crisis? >> she powerfully summarized the effects this crisis has had on women and girls. but one can say on whole societies. we are making an enormous reversal in the progress we have seen over the last couple of years. what is clear is we need to focus more on crisis preparedness. i think it will be a prominent topic during the upcoming negotiations. we have been working on that, particularly as it pertains to natural disasters. but we started with pandemic as
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a result of the ebola pandemic. nevertheless, what we are seeing very often is these preparedness plans, they were nicely drafted on paper. but we clearly need to invent it into the health system. ultimately, we need systematic health system strengthening. it is hard work. the cameras won't be there. but i think it is the absolute necessary part they have to do. we should not only take a narrow view, it is the whole agenda best summarized that we are not making progress on this. education is a point, but in many other areas. our concern is we have to build back better, stronger, and we need to keep the solidarity. not only in the house area, but
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across the development spectrum, and only this crisis has shown only together we will survive, only together we will strive, and only together we will prosper. >> thank you very much. only together we will prosper. i would like to thank all of our guests for this enriching discussion. ♪ >> you're watching world bank group imf. >> successful global deployment of the vaccine will have an enormous impact on so many aspects of our lives. let's remind ourselves of the difference it could make. ♪
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♪ ♪ >> now let's hear from two organizations working on the frontline of the vaccine rollout. the executive director of global programs at save the children u.k. going hines, and head of
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covid-19 crisis management for the international committee of the red cross. >> vaccinations for all is possible if we work together. we have made enormous progress over the last year on vaccine development, but none of us are truly protected until all countries have covid under control. and the cost of not doing this is going up every day. for the first time in 30 years, progress on child poverty hunger is going backwards. an entire generation have had their learning disrupted. millions of children, especially girls, will never go back read so we need to act now. for those who say it is too hard to reach the last mile, it is not. . we do it already with measles vaccinations with meningitis, so please, get behind the covax initiative with money, donating for the vaccines. share technology and know-how. invest in scaling up production in low and middle income countries. most of all, commit to the principle we should be
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vaccinating all vulnerable people without discrimination wherever we live. >> i'm sure that vaccination for all can happen. if we put aside borders, politics, and talk about humanity. we need to make sure everyone has access to vaccines. not only for covid-19, but all preventable diseases that, every year, because so many deaths and instability. we also need to make sure health care workers and vaccinators can carry out their jobs without being attacked. and we need to remember that there are millions facing it today, and it needs to be made. my hope, my wish for 2021 is that we collectively demonstrate that we can deliver. both in the humanitarian space,
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and in the vaccine space. >> if you have just joined us, welcome. we are discussing the rollout of covid-19 vaccines for developing countries. a reminder, you can share your comments at any time using #vaccine for all. a global vaccines alliance and key partner in covax, at the heart of the response to covid-19. i'm delighted to be joined by the ceo. welcome. thank you so much for joining us. explain how covax helps lower middle income countries get access to covid-19 vaccines. >> thank you so much for the question. covax was set up to try and accelerate the development and access of vaccines for every country in the world. but of course, the main thing we are focusing on is the work we
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did to reach lower middle income countries. we created the gavi advance market commitment to serve countries, and bring a very large portfolio of vaccines to them. that was necessary, because we knew there was going to be intense competition for vaccines, and we had to make sure those vaccines would be available. we have now delivered more than 30 million doses to 60 countries. although it took us 43 days for the first vaccine to be used, that is much better than in the previous pandemic of swine food, which occurred now about a decade ago. as you know, your country received its first doses of the vaccine on the 12th of march. although we have many more countries to go, each country does really celebrate when this happens. it is a great moment for global health.
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the countries that have worked to build up their systems. and of course, the people that receive this vital protection. >> thank you so much for mentioning my country. the vaccine was a source of celebration for the whole country. thank you for mentioning. how confident are you low and middle income countries will be able to vaccinate at least 20% of their populations by the end of this year? >> the first step in doing this is having adequate finance. donors have been very generous. we have raised $6.3 billion so far. we hope to get another $2 billion by june. we have been working hard to overcome all of the problems and supply you have heard about in the media. throughout our portfolio, we are on track to deliver one third of one billion doses by this year. and 1.3 billion doses by the end
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of the year so countries can protect our most vulnerable populations, including health care workers. we believe countries, and they want to go to a higher amount of the population than that. so we think if we get adequate finance, we can get to 1.8 billion doses by the end of the year. there are still questions on whether we want to linearly increase the amount of vaccine, or if we will need boosters or different vaccines for the new variants, and these questions will have to be resolved. >> what are the main challenges and opportunities covax is facing delivering vaccines to low and middle income countries? >> during this moment is an unprecedented time. we have to get to large amounts of the population. to be able to do that, we had to create new systems to deal with things like indemnification and
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liability to create a new compensation scheme, since there wasn't adequate time to deal with the normal ways of dealing with those type of problems. we also had to work with countries to be able to develop their delivery systems to make sure they were able to move these forward. these types of interventions are really important. we are hoping we can build them sustainably so they will be there in the future to be able to deal with these systems. at a time when there is an unprecedented demand for vaccine s, we also have to work to make sure manufacturers will keep to the deals they make, and make sure these vaccines are available. >> this has been a pleasure. thank you so much. >> thank you. nice to talk to you. ♪ ♪ >> you're listening to world bank group imf spring meeting.
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>> frontline workers and community leaders have been celebrated as the true heroes of these times, risking their lives to protect hours and helping educate, distribute, and deploy vaccines. let's hear from some of them now about the challenges they face. >> one of the biggest problems we are facing is equitable access. every health care professional in every part of the country deserves access to the vaccine. >> no country can do it alone. so cooperation, especially in the case of vaccine stability and distribution is key. >> one of them is issues with distribution in my country. it will be people rejecting the vaccine. the feel -- fear people are -- due to fears of complications.
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>> misconceptions, miscommunications, and misinformation. >> education may have to go into the vaccine distribution. >> by vaccinating against covid-19, we will be making an effort together. despite the fear we have been living with in the past year. >> we are stronger, more experienced, and united. >> transition towards -- >> vaccine is going to change my life, because my patients get to see my smile again. i don't have to put on a mask. >> it means a second chance. it means we all face a pandemic. we must be grateful to be alive.
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because we know it can change in the blink of an eye. >> so humbling and helpful to hear those perspectives. and a timely reminder of the challenges we must overcome together in order to successfully deploy covid-19 vaccines and get the pandemic under control. it is clear this challenge cannot be resolved i anyone player alone. it will take partnerships across sectors and fields. how can the private sector best contribute? that is what our next guest will help us explore. the ceo of server health care, which manages a international network of diagnostics -- and is active across sub-saharan africa, where its labs are proving a key resource for a much needed -- for covid-19. and the managing
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dichter of the group's private sector arm. i understand in 2019, you significantly expanded in africa. talk to us about what you are doing to help expand testing in developing countries for covid-19 and other pandemic steps? >> indeed, the long story of providing special -- for african private and public lives from its historic lab in paris. a long partnership with -- from south africa, where we do clinical trials. we decided together in 2018 to create a joint venture to operate and expand a network of
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proximity labs to provide the african population with software testing at equitable costs. we are now presenting 13 countries with more than 17 labs, 5900 employees, and serving more than 1.5 million individuals. when the covid crisis arrived in europe last year, we were immediately and very tentatively asked to fight against the response to this crisis. a lot of pcr testing. we anticipated the outbreak and the threat of the outbreak in africa. and immediately with our teams on the ground, we developed a raw plan in order to put the testing solution to operations and authorities. thanks to the education of our
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teams on the ground, and the technical aspects, procurement issues, we have been able to install some pcrl platforms in most of the countries where we operate -- in most of the countries we operate. and we have done more than 300,000 tests. we invested more than $2 million during this moment. i think our value added into this project is clearly to have a local presence, to we also serve the medical communities. [indiscernible] also with efficient pricing and full transparency. indy: to pandemic we can also help through our local facility and train staff to use
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vaccinations. this model can easily be replicated for other pandemics that may occur. >> one of your aims is to really strengthen your local presence. can you tell us what other opportunities you see for the private sector in helping countries meet their health care needs of their population more broadly? >> you are perfectly right. we think that the private sector and specifically long-standing players have a lot of experience and capabilities to help include the sanitary sector in sub-saharan africa. we are convinced and we have proven in more difficult countries vaccination and prevention is crucial and include the access to health
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care for the population. second, as i already mentioned, the private sector has presence on the ground with easy access to patients which are key to any sanitary policies. we have an advanced network of collection centers and we give out a lot of new solutions which are point-of-care in order to expand this presence. third, we also have access to innovative scientific and technical solutions. we also are very well experienced and trained teams to find the appropriate solution for patients. as a private company we invest into adaptive solutions.
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provided we are stable in the current regulation environment. as an example, server runs more than 2 million labs worldwide for public or private hospital institutions. we invest a lot in training which is key to increase the wellness of populations. at server we serve a university. we have a perennial plan to train most of our colleagues in africa, and also it is something we will expand later on, the private sector could also work with local public authorities for vaccination for the covid upgrade. >> unto you, we have heard about the challenges of getting vaccines to people in cash
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countries. from your vantage point, what is the role of the private sector in helping countries meet their goals? >> thank, and marie -- anne ma rie. [indiscernible] r and d is done from the private sector. a lot of the development is done by private companies. this is an important part. the second one is logistics. to have those in place [indiscernible] so the logistics part is a big challenge. the private sector could play a big role in using new innovative make a distance -- mechanisms to deliver vaccines to the population.
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-- as a resident system. the vice president for africa when we had the ebola crisis [indiscernible] economic development in africa. we have a crisis of a larger magnitude. for developing countries the system is not -- enough. as we are working in addressing short-term needs we are also working toward helping a resident system. we need to think not only about the private sector as an agent but also to be a service provider, a model whereby the private sector does not have to invest heavily in equipment but do my services -- but to buy
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services. lastly, how do you strengthen the value chain? [indiscernible] some countries do not only have no vaccine, they do not have swabs. we are partnering with the support of donor countries to put in place a system to use the textile industry to more efficiently produce garments. there are many things we can do to support the system and responding also to the short-term crisis. >> mahktar, it is clear at solving critical health needs requires partnership and innovation. what is your strategy here? >> we have a strategy to
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[indiscernible] the government. the bank divided alone to, verde to face the crisis. what are we doing and what can we do to accelerated? [indiscernible] is not strong enough. when we see a sensitive sector where this position is not easy to take and offer long-term sometimes the payback period, so we need to add much more certainty for private sectors to come. part of the world bank is working to help the government strengthening frameworks so we
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can provide to the private sector. one also -- we want also for the private sector to look into the pharmaceutical industry. local investors who will be more and more in looking at this sector as being an inspector in which they can invest and have high returns. investing in skills. you mentioned you require very specialized people. we can use [indiscernible] and the company to train workers to use that equipment to do that research but also to combine services with what the government is doing. it is really about a joint effort between government and
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private sector and the space is huge. the private sector can do more because medical needs in these countries is huge. >> it will truly require a joint effort there, and with that i would like to thank you both for such an important and enlightening discussion. >> hello, everyone. you are watching the world bank and imf spring meeting. if you have just joined us i am anne marie and we are discussing the rollout for countries. for those interested in diving deeper we pulled together some key fact sheets.
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scroll down to the resources section of our page. a reminder, we are asking you what do you think is the most important factor in ensuring the fair distribution of vaccines. is it, increasing vaccine production to meet demand, overcoming logistical challenges in storing and transporting vaccines, or is it building trust through education and awareness campaigns? we will be sharing the results live at the end of this event so keep watching. it highlights effective delivery and health systems are an important part of vaccine deployment. let's take a closer look at this challenge and held the world bank group as been responding. >> many vaccines need to be kept cool. some need to be kept cold, very
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cold. from factory to patient they need to be refrigerated in warehouses, trucks, planes, cars, even motorbikes, and that is just one small part of a vast interconnected health system. that is why the world bank is providing 12 billion to equitably distribute covid vaccines with priority for those who need it most urgently and strengthen health systems that deliver it. ♪ trained and equipped frontline health care workers in cities, suburbs, and rural communities. support health centers that care for patients but also collect and share information to identify hotspots or have insight into where infections could flareup to make sure there is equipment, training,
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financing, and more to be prepared so the next disease outbreak is not so devastating. just focusing on covid does not make an effective health system. preventative care for people must continue, especially for women and children. life saving treatments for chronic conditions must continue. other health and medical needs do not just go away, and outreach is especially important . from past vaccinations we have learned we need to inform people and battle stigmas, misinformation, and mistrust. vaccine, testing, and treatment are vital to turning the tide against the pandemic, but improving health systems will rebuild livelihoods and economies and hopefully make health care better than before. ♪
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>> let's turn to our final discussion and look at what can be done now to learn from this crisis to help countries respond to the next pandemic. are there lessons that constricted resilience and help countries better prepare for future shocks? i am joined now by a truly esteemed panel. the director general of the wto, the ceo of the center for epidemic prepare this innovation , the co-chair of the global preparedness monitoring board, former prime minister of norway as well as former director general of the world health organization, and managing director of policy and partnerships at the world bank. welcome to you. first do you, and
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congratulations on your new position as head of the wto. if you were selected to head the wto in february of this year almost one year after the pandemic began. what do you see is the greatest economic impacts that developing countries are baring during this global crisis? >> thank you so much for congratulating me. let me just say that before we talk of economic impact we have to look at the health impact, because the biggest thing for economic recovery for developing countries is getting the vaccine that they need in order to deal with the pandemic. the biggest economic stimulus for developing countries would be access to these vaccines. developing countries have been hit in so many ways. commodity exporters have faced plummeting prices, travel and
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tourism for those countries that depend on it have collapsed, and even those well integrated into global value chains have suffered from some of the pleasures of factories and borders and so on. there has been a lot of impact on developing countries, and as you can see, poverty has been declining. for about three decades now poverty has been declining, and in 1990, -- people were living under extreme poverty. now in 2018, this felt substantially to about 10%, and now for the first time it is climbing back up and the world bank projects 150 million people could fall back into poverty, so you can see how the impact of
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this has been very dramatic. >> thank you very much. thank also for reminding us of the issue of poverty, which definitely needs to be mentioned here as well and linked to the pandemic, especially when we are talking about africa. dr. hatchett, seti is an organization that helps finance research such as in vaccines. can you explain the role it is by during this pandemic? >> we played and evolving role actually. in the first stages of the pandemic, last january, february, we played an important role in initiating vaccine development programs. we actually established our first partnerships on january 23. there were fewer than 700 cases of covid globally at that point, and to be ultimately established one of the world's largest
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portfolios of covid-19 vaccines. since last spring we have focused intensively on ensuring access to those products. we used our investments in innovation and r&d to create access commitments for our partners who would then provide that vaccine into what became the covax facility, a facility for your teary the vaccine and delivering it to all countries but particularly to impoverished countries who would not otherwise have access to vaccines. finally in the last few months we have begun to focusing -- we have begun to focus on congealing our r&d investment to make sure the world as access to the vaccines they will need to manage covid in the long-term and address emerging variants that have given so much concern recently. >> allow me to turn now to you,
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doctor. you are co-chair of the monitoring board which in 2013 warned we were a world that risk great last year in the midst of the pandemic you came out with the world a disorder. where do you see as now? >> we have a world of contrast. vaccines have provided help but trust in global leadership as been eroded. our systems have been exposed. in our report, we recognize equitable access to covid-19 vaccines should be a crucial issue. it is a moral imperative, a public health imperative, and an economic imperative. the rapid development of vaccines for covid-19 as been remarkable, but it is all the more devastating the well science has advanced, the world
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has failed epically. countries are seen virtually none of the benefits of covid-19 vaccine. we are stuck where we have been for 30 years reliving inequitable responses to previous emergencies. the goal of initial production to be allocated equitably to all countries to ensure each country add enough vaccine to cover 2% of its population for health workers and the most vulnerable. this means around 300 million doses. 475 million doses have already been allocated. the large majority of lower lower income countries have vaccinated
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less than 1% of their population and many of the poorest countries have yet to receive a single dose. the lack of global mechanisms for vaccine development are at the heart of the problem. we have well established systems for research and development, which rely on the incentive of competition. securing access as bed based on advance purchase agreements. access by lower income countries has been dependent on no date -- donations and development assistance. relegating them to the bottom of the list, vaccine delivery continues to be determined by economic power, production capacity, and competition rather than public health and the unacceptable failure of global preparedness. [indiscernible] which is very helpful but not enough. >> thank you very much, a world
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of contrast, very strong words and very fitting to what we are witnessing at the moment, and now to mary. the world bank plays an important role containing global institutions and countries. our partners coming together at the global, regional, and country levels to address the pandemic and prepare for the future? >> i am glad you asked that question. the world bank is working with many partners and i think this has been an incredible example of partnership starting from preparing all the way to delivery. we are working with who, unicef, the global fund, and the gates foundation. from a technical and conceptual level two how do you design the readiness back in the middle of last year and in november there was an agreement of how would you design a vaccine readiness assessment framework which will
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then be applied at the country level? this was agreed in november and we also agreed we would rollout readiness assessments and 100 countries in 100 days and we didn't -- did it. that was partnership in design and assessment at the country level with all of those partners on the ground of course working with the country and assessing coordination, planning, targeting, coaching, infrastructure readiness, workers, mitigation, regulatory aspects, and that readiness allows us to assess the gaps that exist in countries and therefore the financing that was needed, and the partnership came in again on financing whether bilateral donors, regional development banks, grants, and how much the country had resources. on access were vaccines, fair
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and equitable access, we worked with covax to provide the first 20% of delivery and work with countries on other access about the 20%, and finally working with countries to develop national deployment and vaccination plan on the ground and supporting them and at the same time looking as to how they would build up and strengthen their health systems at the same time, and the world bank worked very closely on the ground with unicef, who, and other partners, and also with the countries themselves. >> thank you. going back to you, going forward how can we strengthen the global economic architecture to better prepare against future shots? --
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shocks? >> i would like to make a few points on this. first, we should have a better preparedness and response system , and when i talk about preparedness i am talking about surveillance, and early warning system. whether we are talking about and it makes diseases or climate change related disasters, the world needs to invest so that we can get early warnings. the second point is that we should put together financing framework that would help us deal with finance, both the preparedness part but also finance the response in case i'm out we do not get the warning on time, and what is difficult now in the world is the fact that preparedness is probably a tiny percentage, maybe 1% of the
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money we spend on a response. if you look at trillions of dollars spent in this pandemic just responding to health and economic issues, if we had spent maybe $100 billion or $200 billion on preparedness before and we would've been better off. we need a sensible finance framework. the third point i would like to make is we need to keep supply chains open. coming from the trade side i would say that, but trade has helped us manage this pandemic and has made the economic impact better able for governments to handle than it would have been, even felt impact because we have been able to move through trade, medicine, vaccines from one country to the other, so keeping supply chains open is a very important part of the response. those three points are vital for
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us to be better prepared next time. >> when it comes to supply chains we have seen how much africa has suffered in many a time so thank you much. back over to you, dr. hatchett. what do you see as the most pressing priority as you continue to support the allotment of vaccines, but also for the accelerated development of vaccines for future pandemic outbreaks? >> thank you. first i think we need to build on the accomplishments and improvable models, technical, institutional operational that have emerged from the pandemic. we have compressed a decades's worth of technology into perhaps one year. we will emerge from the pandemic with new tools that will allow us to prepare for the future. we have laid out the model with covax and accelerators.
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they are improvable but they are not perfect but they laid the foundation for future responses. as an organization we have laid out our plans for the next five years that would entail investment of about $3.5 billion. it would focus on strengthening our defenses against covid, certainly, trying to take coronavirus is -- coronaviruses as a threat class off of the table. there were no threats like ebola . working to compressed vaccine development time. we delivered licensed vaccines in three to six days. we would like to shorten that to -- 326 days. we would like to shorten that to
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100 days -- establishing global networks, clinical trials, and finally supporting the efforts of lower and middle income countries to provide for their own national security. >> thank you very much. it is through this pandemic has truly been a period a very rapid innovation and development of new technologies like you mentioned. going back to you, doctor, what do you see as the most crucial gaps in the global community needs to address to ensure we are better prepared for future health crises? >> the start of the current pandemic revealed shortcomings at all levels. we need an international agreement in place to support and strengthen our international institutions, the international financial institutions in order to deliver on such an agreement.
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ultimately the success of an international agreement on pandemic preparedness and response will rely on money. we don't need to address the historic resistance in preparedness. investments have represented a fraction of what is required, finding it millions what should have been in billions. the board estimates an additional annual investment of five dollars per person will be needed. with the trillion spent on the response as we just heard from wto, we are paying the price for past funding. now we need to fund future preparedness at the skill required. we must develop appropriate funding and financing mechanisms for preparedness which do not rely on rba and are rejectable
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and sustainable. the board quickly realized there was a lack of mechanisms to finance global public goods. this must be addressed urgently. in particular, i want to challenge the rank to develop a mechanism to remedy the present inequity in faxing -- vaccine distribution. it should be based on agreements with vaccine producers and pre-commitments from lower and middle income countries. it should provide financing to ida eligible countries so that vaccines arrive at the same time as they do in higher income countries. the ugly truth is that at this stage of the covid-19 response, we are seeing how many talks in the absence of appropriate global financing structures.
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resources are flowing to the rich. we will all pay the price in terms of economic damage. global instability and a prolonged pandemic. the world was unprepared for this catastrophe. unless we change our systems for financing and allocation of global public goods, we will face the same problem in the next pandemic, so i call on you to ensure that this does not happen. >> as it is often the case you mentioned preparedness. thank you very much. going back quickly to mari, you talked about the importance of global partnerships to address health emergencies. i was the world bank supporting countries as they prepare themselves for future emergencies. -- emergencies? >> i would like to make three
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points. first, we are learning a lot as we are responding to this pandemic, and welding out our program. we already have vaccine readiness assessment in 144 countries and we are already deploying almost $4 billion around 11 countries already and another 14 countries and preparation, so we are learning a lot. the three things i would mentioned are on what we have learned. as we are rolling out the response to the pandemic, we must not forget priority health issues, such as making sure out services for women, maternal health and children immunization are not put by the side, so that is one area. as we are rolling out our program we are learning a lot on the ground as to help you get
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actually as you do your preparedness build up three medium term strengthening of the health care system, whether it is training of health care workers, and important role of technology is the possibility to have information on those getting vaccinated, monitoring it and so on. this can really be important for the future -- to prepare yourself for the future pandemic, and many things that we learned on the ground can be used to help develop stronger systems, and thirdly, to the doctor's point about manufacturing and supply chain, we are learning a lot about that. supply chain was mentioned. it is a combination of global cooperation, how do you use concessional funding and work
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together with the private sector. the private sector arm of the world bank as a health platform and they are actually investing in manufacturing capacity dedicated for the least developed countries, so this is actually an area where we need to come together to make sure we have fair and equitable access to vaccines, as well as obviously in the near future for future pandemics. >> thank you very much. >> c-span's washington journal. even day we take your calls live on the air and discuss policy issues that impact you. coming up this morning, a conversation with a political activist about her podcast, the brown girl's guide to politics and part of our spotlight on
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magazine segment. watch c-span's washington journal live at 7:00 eastern this morning and join the discussion with your phone calls, facebook comments this week. >> president bind received an economic briefing from his team. he began with comments on the passing of prince philipp and his service to the united kingdom. >> and i and the entire administration sent condolences for the loss of he was a heckuva guy. his lifetime of service in the united kingdom, visible to everybody for a long, long time. his bravery serving in world war ii as well as

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