tv PBS News Hour PBS February 12, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PST
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: after hosting last night's democratic debate, we review the candidates' answers and talk with mark shields and david brooks about the state of the race for president. then, pope francis and patriarch kirill of the russian orthodox church meet-- an historic moment 1,000 years in the making, since the two churches split. plus, repairing the violins played by jewish musicians in the holocaust. >> today, this violin is alive and going to talk to all the world. each time you play it, it's for millions of people who are dead. that is victory. and each concert is a victory.
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their pbs newshour debate. but the arguments they had on-stage, continued at long distance. >> as i pointed out last night, he has called the president weak, a disappointment -- >> woodruff: hillary clinton returned to south carolina this afternoon and to a line of attack she used in last night's debate, that bernie sanders has distanced himself from president obama: >> and it is a-- the kind of criticism that we've heard from senator sanders about our president i expect from republicans. i do not expect from someone running for the democratic nomination to succeed president obama. >> that is... ( applause ) madam secretary, that is a low blow. but you know what? last i heard we lived in a democratic society. last i heard, a united states senator had the right to disagree with the president, including a president who has
done such an extraordinary job. >> woodruff: the vermont senator also defended his plans for enlarging government's role-- to allow for free college tuition and a single-payer health care system. >> when today you have massive levels of income and wealth inequality, when the middle class is disappearing, you have the highest rate of child poverty of almost any major country on earth. yes, in my view, the government of a democratic society has a moral responsibility to play a vital role in making sure all of our people have a decent standard of living. >> woodruff: but clinton was quick to charge that sanders' proposals are-- in effect-- grandiose and unworkable. >> the best analysis that i've seen, based on senator sanders plans, is that it would probably increase the size of the federal government by about 40%. >> woodruff: moreover, the former secretary of state said the price tag of going to government-run health care would
simply be too high. >> every progressive economist who has analyzed that says that the numbers don't add up, and that's a promise that cannot be kept. this is not about math. this is about people's lives, and we should level with the american people about what we can do to make sure they get quality affordable healthcare. >> woodruff: sanders countered that clinton's claims are "inaccurate," and he talked up his idea of higher taxes on wall street and having the wealthy to pay for his plans. it was part of his stepped-up pitch to minority voters. >> instead of giving tax breaks to billionaires, we are going to create millions of jobs for low- income kids so they're not hanging out on street corners. and i think when you give low- income kids-- african-american, white, latino kids-- the opportunities to get their lives together, they are not going to end up in jail. they're going to end up in the productive economy, which is where we want them.
>> woodruff: sanders moved on to campaign in minnesota today. meanwhile, the republican contenders made stops all across south carolina. and, jeb bush's campaign called in his brother and former president george w. bush to join him in the state on monday. but front-runner donald trump dismissed that move during a rally in louisiana last night. >> i see he is bringing in his brother now. he tried the mother, who is a very nice lady i'm sure, but he tried the mother but that didn't work out so well, so now he is bringing out his brother... i'm not going to say anything. >> woodruff: on the opposite end of public opinion polls, ben carson sought to rally his flagging support today at a faith and family forum in greenville, south carolina. >> bernie sanders and hillary clinton will come along and say it's those evil rich people and that's what's causing you your problems. no, it's not the evil rich
people, it's the evil government, and we need to get them under the control. ( applause ) >> woodruff: republican voters in south carolina will have their say on february 20. the democratic caucuses in nevada are that same day. and late today, word came that former virginia governor jim gilmore is dropping out of the republican race. he had been a non-factor in the voting thus far. we'll turn to shields and brooks for full analysis of the democratic debate-- and the race on both sides-- later in the program. in the day's other news, wall street finally broke a five-day losing streak, after oil prices surged 12%, and bank prices bounced back as well. the dow jones industrial average gained 313 points to close near 15,974. the nasdaq rose 70 points, and the s&p 500 added 35. but for the week, the dow lost about 1.5%, the s&p was down nearly 1%, and the nasdaq dropped half a percent.
in pakistan, the military announced almost a hundred "hardcore terrorists" have been arrested in raids nationwide. a spokesman said they include al-qaeda militants and other extremists linked to major terror attacks. the men were taken into custody over the last several months. some had allegedly plotted to break daniel pearl's killer out of prison. the "wall street journal" correspondent was murdered in 2002. the migrant crisis in europe seemed to move closer to a breaking point today. austria said it is about to reach the maximum number it plans to accept this year. the austrian foreign minister spoke during a visit to macedonia, saying his government will help countries in the balkans, where the migrants arrive first. >> macedonia must be ready to completely stop the entry of migrants on its borders, since it is the first country that migrants reach after greece. we know it is a very difficult
task, so we have agreed that austria will give its support, not only in personnel like police and army, but also in equipment as well. >> woodruff: meanwhile, the european union warned it will suspend its open-borders system for two years, unless greece can stem the flow of migrants in the next three months. back in this country, president obama is granting "national monument" status to nearly 1.8 million acres of desert in the united states. today, he designated three areas in southern california: including the castle mountains, the mojave trails, and "sand to snow" in the sonoran desert. the white house says the move will maintain the area's ecosystem and natural resources. and, on this valentine's day weekend, police in iran have declared a crackdown. they say retailers who run valentine's promotions will be charged with promoting "decadent western culture." in particular, that means no special events at coffee or ice
cream shops where young lovers might exchange gifts. still to come on the newshour: a fragile agreement to pause the syrian civil war; how egypt's revolution has affected women's rights; a historic meeting one thousand years after the church's great schism; mark shields and david brooks analyze a packed week of news; plus, violins from the holocaust become instruments of hope. >> woodruff: now, hopes for the first steps in the road to peace in syria. the u.s. and russia agreed on a cease-fire plan, and rush of humanitarian aid to areas of the country ravaged by years of war. but there are doubts the pledges will hold. chief foreign affairs correspondent margaret warner reports. >> reporter: there was no letup in the intensity of russian air strikes across syria-- in the hours after major powers made
their announcement in munich. secretary of state john kerry and russian foreign minister sergei lavrov unveiled an agreement by the "international syria support group" of 17 nations. >> this progress has the potential, fully implemented, fully followed through on, to be able to change the daily lives of the syrian people. >> reporter: specifically, the agreement calls for: implementation of a nationwide "cessation of hostilities" in a week's time; immediate acceleration and expansion of humanitarian aid deliveries into syria; and increased coordination between the u.s. and russia air campaigns against the islamic state and other terror groups. the u.s. had sought an immediate, full-scale cease-fire in syria, for the first time
since fighting began in 2011. and, kerry acknowledged this agreement falls well short. >> a cease-fire, in the minds of many of the participants in this particular moment, connotes something far more permanent and far more reflective of sort of an end of conflict, if you will. and it is distinctly not that. >> reporter: moreover, the agreement allows continued air strikes against isis and similar terror groups. that provision could allow russia to go on targeting rebel groups fighting against its ally, syrian president bashar al assad. it's a point that was not lost on rebels on the ground today. >> ( translated ): as i am i do not like the idea of cease- fire, because it might be for our benefit for a short period of time. in the northern and the southern rural areas or in the liberated areas that we are in, like the northern suburbs of idlib for
example, this is not called cease-fire. >> reporter: as if to confirm it, assad told "agence france presse," in an interview taped yesterday, that he means to retake the whole of syria. he said: "this is a goal we are seeking to achieve without any hesitation. it makes no sense for us to say that we will give up any part." indeed, the syrian military and it's allies, backed by iran and by the russian airstrikes, are now on the verge of cutting off aleppo, the country's largest city. they have cut all but one of the rebels' vital supply lines to the north from turkey, and continue making gains. that would leave assad stronger than he has been in years. all of which leaves the various rebel factions in a precarious position. they were not part of the munich conference and must now decide whether to abide by what was approved there. today, the main opposition umbrella group criticized what it called a "weak agreement," even though it generally supports a cease-fire. an advisor for the group told the newshour:
"the russians are setting the pace on the ground and they still will. the agreement weakens us and moderate allies while allowing assad to set the terms." meanwhile, the unrelenting human toll mounts. in geneva, officials today convened the first meeting of the humanitarian task force created under yesterday's agreement. >> we have waited long for this and i expect a lot from this group. we hope that it can go without delay, once we have all of the access that we need. >> reporter: it cannot come too soon for countless refugees. turkey now says up to 40,000 have arrived in camps north of aleppo, just inside the syrian border. and more are flooding in every day. for the pbs newhour, i'm margaret warner.
>> woodruff: egyptian women were on the frontlines of the revolution that began in tahrir square. the five years since have seen the collective and individual struggles of women in egypt become a revolution in itself. tonight, special correspondent nick schifrin presents the final story in our series: five years on. ♪ >> i never joined any demonstrations before. once i went to the square i was really happy. a revolution is about hope, is about change, it's about being better.
>> ( translated ): it was a great victory that we managed to change the way men think, because they understand we are now on the front line with them. >> ( translated ): people were trying to create a different society. >> reporter: five years ago, egyptians did create a different society. and throughout the revolution, women were at the center of the movement. >> women went to tahrir square and imposed this situation. we're gonna sleep in the street like everyone else and we are going to organize and we are part of the protests and we're gonna lead protests sometimes and lead organizations. >> reporter: in tahrir square, female protesters found a freedom they hoped the culture would echo. salma said has been protesting for 15 years. >> i've never been surrounded with so many egyptian and non- egyptian men without being
harassed before and, of course, that changed right after -- even in the protests -- because this utopia doesn't last for even, uh, the length of a, a full revolution. it ends. >> no one knows that more than yasmine el-baramawy. she joined hundreds of thousands of protesters in tahrir square. and then, one night in late 2012, horror. >> they attacked me and they stripped me and they raped me and, uh, they, i was beaten. it was really violent. it lasted for 70 minutes. if it was 15 minutes, if it was 20 minutes, it was 30 minutes, i was learning all that time and it felt like, i had the experience of thirty years or forty years in this hour. >> reporter: from late 2012 through the middle of 2013, human rights groups say hundreds, perhaps thousands, of female protestors were sexually assaulted. in at least some cases, activists believe the government used violence as a political
weapon. >> i didn't doubt for a moment that this is a coincidence. i believe it is organized and it happened to many other women that day and later. >> government was on the television saying, "women who go to the square deserve this to happen." >> reporter: president abdel fattah al-sisi has tried to strike a different tone, visiting a sexual assault victim in hospital. but his government defends a controversial procedure called "virginity testing." >> it is some type of protection for women themselves. yeah. >> reporter: naglaa el adly is on the government-sponsored national council for women. in 2012 virginity tests administered by security officials sparked massive protests. human rights defenders call them an example of sexual assault. these tests are being forced upon these women and they don't have a choice and they are physically invasive and emotionally very difficult. >> it's a rule.
i have to obey the rule and the law. >> reporter: female activists knew if they wanted to continue protesting, they couldn't rely on police for protection. so they started organizations that protected one another. you can see the group's bodyguards in bright yellow vests, rushing to protect a woman surrounded during protests. >> we saw horrible things that i never thought i would experience. the third anniversary of the revolution, which is 25th of jan 2013, there were nineteen cases of rape in the square. i personally went to the hospital with a girl who has been raped with knives in the square and i never forgot that. but violence against women is not limited to protests. a u.n. study found 99% of egyptian women suffered sexual harassment or assault. >> reporter: the women's rights group harassmap is trying to fight the violence. its web site features locations
where people have been harassed. reem wael the executive director. >> it helps us monitor the trends of sexual harassment and use this information to debunk all the stereotypes. >> reporter: at cairo university, the group helped create the first sexual misconduct policy in the middle east. and on the streets, harassmap teamed up with uber to educate drivers how to avoid harassing customers. drivers now stick these harassment free zone stickers onto their cars. and the group launched a tv campaign after egypt passed its first sexual harassment law last summer. the ads empower women to report harassment. they deliver the message, "the fault is never the victims." >> we try to remove the stigma of the stories. >> reporter: sondos shabayek tries to turn harassment victims into storytellers. she leads a theater troupe that stages moments of harassment. >> something that was a source of shame, becomes a source of empowerment.
>> reporter: mona al masry had to find her own strength to carry on. her husband is a senior member of the muslim brotherhood and is in jail, sentenced to death. before the revolution, muslim brotherhood men led protests. but with the men silenced, women are leading, and getting arrested. >> ( translated ): the women of the muslim brotherhood once knew an easier life. now, we know of a harder, more powerful life. the future is beautiful and better, and we raise our daughters to understand this. >> reporter: do you want to introduce me to your children? her two daughters: seven-year- old aisha and 12-year-old tasbeeh - are learning her lessons. >> ( translated ): i learned that when difficult things happen, i should be strong. >> reporter: but in this family, mom's students are not her daughters. youssef is 15.
>> ( translated ): i have been learning from her since i was born. she taught me how to be a man. >> reporter: i can see you getting emotional. >> women are supposed to be weaker, but i don't see it this way at all. >> reporter: there may be no woman - no person - who's changing society's expectations than yasmine el baramawy. during her attack, outnumbered by more than a hundred, yasmine transformed indignity into strength. >> i changed from defending to attacking. >> reporter: but before going public, she needed to teach her own family that lesson. >> when i told my father he
said, "no, don't go on tv." em, and he threatened me that he will deny i'm his daughter. >> reporter: she rejected his advice and became the first egyptian woman to publicly describe her rape. later, she became the first egyptian woman to prosecute her attackers. her father learned the lesson when her entire family supported her. >> they said, "your girl is a hero." and he became proud of me. >> reporter: the world was proud of her too. she became the face of a global rally against sexual assault. hundreds of thousands celebrated her courage. >> everybody avoids talking about this, but, when i did it i, became, someone to be proud of. it became some, sort of a power to change the, the culture and,
i felt the need to say, "i'm someone. i have a job and i have a life and i do many things and i have a brain i use, i have opinions, i have many things. i'm not just a victim of that." >> woodruff: watch all three of nick's reports from egypt in our series five years on. you can find them on our world page at www.pbs.org/newshour. >> woodruff: this afternoon in havana, at jose marti airport, a meeting one thousand years in the making. pope francis met with patriarch kirill of the eastern orthodox church, the first meeting
between the leaders of christianity's two largest churches since 1054, when a schism split the ancient church. hari sreenivasan takes it from there. >> sreenivasan: the meeting on neutral ground was decades in the planning. the leaders met for two hours behind closed doors, and later signed a joint declaration decrying persecution of christians around the world. we explore this historic moment, and its impact going forward, with his beatitude, metropolitan tikhon. he is the orthodox archbishop of washington, d.c., and the primate of the orthodox church in america, its senior-most leader in the u.s. and canada; and his eminence, theodore cardinal mccarrick, the roman catholic archbishop emeritus of washington d.c. first, for someone who hasn't been following the thousand-year-long rift between these two branches, why is this so important and why did it happen now? >> there's been attempts to bridge that gap over the years, none of which have really been
successful, but in the last, you know, number of years, the last few decades, the groundwork for such a possible discussion has been taking place. so while this meeting may seem like a somewhat new or surprising event, it has been discussed with both pope francis' predecessors and patriarchals, but somehow the meeting happening today in cuba did not take place. but there have been relations between the roman catholic and orthodox churches during the past thousand years but there is been a lot of both theological and ecleeziasticle differences that need to be worked out as well as just the simple, physical separation that sort of contributed to sort of a great divide. so a great opportunity now in
this time of strife in the world to see two great world leaders come together and begin more formally a dialogue. >> sreenivasan: your eminence, why now? >> well, i think it's special for many reasons as the beatitude mentioned many of them, but many of us think of the russian orthodox churches the church of the martyrs because during the communist age, it was very, very difficult. it's a great blessing, actually, that the russian people kept faithful to the church. it was not easy to be a fervent orthodox christian in the days of communism and, so, that's all passed now, and the church has come into its own, and we see so many of the people who suffered over those years coming back and very fervently and very
wonderfully saying, we are orthodox christians, we know who we are. so what a great time to do it. it's a good moment because there are a lot of good things happening and it's a good moment because there are a lot of bad things happening and we all have to stay together more than we ever have before. >> sreenivasan: what are some of the bad things? what are the kerns your two churches agree on? >> well, certainly, i think what you will see from the joint declaration from today's meeting, the persecution of christians in the middle east and really the persecution of all religious minorities in every context, i think, has been certainly a concern for the pope and, you know, for orthodox christians as well. the care for our brothers, whether they are christians or not, should be something that's foremost in our hearts and, you know, the orthodox not only during communist times but in
previous, you know, decades and centuries have often lived in various co contexts of persecutn and strive but also living together with muslims, for example, in various countries where the very places where strife sometimes erupts have also been places where people have genuinely tried to live together and be together regardless of their religious or ethnic background. >> sreenivasan: your eminence, a thousand years ago when this split happened, the roman empire was torn in two, there were cultural differences that were allowed to harden, linguistic differences. the world is in many ways a much smaller place now. what's the likelihood of potentially a reunion between these two churches? how long be will that take? another thousand years? >> i don't have my crystal ball with me on that one, but i do
have a -- we do have the gospels with us, and we hear the lord jesus saying that all may be one. so our orthodox brethren and sisters and catholic people, christians, the whole world that accepts jesus christ as lord listens to him saying that all the time, i want you to be one. so as we look around now, with all the troubles, with all the difficulties, with all the persecutions in so many parts of the world, this is the time to be together, this is the time to say we are together. if there's any time when we want to get together and embrace each other in our faith, that time is now. >> your beatitude, it seems that, back then, there were political concerns, now there are also political concerns, especially in regions like russia and the ukraine. how do churches put this behind
them and say, for the greater good, we need to make these compromises and you have a 100, a 1,000 yearo risen, not just who's elected next? >> i think what we see today with the meeting with the pope and the patriarch, is it's a personal meeting. you know, regardless of all the preparation and the churches that sort of are behind them that they lead, this is a meeting of two christians in a neutral location but taking the time to meet together and to just be with one another, regardless of what plans might be set in motion for the future, whether it's another 50 years or 100 years, we hope that, you know, the dialogue will continue. but the personal relations, i think, are so crucial, especially, as you say, when the world we live in is so small.
so, really, those personal contexts are really crucial. >> sreenivasan: same question to you. >> it's a world whose horrors call for harmony among those who really believe in what we believe in. we believe in the beattitudes, we believe in the position of the lord jesus in the world, we believe the holy spirit is inspiring us all to come and work together and to be together and to have this one family. holy father is always talking about family these days, and maybe the greatest family is the family of the christians. this is the time for us to say, okay, we know who we are. we are the children of the lord, and we know who our brethren and sisters are. we could have a wonderful world here, and that's the world god wants us to have. >> all right, your eminence, your beatitude, thanks so much for joining us. >> thank you.
>> woodruff: the democrats faced off on the debate stage last night and now the focus of the race for the white house turns to south carolina and nevada. with that we turn to the analysis of shields and brooks. that's syndicated columnist mark shields and "new york times" columnist david brooks. and welcome, gentlemen. some of us are back from milwaukee and grad to be back. mark, tuesday was only three nights ago, bernie sanders won the new hampshire primary big time. how did that change the race, how did it change the dynamics, do you think, in last night's debate? >> well, it changed the race, judy, by guaranteeing that we'll probably have a race in june, that there will be a bernie sanders/hillary clinton competition in california. it guaranteed bernie sanders
$6.5 million the first 19 hours after the polls closed. he's got a national following, he's got a national treasury. it puts her at a disadvantage, it gave him credibility. so going in last night, hillary clinton on the heels of a thrashing 48 hours earlier was in a position of trying to bring him back down to earth as they head south. i thought she arrived surprisingly with her poise and confidence in contact. >> woodruff: how did you see the dynamics going into the debate last night? >> well, going into the debate, it was a question of how aggressive she would get and would she get overly aggressive or not. i thought her demeanor especially in the first 45 minutes or half hour is good. she can be sometimes lecturing but she was more explaining. you were there, judy, so you may know this, but it was a debate over price tag tim versus vision. you know, she was saying, that's not reality. you can't stop healthcare systems if there's not
healthcare systems. 100 million people have healthcare, you just can't do that, and she was trying to explain reality to them and i think she was quite effective. i think toward the end one to have the central factors in this rairks one is price tag tim versus his radical vision, but the second is on what ground is this debate being fought because he has such a strong narrative and his campaign and life is built around that narrative. it's always fought on his ground. she has no narrative and she's trying to create one with obama, but that's obama's narrative. so i think as the nestic part went on, he sort of gained strength just by the structure of the argument. >> woodruff: but mark, she keeps harming and did it last night, it's just not practical to say you're going to have the government completely take over healthcare, it's not practical to have all college paid for by the government. >> she did. i agree with david on her tone. her tone was far better than it had been previously. it was well modulated.
it was not adversarial or confrontational. judy, this is the 13t 13th presidential campaign i've either worked in or covered and the first question every potential white house aspirant as to address is why do you want to be president and what difference will it make if you're president rather than anybody else running. bernie sanders, as david said, as a compelling reason. the deck is stacked against people by the rich, by the powerful, they do it through the campaign finance system. the top 1%, it tilts in their favor, and working americans are getting the short end of the stick. hillary clinton does not have a theme. her campaign lacks a theme. so it became last night, and it seems today, that the argument is not why hillary clinton should be president, it's why bernie sanders shouldn't be president, and that seems to be
now that the -- but it's still a campaign that doesn't have an overarching theme. there's nothing there to say let's march. >> woodruff: when she says, i'm not a one-issue candidate, david, is that half a theme for her? >> that's half a theme, but sometimes when someone gives you nine explanations for why they did something, they've got no real explanation. when you're writing a book, for example, a book is about one thing and the campaign is about one thing and she does haven't that one thing. what sheets trying to do now is make obama her one thing, but she's trying to borrow obama's narrative. it's sort of popular, there was a ugov poll and the results were obamobama 56. the obama moment was one of the crucial moments of the night but it's still not a justification for herself.
>> woodruff: the clinton campaign mark says we're going into these states, south carolina, nevada, that is much more diverse. this is going to be much more friendly territory for us. is that something that could work in her favor? >> it certainly should be, but it's an explanation for her. she's the only candidate in history that's been the wife of one president and yet surgically joined at the hip with the incumbent president, and president obama is enormously popular with democrats everywhere, especially among minority democrats, particularly african-american democrats, and she's not only got his back, she's got his side, she's got his foot. she really is running not simply barack obama's defender, his apologist, his protector against bernie sanders' occasional criticism. so i think, no, these demographically, these are territories which should be more welcoming and more friendly to her. but we don't have any measurements of the states prior
to the sort of earthquake of new hampshire and the standoff of iowa. >> woodruff: so you're basically saying that this theme problem that she has may override any advantage she could have, david, the fact there are more african-americans in south carolina, they're more disposed to vote for clinton than sanders. >> it's getting harder for sanders, there's no question about that, as many said on this program, iowa and new hampshire were his best states. nonetheless, does he stop? i don't think he does. you know the first african-american president is running for president, obviously there's going to be a surge of pride and affiliation in the african-american community. but most people, whether they're latino, african-american, white or anybody else, pocket book issues matter. so if bernie sanders comes in and is compelling on pocketbook issues -- i don't think he's compelling at all, i think he's completely unrealistic, but if
he is compelling, there will be some spanning of winning latino and african-american votes. >> as david said, bernie doesn't have to win a majority of african-american votes, he just has to win enough to join the coalition of whites. judy, his strength among young voters, everybody in the political world marvels that. this 74-year-old grandfather, kind of crotch ety and all the rest of it, but it's remarkable, 87% and he's leading. one national survey, 35 points among voters under age 35. that is impressive, and these are people who, if you talk to people who have surveyed them, who really do feel that it's stacked against them, so his message is resonating across the generational divide. >> woodruff: let's talk for a minute about the republicans, david. talk about new hampshire, donald trump came roaring back in
new hampshire, disappointed in iowa. is he the man to beat? looks like we're just looking at one candidate shooting at another and another on the republican side. >> you have to say he's the man to beat because he did well in every group, among moderates, conservatives, pro and anti-immigration, so he did well in all the groups. so you can't find a lane. having said that, south carolina has a couple of things that new hampshire doesn't have, tons of evangelical christians and tons of people who call themselves extremely conservative. so ted cruz is looking much more promising not only in south carolina but the s.e.c. primary states a little while later. so for the next little while, it would not be surprising if we're talking about cruz and trump. >> woodruff: what do you say? i think trump's victory in new hampshire was enormously impressive. it was disappointing in iowa. he was knocked off stride. he really didn't have his game
going for the first few days, and then yet he started building the rallies, the rallies translated into enthusiasm and into votes, he carried men and women. he carried every age group. he has 35% who always said he had a lower ceiling. the ceiling is getting higher. you've got 35% basically across the board. i think, and it couldn't have turned out better for them. john kasich who did the traditional new hampshire thing, 106 town meetings, won one out of six votes and emerged to fight another day but not with any great strength in the south, so there's no establishment figure around, they call us. the candidate establishment most favored and democrats most feared marco rubio got caught in the debate where chris christie looking like an 18 wheeler coming down the highway with his high beams, marco rubio looked like bambi caught in those head lights. i think whether he can recover
from that, i'm not sure. everybody knew it was going to happen. it happened and he did not handle it well. >> woodruff: how do you rubio now? quickly about jeb bush, he's bringing in his brother, the former president george w. bush, could that make a difference for him? >> i think rubio can recover because he is a good communicator. as he performs well in future debates, i think he can cover over that bad moment he had. not saying he will, but it's possible because that's his natural strength. as for george bush, people like him but he's not of the moment. the moment san angry moment and i don't think he'll help jeb. if jeb wants to run and he seems to be as the anti-trup and let's hope there is an emotional recoil, then president bush can help him because he is a
congenial, good guy. but i don't feel excitement building around him. >> jeb bush, in the republican debate last saturday night, donald trump made one of the most reckless statements about all he made, i'm not going to bring back waterboarding, i'm going to do worse than that. and ted cruz was slippery, wouldn't take him on. marco rubio went mute. jeb bush was the one person who stood up and said that's against the law of the united states and that is a dishonor to our troops, a dishonor to our values, and i would uphold it. and for that i give him credit. but i agree, this is not a surrogate's year, i don't think. >> woodruff: one other candidate on the republican side is john kasich. here's somebody who did not do well, didn't even compete, really, david, in iowa, but he came in decently, third or fourth, in new hampshire, and now he's really trying to carve out a lane for himself. >> yeah, he faces the southern problem that we go south where
he's naturally going to be the weakest. but if he can hang around to the midwest, he can do well. the trump thing is so much about manners and, if you can have somebody with the opposite manners, i have to feel there is good republicans there who want that, who want civility, decency, someone who won't be wearing on the dinner party. we used to say about chris christie, the first 30 minutes of the dinner party you're thrilled he's there, and at the last, it's time to go, chris. if there's going to be an alternative, it would be someone with kasich's manner, congenial, and pragmatic. it's not been a great year for pricpriceprice tapragmatism andf
done. >> woodruff: should they all shoot at trump or -- >> well, i think the debate in south carolina will be different. >> woodruff: the republican debate tomorrow night. >> tomorrow night. in new hampshire trump sat at the head of the table eating his prime rib while the others had food fights among themselves. in south carolina cruz and rubio understand they have to take on trump. jeb bush has taken on trump. everyone who's taken on trump paid for it dearly up till now. ted cruz's problem is simple, he con 8% of nonevangelical voters in new hampshire, that's all. he's got to do better. david's right, there are more conservative voters in south carolina, but he's got to engage trump and be willing to go toe-to-toe with him. rubio seems more liberated since on election night he took full responsibility for what happened which in itself is refreshing.
>> woodruff: so much to look at and for and can't wait to see it all and have you back next friday. mark shields, david brooks, thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: a collection of violins-- largely silent for seven decades-- is giving voice to the horrors of the holocaust. david c. barnett from cleveland's public television station wviz's ideastream tells the story behind the instruments that were once owned by the inmates of nazi concentration camps. >> reporter: stanley bernath has a vivid memory of his arrival at the mauthausen concentration camp, in 1944. bernath and his fellow jewish prisoners were shipped to the camp in a cattle car, and marched to the front gate. >> the huge gate with a name on top in german, "arbeit macht
frei," meaning "work will make you free." as we entered, a symphonic orchestra was playing beethoven. it was an unbelievable sight. people were being beaten and killed and there's an orchestra playing. >> reporter: that's a story that israeli violinmaker amnon weinstein has heard before. the first time was fifty years ago, when a man brought a battered, old instrument into his shop that had once been played in a death camp. >> i was very afraid of it, because when i opened this violin, there was a black powder inside, which, for me, was from the ashes. and i know it was from the man who played on the way to the gas chamber. >> reporter: for weinstein, that instrument was a chilling reminder of the hundreds of relatives he had lost in those prison camps. and for the last twenty years, he's been on a quest to collect and repair violins of the holocaust. amnon weinstein's tel aviv shop
is filled with violins, violas and cellos in various states of repair, and he reckons he and his son avshalom have restored about 60 instruments, so far, as part of a project he calls, "the violins of hope." this past fall, they packed up about a third of the collection for a series of concerts and exhibits in cleveland. >> bring me the five-star of david violin. this is now beautiful, but it took me 1.5 year to restore this from scratches. it has four stars on the front, and this beautiful on the back. now it's going to cleveland. >> and the last one is the auschwitz violin. this was played in the men's
orchestra, and the one who played on it was not far from the sign: "arbeit macht frei." >> reporter: holocaust historian jay geller says the ability to play an instrument saved numerous prisoners from the gas chambers. >> the musicians who played in the camp orchestras were still prisoners, and they were still mistreated by the camp authorities, but they did have a particular skill that made them useful. so, in a sense, they were the prize cattle. >> reporter: geller says these musicians were sometimes used to entertain the commandants running the camps. in other instances, the orchestras served to lull the inmates into a false sense of security. that's what happened to hedy milgrom's family members: >> when my mom and her twin sister and her father and other siblings and nieces arrived at auschwitz, the first thing that
they heard and saw was this orchestra at auschwitz. and my mother turned to her twin sister, you know, she took her by the arm, and said, "you see? it can't be all that bad. there's music here." >> reporter: the story of these prison camp orchestras was told in display cases at cleveland's maltz museum of jewish heritage. the personal history of each instrument carefully documented, many of them intricately ornamented. historian jay geller says that in jewish households, a decorated violin was often a way to get around certain biblical restrictions on art. >> in the jewish tradition, the second commandment of the ten commandments is: thou shall not make graven images. historically, this had the effect that jews did not do representational art. jewish artistic endeavors focused on practical objects. especially objects for ritual
use, but to also decorate and embellish objects that one might use on a regular basis, including the violins. so, while these violins and other instruments were meant to be played as ordinary objects, they were also works of art. they could be embellished, decorated with inlay. >> reporter: amnon weinstein is proud whenever people get to see the violins and learn about their history, but he's especially happy when these instruments are played for live audiences. >> violins are supposed to be played on, not sitting like furniture. that might be good for the violin, and it would last for hundreds of years, but violins have to speak. and the most important part of the life of a violin is to be played in concert. then, they can tell stories. >> reporter: the largest" violins of hope" concert took
place in an historic northeast ohio temple, and featured 22 instruments from the holocaust era, played by members of the cleveland orchestra. >> there is a power in music that is, that breeds resilience, that gives people hope. >> reporter: the violins of hope are holocaust survivors. scarred by the war years, they were silent for decades. but now, they have music to play. and amnon weinstein says each one has a story to tell. >> today, this violin is alive and going to talk to all the world. each time you play it, it's for millions of people who are dead. that is victory. and each concert is a victory. >> reporter: and weinstein says that's why he continues to look for more violins to bring back to life.
for the pbs newshour, i'm david c. barnett, in cleveland. >> woodruff: on the newshour online: for exiled syrian artist tamman azzam, living in abroad has given him a sense loss on two accounts: being away from his home, while also seeing it be destroyed by war. so he began to paint; the result is an arresting visual chronicle of the physical and emotional toll the war has taken. you can see a gallery of azzam's work, on our home page: www.pbs.org/newshour. and a reminder about some upcoming programs from our pbs colleagues. gwen ifill's preparing for a special "washington week," from
milwaukee. here's a preview: >> ifill: join us tonight from milwaukee where we followed last night's debate and this week's primary with the best analysis from the nation's smartest political reporters. we're still on the debate stage here at "washington week." judy? >> woodruff: on pbs "newshour" weekend saturday how the city of chicago is using data and social media to target restaurant health inspections. that's tomorrow night on pbs newshour weekend. and we'll be back, right here, on monday, with a look at widespread distrust among many in baltimore for the city's famous hospitals. that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. have a great weekend. thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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