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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  September 27, 2015 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for sunday, september 27: the people's pope meets with survivors of sexual abuse by priests and with prisoners, and holds a huge outdoor mass for the faithful. and, time for school: how japan fulfills the promise of quality education for its children. >> ( translated ): learning not to run away from difficult situations has definitely been my biggest achievement. >> sreenivasan: also, looking at the supermoon in tonight's sky. next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family.
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sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening thanks for joining us. in philadelphia, pope francis is in the final hours of his first ever visit to the united states. at a seminary this morning, the pope met privately with five survivors of sexual abuse by priests and others. francis apologized to victims, saying, in part, "i am profoundly sorry that your innocence was violated by those
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who you trusted. for those who were abused by a member of the clergy, i am deeply sorry for the times when you or your family spoke out, to report the abuse, but you were not heard or believed." the pope later told 300 bishops he was "overwhelmed with shame" for how some priests had behaved, and he pledged "zealous vigilance" to protect children. >> ( translated ): crimes of sexual abuse of children cannot be maintained in secret for longer, and i commit to a zealous oversight from the church to ensure that youth are protected and that all those responsible will be held accountable. >> sreenivasan: newshour's stephen fee is covering the pope's weekend in philadelphia and joins me now to discuss the rest of the pope's day. stephen, how did the pope spend his last day here in the u.s.? >> yeah, hari, he started the morning off at the st. charles seminary where he discussed meeting with abuse victims. he then continued on to a philadelphia area correctional facility where he met with inmates and
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their familiesment and then he capped off the day here on the benjamin franklin parkway in the center of philadelphia to join hundreds of thousands of faithful for an open-air mass. it's likely the largest gathering of this, his 10th, international journey as pontiff and his first swing through the united states. >> srennivasan: stephen, what makes this trip to philadelphia different from his visits to washington d.c. and new york? >> well, hari, you know, in those places on capitol hill and the halls of the general assembly, he was talking to world leaders about issues of global income inequality and climate change. here the pope is really addressing the faithful. after all the purported reason for his visit was the world meeting of families here in philadelphia. and that's especially meaningful for philadelphia philan there is more than a million catholics here. the city was also shaken deeply by the sexual abuse scandal. is this going to bring more people into the pews in church every sunday, is it going to forgive the crimes of the past, maybe, maybe not. but for the people we met since we have been here from
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around the country, around the world, this is really putting a human face on an institution that numbers more than a billion members. >> srennivasan: what's the security situation like? is that different than these other cities? >> you know, i think so, hari. it's sort of a combination of a festival environment and total lockdown. we got here on friday afternoon. main streets in philadelphia were already closed down to traffic. there's pedestrians out, bikes out. we waited with the security line on the way in here today. it took us two hours to get in. the line nearly doubled by the time we were in. so there's a lot of lockdown here if phillie. >> srennivasan: okay, when he heads back to rome this evening, what's next for him? what's next for the church? >> yeah, well, he'll fly out of here and he'll meet briefly with vice president swro biden. and when he returns to rome the story continues. bishops in the vatican will be meeting on issues of the family in the coming dis. they will be talking about some of those hot-button issues we have been talking about, about marriage and divorce and annulment, about the inclusion of gays and
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lesbians in the church and the issue of women in the church who still aren't permitted into the clergy and are seldom found in the higher echelons of power in the catholic church. it's an important time for the pope. after all despite his open message, he's still the leader of the catholic church and they're still strong establishment strains therement it remains to be seen what kind of mark he will leave during his papacy. >> srennivasan: newshour stephen fee joining us from philadelphia, thanks so much. >> thank you, hari. >> sreenivasan: france has launched its first air strikes against the islamic state, or isis, inside syria. french president francois hollande told reporters at the united nations today that jets destroyed a training camp for isis militants who could have threatened the security of france. france has conducted 215 air strikes on isis positions inside iraq. france and the united states want to see syrian president bashar al-assad removed from power, but russia continues to arm assad in syria's civil war. russian president vladmir putin said in an interview with charlie rose released today that he wants to strengthen what he called "the legitimate
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government of syria" to ensure stability in the region. president obama meets president putin at the u.n. tomorrow. the international organization for migration says 500,000 migrants and refugees from the middle east, africa, and asia, have now crossed the mediterranean sea for europe this year, and almost 3,000 people have died trying. 17 refugees from syria drowned off the turkish coast today, and another 20 were rescued after their rafts headed for greek islands sank. today, greece ferried 4,000 migrants who made it to the islands to the mainland, where they are expected to seek asylum elsewhere in northern europe. austria received at least 12,000 migrants and refugees this weekend, most crossing austria's border with hungary. outgoing speaker of the house of representatives john boehner predicts there will be no federal government shutdown. boehner said today he is confident the house and senate will pass a spending bill before the new fiscal year begins in four days. boehner, who announced friday he will resign as speaker on october 30, defended his record
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on cbs's "face the nation." >> whether it was the largest deficit reduction deal in the history of the country, saving $2.1 trillion, protecting 99% of the american people from an increase in our taxes, or the first major entitlement reforms in 20 years, all done over last four-and-a-half years with a democrat president, and all voted against by my most conservative members, because it wasn't good enough. really? >> sreenivasan: switzerland is the first country to suspend sales of volkswagen cars due to the automaker's emissions test cheating scandal. the swiss government says the suspension could affect 180,000 unsold diesel vehicles, but models already on the road would not be affected. germany and the u.k. are also conducting investigations. the u.s. environmental protection agency discovered volkswagen had rigged car computers to release fewer emissions during tests. 11 million v.w. diesel cars built since 2008 are affected by the scandal.
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paris is car-free, for a day. today, the french capital banned all motor vehicles in the center of the city, from 11:00 in the morning until 6:00 this evening. pedestrians, joggers, and cyclists descended on the traffic-free champs-elysees. only emergency vehicles and taxis were allowed. the reason: to set an example of less air pollution before paris hosts the next u.n. conference on climate change this december. and coming up on the newshour tomorrow, see margaret warner's interview with egyptian president abdel fattah el-sisi. >> can you explain to the american people why so many young pro-democracy activists have been rounded up and put in prison? it's hard for americans to understand. >> it is true that americans won't understand that easily. we are not a rich country. this country cannot afford a state of instability.
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>> sreenivasan: for the past 12 years, pbs has documented global efforts to improve the enrollment of children in primary school. the series of stories, called" time for school" has coincided with a united nations initiative seeking to drive down the number of kids out of school from an estimated 100 million to zero. the initiative is about halfway to its goal, as an estimated 57 million young kids are still not in school. japan is one of the success stories: its students are in school 240 days a year-- 60 days more than their american counterparts. students there also are top performers, among industrialized nations in reading, math, and science. here is a look at one japanese child's experience from pre- school to high school graduation.
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>> ( translated ): baseball's taught me to appreciate my parents, my mentors, and my fellow teammates. that's something i learned in elementary, middle and high school. >> reporter: ken higashiguchi is six years old and lives with his mother and father in nara, japan, a nation committed to having a fully literate society. nearly every child in japan goes to school. and today, like ken, thousands of six year olds are preparing to attend their opening day ceremony. >> ( translated ): i have to
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wear this for a whole hour? it's embarrassing. >> we want to give ken a lot of chances, a lot of opportunities. the most important thing is for ken to be happy for his life. >> reporter: today, ken joins the ranks of students who follow a long, well-planned journey through one of the most successful school systems in the world, and one of the most demanding. unlike his counterparts in much of the world, ken is well prepared for first grade. he has been in state-funded day care since the age of one. >> how are you? >> i'm fine, thank you. how are you?
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>> i'm fine, thank you. >> reporter: along with many japanese school children, ken attends private after-school classes known as "juku schools." ken's parents are pushing him to get the best education possible, but the hours are long and the expectations are high. both of ken's parents work full time, but they devote their weekends to their only child, often doing what ken, now nine, loves most: playing baseball. >> ( translated ): so far he likes everything, including sports, studying, and playing around. i think he feels that if he makes the effort, he can do anything.
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>> reporter: ken is now in third grade at saho elementary school and often arrives early to play with his friends. after decades of imposing stringent standards and an 11- month school year, japan has dropped saturdays from the school week. but one thing hasn't changed: teaching teamwork, the hallmark of the japanese workforce. >> ( translated ): i have 30 students, and i'd like for them to do something together continuously. that's how we started skipping rope together once a week for a year back in april. >> reporter: today their goal is to achieve 1,000 consecutive jumps. >> ( translated ): you guys jumped 300 more than the time before. do you know why we were doing this?
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>> ( translated ): when i grow up, i want to be a professional baseball player, or a school teacher. when i started i didn't know how to catch or throw or hold the bat. >> reporter: at 12, ken is finishing sixth grade and trying his best to balance his love of sports and his need to study. >> ( translated ): he reads in the paper and the news about other kids in other countries. he thinks going to school and playing with friends are a given. and having meals every day is a given. i think that at a conscious level he understands the reality that there are kids his age, who can't go to school and have to
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work in order to survive. i just don't know how much he understands that emotionally. i think that's what he'll have to learn as he gets older. >> reporter: ken is 18 years old and has never missed a single day of school. >> ( translated ): school is a place where you can really expand your knowledge, and where you can also meet new people. >> reporter: ken is about to graduate from high school and start college, carrying on a tradition of discipline, and teamwork, which he mastered as captain of his baseball team. today the whole school community is here for ken's last game.
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>> ( translated ): playing baseball has taught me the importance of motivating the team, not only by what i say but also by what i do. >> reporter: ken's team loses the game. his tireless focus on training makes the loss especially difficult. >> ( translated ): we really wanted to win, so i tried hard to pull the team together, but still it seems it wasn't enough. next year, the team will continue to do their best. >> ( translated ): whenever he was having a hard time, i saw him gather the strength to move on, and then i was able to gain that strength too. >> ( translated ): learning not to run away from difficult
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situations has definitely been my biggest achievement. >> reporter: ken also learned lessons from the tragedy that struck japan in 2011: the earthquake and tsunami that claimed 16,000 lives. ken traveled with his mother the 400 miles from his home to the damaged region. students at ken's school gathered funds for the effort and sent care packages. >> ( translated ): i was in student government for two years. during that time, the great earthquake happened. we raised money and came up with new ideas. that's how we contributed. >> ( translated ): he doesn't compromise and doesn't let himself off easy.
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i believe this is the man he is trying to become. >> ( translated ): i think we created a good environment for him to be able to succeed at what he wanted to do. >> reporter: ken is now off to college near his home. he will study to be a physical education teacher and will try to bring the lessons of teamwork and concern for others to future generations. ♪ ♪ >> ( translated ): i think the first step is to put our words into actions, and then we can have a positive impact on those around us. that's the kind of person i want to be.
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>> sreenivasan: look up in the sky tonight, and you may see a rare "supermoon" total lunar eclipse. the sun, earth, and a full moon will be in a straight line, making the moon, in its closing point of orbit, appear much brighter than usual, even red- orange. this phenomenon hasn't happened in 33 years and won't again for another 18. for some insight, yesterday i spoke with newshour science correspondent miles o'brien. why is this so significant for people? >> when the moon turns big, 14% bigger as it does during this so-called supermoon, the moon's orbit is not circular, it's elliptical this is its closest point, and then on top of that you get a total eclipse, this is the fourth in a so-called luna tetrad that began. four eclipses in a row. people start thinking things
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are going crazy. why does it turn red orange, what is that about? >> when you see an eclipse of the sun, the moon is passing from the sun and you get that dark disk. it takes a bite out of the sun as it were. in this case, the earth is eclipsing the sun's rays on to the moon. the moon has in light of its own, it's reflected light. what happens is, think of it, the colors you see at sunset, as the light goes through the atmosphere of earth, it gets bounced around, separated, retracted and what ends up shining on to the moon an getting to the moon is the red range of light. and that's why you see that kind of reddish orange. now if you are a total pro, look at the beginning and the end. this is a little bit like looking for the green flash when are you looking for the sunset am will you see a blue or violet band that will appear there because as the sun passes through the ozone layer on earth, it retracts slightly differently and you get a blue tochblt get binoculars out at the beginning and end and you might catch that blue band.
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>> unlike the solar eclipse, this is totally safe to see. >> it's great, the best viewing because you don't have to worry about looking straight at the moon. it's all reflected. you don't have to have binoculars, you can just go out and enjoy it and it's totally in prime time for the east coast of the u.s., assume nothing cloud cover, will you get quite a show. >> about 10 to 11 on the east coast and that means about 7:00 on the west coast. >> yeah, by the time the moonrises on the west coast, it will already be under way but they will still get a show there. the full prime time show will be on the east coast. and you know, the whole thing really begins arounded 8:00 p.m., hour, all the way into midnight but the actual peak of it will be 10 p.m. eastern time on the east coast. and it's worth a look. and if you happen to be in an area where it's includeddy, and these things happen, there's about three or four places on-line where you can see streaming webcast, nasa tv is doing it, sky and telescope, slew is doing it, you will be able to see it one way or another. >> srennivasan: what is it about this that fascinates
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us? people have been fascinated by eclipses for as long as history has been written. >> oh my god, something stopped the upon or something changed the color of the sun what happened? >> science has filled in a lot of blanks for us in recent years. we know that this is simply an alignment of planets and when the orbits line up in a certain way the sun, earth an moon line up perfectly, you get this. that makes it sound kind of clinical but before we knew a lot about this, these were looked at as omens. eclipses in particular have always been looked at as some indication that something usually bad is going to happen. so i think we know scientifically that isn't necessarily the case. but there's still people out there who worry. >> right, miles o'brien, science correspondent for the pbs newshour, thank you for joining us. >> you're welcome, hari. >> sreenivasan: just in time for sunday's rare supermoon total lunar eclipse, learn eight things you may know about the moon. visit us online at pbs.org/newshour.
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>> this is pbs newshour weekend, sunday. >> sreenivasan: yesterday, we reported the coming release of shaker aamer, a british legal resident who has been held at the u.s. military prison in guantanamo bay, cuba without charges for the past 13 years. he is expected to be freed in the next 30 days. itn's rohit kachroo has more on his story. no trial, no charge, no reason said his family for his 13 years of detention. >> i do not believe until i see him. even when i see him, then i think i can know it is the true person, right person or someone else. really. >> at home his family, a son born who he never met. >> six federal agencies unanimously said years ago that shaker should go home to his wife and kids so, while we're really grateful for david cameron for having raised shaker's case with
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obama, there will be a lot of questions. >> he was captured in 2001 in av gang stand and handed over to u.s. forces. he was transfered to guantanamo a year later accused of working for al qaeda. there his lawyers claim he was beaten and tortured. in 2007 after a direct request from the british government, he was cleared for release along with four other u.k. prisoners. and two years later he was cleared again. but despite that, there were some concerns in washington about his eminent release -- imminent release. >> i believe he is a very dangerous person. i'm concerned that if he were released, as my understanding of the result would be, he would be set free and could receive a financial windfall, even. >> after his 13 missing years, so much about his case, and the allegations against him, are still unknown.
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itv news. >> srennivasan: before we leave you ton, a look at the huge crowd pope francis has drawn at his final public event in the u.s. the crowd estimated at 850,000 catholics and the curious. has filled benjamin franklin parkway, the museum of art where the pope is leading an open air mass. he returns to vatican city tonight. that is it for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm hari sreenivasan, thanks for watching. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by:
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lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. the cheryl and philip milstein family. judy and josh weston. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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>> and our top story, the violent start to the new year in salinas. another shooting victim tonight. >> a 28-year-old man was shot several times in the upper body. >> two shootings in salinas tonight. the most serious happened just before 7:00. >> snipers, helicopters, and a swat team all called in to try and catch the suspects. woman: another shooting in salinas. it is the fifth in less than a week. man: two separate shootings in salinas in less than an hour and just miles apart. >> this park is kind of like the really dangerous place for, like, young people to hang around. usually, you know, every year, you get a couple of shootings that happen down there. >> you can see a body lying there, and i'm a kid, and i'm

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