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tv   When Food Becomes Scarce  Deutsche Welle  April 12, 2021 9:30am-10:01am CEST

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and young people clearly have the solution. is 77 percent now every week and. what makes a volcano erupt. how does too much food affect the balance of our gut flora. and which animals have the most successful relationships and says to those questions and more coming up. welcome to tomorrow today the science show on d w. in the past half century the human diet has
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undergone huge changes not just in industrialized countries many developing countries are also seeing big changes in the amount of food available to people. at the same time the reason t. and intestinal disorders are on the wrong. scientists in germany are studying the effects of a calorie rich guys in a surprising place. as one of the biggest lakes in northern germany. biologists are investigating a revolutionary idea. that getting help from tiny creatures in these plastic test tubes their hydrogen all freshwater polyps they turn out to be a good model for understanding how the micro biome of the human gut works like our intestines. the skin of the polyps is covered in bacteria the researchers want to
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know whether the amounts and kinds of nutrients or leg influence the organisms health ones of those years. were interested in knowing about the balance between an organism and its bacteria how they interact and if there is an imbalance whether it triggers disease. when we put hydras or freshwater polyps which other bacteria on the outside into a more nutrient rich environment like this you trophic lake we see that the creatures become ill. to lush it from katie university and his colleague peter diners have another hunch that this might be similar for people could excessive food intake through the bacterial colonies and got out of balance. over the past 50 years food availability has grown enormously in industrialised countries at the same time there's been a dramatic increase in gastrointestinal diseases such as crones disease. why it's
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better. to better understand the relationship between bacteria and their host the researchers have started a feeding experiment with a freshwater polyps in their lap. one group of bacteria is that a more protein rich diet for humans this would be the equivalent of eating a lot of dairy products and other animal proteins. the other group perceives a rich and complex mixture of carbohydrates fats and proteins similar to an unhealthy diet with lots of meat and sugar. how did the polyps bacterial colonies in the 2nd group change due to their excessive diet. it was amazing how quickly the entire system reacted within 24 hours we have served a drastic change in the composition of the bacterial colonies a strong increase in bacteria. and initial signs of illness in the hydras
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themselves is. one of the signs of disease can be seen here in fast motion the hydra polyp cell material breaks down that tentacles get shorter within a single day. to learn more about the different types of bacteria that were fed the researchers cultured them for 24 hours in a nutrient medium. what changes did they see. as a good quality really the control group looks like usual probably a lot of corby dr doctor that as always if you're crying when you eat. it while nothing unusual was detected in the 1st group of bacteria the overfed bacteria reproduced extremely quickly. to identify the micro biota exactly the researchers come to the bacteria and analyze their d.n.a. that finding overfeeding resulted in the uncontrolled increase in certain kinds of
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bacteria while other kinds were displaced but what does this have to do with humans are somewhat fewer can be seen in many illnesses including in inflammatory intestinal diseases for example that they're often associated with are accompanied by changes to the micro biome which raises the question is not the cause or just a symptom. and tooling the steve up here and defend. peter dinah's and him lucky it suspect that a micro biome that has been thrown off balance by an unhealthy diet could itself of course disease is. using a sea anemone as an example they demonstrate which reactions extreme overfeeding of the micro biome could lead to. the and then many in the bacteria that live on it have been exposed to excessive nutrients. and this is what happens under the barratry conditions if the creatures. it's sick from an imbalance micro
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biota they do everything they can to bring their bacterial colonies back into balance. they completely shed that. good humans clean the sick gut flora by fasting for instance. if you did it was good for various studies about people fasting we're not doing studies with humans but they seem to be parallels to our experiments when it comes to fasting or doctrine of food intake the got bacteria are no longer nursed so strongly by our food. instead they have to focus on sources that are available such as the intestinal mucosa and if one's in the. in. cells could abstention bring an overfed micro biome back into balance research just along the way but it seems clear that both in quantico in isms and humans the micro biome reacts more sensitive lisa died than was previously thought.
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once upon a time computers was good. no not these confuses these computers the term computer describe the job done by people carrying out mathematical calculations by hand for example hundreds of women worked as human computers calculation clocked article ness. nowadays such jobs are done by electronic computers and they're growing ever more powerful. what will the city of tomorrow look like how does a galaxy of all and what weather can we expect for the next few months just 3 of the many questions that might be answered by germany's new hong supercomputer inched up gart in this case scientists from the university of one time are tasking the computer with simulating extreme weather conditions for the rest of the year detailed forecasts are not possible the system could identify major weather events several months in advance. his finest will be ideas to use
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a global model and what's called an ensemble approach to uncertainties what is coming extreme weather events and assessments we can see whether we can expect droughts or heavy rainfall on major storms which occur relatively frequently in europe. using an older computers scientists have mapped most of the planet but regions around the north and south poles are still missing and that final 17 percent is crucial for a workable weather simulation. and that's where the new computer comes in it might need 2 weeks for this highly complex task but that's still 4 times faster than its predecessor so just how fast is the supercomputer. one times with. you can do a direct comparison and say that the processes are similar to our own personal
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p.c.'s similar because they're a little more involved. in one system here you have the equivalent of 15 or 20000 p.c.'s insisted that it was also right here in stuttgart that one of the world's 1st high performance computers that cray to was built that was 1985 what was back then cutting edge technology had roughly the same computing capacity as a modern smartphone if that. was because in the us this is to forget that in the 1980 s. the cray tos were extremely fast machines. and since then technical developments of enabled us to go smaller and smaller. were at the end of a 35 year evolution where speed has been doubled every 18 months it's really not the problem the supercomputers have also become more energy efficient although they still need as much elektra city as a small town with 40000 residents but they're simulations can help make wind farms
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for example more effective. this footage is from the predecessor of the new computer the aim here is to calculate wind turbulence and how it impacts on potential interference between individual turbines. and supercomputers are helping to improve those simulations the scientists already have a preliminary 3 d. model of particulate matter pollution and guard right down to each street. this data might later be used to create a prediction model for the level of pollution on your own doorstep the scientists also want their models to be accessible to the man and woman on the street. is what i see in them 10 or 15 years ago these systems were only seen in research and to a degree in industry but today we have simulations that are far less. technical and all the more relevant for the general public the fate of the 13. as seen in this depiction of an entire city in which residents can glide from a to b.
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but some simulations are simply there to behold such as this recreate the birth of a galaxy a picture that would not need a 1000 words but 10000 years on a regular home computer. if outlet is read write are great but only a few. do you have a science question you've always wanted answered we're happy to help out send it in and if we answer it on the show you'll get invalid surprise as a thank you. can all just us. you'll find us at our website d.w. dot com slash science or on twitter. iverson kingdom wants to know. why do volcanoes erupt. they look so peaceful until that not dozens of o'kane is erupt every year. most
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live at the scene where tectonic plates on land open if an ocean push against each other or move apart making the earth's crust unstable. volcanoes are the planet's way of letting off steam. the earth is made up of layers in the thick mantle around the core and beneath the fin outer crust rock melts into magma under great pressure and temperature. the magma expands and pushes up with when it breaks through the surface it's called lava. there are different kinds of all kind of corruption if a massive column shoots into the sky it's called a plenty interruption. when the magma heats up water causing an explosion of steam it's called free attic. subglacial ones occur when mother meets ice usually under a glacier. these are just 3 examples there are several more categories.
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conical may be the iconic form but in fact for cain has come in many shapes and sizes when larva breaks through a crack in the earth a mountain can form quickly or it can take tens of thousands of years. it depends also on how many eruptions occur and how much lava comes out. the temperature of lava usually ranges between $51200.00 degree celsius depending on the chemical composition of the rock from which it forms. when does sound become noises. beyond 2nd vary according to individual tastes and cultural norms but what physics sells noisy will
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not all pressure waves propagating through the air and impinging on the sounds of intensities of more than 85 decibels can harm your hearing and your health for example in the workplace. are open plan offices an endless nightmare. a source of perpetual stress. relief one. of germany's federal institute for occupational safety and health in dog moaned lars of all from his team are looking at why working in a busy office can put a strain on our health especially when it's very noisy. as a quick vehicle the in time can be serious with symptoms such as agitation anger and mental distraction this harms our psychological well being and it needs to be taken seriously. but what does this look like in practice we do a little informal experiment bianca is an experienced secretary who is used to stress
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. she gives us a sample of saliva so we can measure the concentration of the stress hormone cortisol. we then leave bianca alone in a small quiet office to do a performance test at the end 4 hours later we get a 2nd saliva sample. and the next day bianca is going to take another test but this time in a busy open plan office would you feel more stress and with her cortisol level be higher the researchers and have developed a program to model the noise in an open plan office before it's even been built the arrangement of everything from desks to printers to room dividers makes a big difference this is what it sounds like an accordion configured open plan office. and now with room dividers.
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suffered in finding out software helps greatly who are going to design an office more aware of the issues we can only work with a representative example of the office design that's a limitation because reality presents a far broader range of factors that we're unable to incorporate the. so after the test in the quiet individual office bianca now has to deal with the noise of his open plan office she again gives us a lot of a samples. she feeling more stressed than on the previous day. bianca's cortisol level did rise slightly joining her for hours in the big office in the single office decreased over the same period of time though the initial levels up day was a lot higher our experiment is more of a snapshot than hard evidence. is. in my research is if you have to conduct long term studies on how working in a big office affects stress levels it is however clear that less noise is much
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better than lots of noise in an office environment. this is a very good. sized. business you have to look very closely at what actually goes on the nature of the work what kinds of communication and social interactions take place going out and you really have to involve the staff listen to what they say their needs actually are. i gleason. c.s.m. is a consulting and architecture company in munich and this is open plan office the team designs offices for other firms. whether an open plan office is a blessing or a curse for the people working in us to pen's on the space available on tablets crafted and used. then i'm going to name an unfit on if a company wants us to design an open plan office just so it can save space and costs
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. it's already game over. it will not go well for the one. nowadays there's a lot of emphasis on teamwork in corporate settings stuff are expected to be flexible and no longer bound to a fixed workplace. but i'm stiff with a laptop and a phone i can work anywhere i may still have a desk but my work space might well get smaller and smaller than my client at the same time we need to create other spaces that are a lot larger than. that means rooms for meetings where an entire team can discuss and plan together. on small quiet corners to talk without disturbing everybody else. as well as ones where you can be alone. we need to create such spaces as well not just rooms for team meetings people need
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to be able to take a break and get away from the others us and be alone somewhere quiet and peaceful. means escaping the bustle of an open plan office the researchers in development have developed concentration tests to determine what kinds of noise calls the most stress it's not always a question of volume quite noises can be very annoying to such as the dripping of a top. of envy or if it's very noisy while you're trying to concentrate your performance will probably decrease. question. back to bianca to see what that means she took a test twice 1st alone then in a busy office that. while on her own she completes 11 out of 20 tasks. but in the big office only 10. that difference may appear minor but if
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everybody's performance declines by that amount you have a problem as almost on with the basic open plan office you made. save a little space and cut some costs but if your company's efficiency drops 10 percent that would be a disaster. god has to say sound planning pays off. not just for company bosses but also for the stop. bringing up babies is just full female not necessarily studies show that gender doesn't predict who is better at caring for children instead whoever spends more time with the kids a depth. that can be measured in changes to the brain and hormone levels not just in humans let's take a look at parenting and relationships in the animal world. whirls are classic loners in the animal world both males and females spend most of the
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year foraging for food alone each marking their territory with scent from glands on their paws. mating season is time to account for their insecure food supply the animals typically reproduce twice a year so should there not be enough food for any young in the winter there's always a 2nd chance. this australian species of bat lives in a kind of harem. that's do not normally commit to long term relationships but in this case it is common for one male to hang out with a number of females. the advantage is that while the females are out looking for food the male guards the offspring and a kind of kindergarten. some chimpanzees species live in groups with up to 80 members monogamous relationships are unknown
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here scientists refer to polyamory. the males go out hunting together and also defend their territory together. the alpha males do not tend to mate more frequently than their breath rent isn't that a disadvantage. to be mentioned vis the. past the males mate with a number of females who in turn made with several partners the males don't know which of the young are of their own. as a result the males are friendly to all the young chimpanzees. and that reduces the risk of the young chimpanzees being killed. your true tone. so a range of different sexual partners can only help to ensure a group survival. this penguin is busy thank you bedding an egg together with its partner both of them are male. ensues this behavior often resists eyebrows
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but in fact it's not uncommon. homosexual couples are especially prevalent among bird species. and male flamingos have been observed stealing eggs and then incubating them together. with giraffes homo sexual relations are actually more common than heterosexual ones and there are also seen among cows and other domesticated animals why is that. some i know this was what i think so. it seems to reduce sexual tension. at the same time because the benefit of the learning effect as a by much with some species the animals have difficulty raising their 1st offspring so a new clue to nest building. or so this gives them the opportunity to get some practice to. it was recently discovered that female albatrosses often raise their young with each other
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a surprising revelation for researchers and when they cannot yet explain. in the aquatic world it's often the fathers that take care of the next generation. probably the most famous example are sea horses here the males carry the eggs and their power until they hatch. and with means a labyrinth fish or grammys the males also assume parental care duties in addition to building and tending to the nest they guard their young from predators and fan oxygen rich water over them. by then fish and by demise most species of fish have extra no fertilization once the female has released the eggs the male releases the semen over them the female is done 1st as it were and can therefore leave the male alone but the young. clownfish change gender tracking down
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a partner in their core rate habitat is difficult so if the mother female of a group dies the dominant male in the group will replace her that option of changing sex enables the fish to continue reproducing. but the nuclear family does exist 2 in the animal world given its live in close knit units of mother father children in the wild the apes mainly eat fruit but the supply tends to fluctuate. one tree alone would not provide enough fruit for a larger group but a small family on their own would have enough to eat. animals have developed some pretty inventive mating patterns and family structures the assumption is that they provide advantages just sometimes we don't know what they are.
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that's all for this week knows that you could join us. back next time with more exciting science on tomorrow today until then good bye.
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