tv Global 3000 WHUT November 15, 2013 8:30am-9:00am EST
farming, and the promise of quick cash is leading to many new companies being started. >> in our country, there are 5,000 students graduating in computer science and computer engineering. they have not such a job in the market. they want an outsourcing business for their income. >> these computer science students, all in their 20s, have also discovered click farming as a source of income. they're doing it to pay for their studies. we meet them in a private home. they used to use an automatic computer program. >> 1000 likes in five or three seconds -- minutes. >> they demonstrate using a facebook page for a german news program. a few keystrokes, and the number of likes rises. but this kind of fraud is easy to uncover. facebook deleted the automatically added numbers the next day. now the students use the real facebook accounts of their
friends. >> i save a lot of the money i'm earning because i want to start my own company after getting my degree. >> that hope for a better life also drives masud rana. he still lives with his parents and siblings in a small apartment, eight people crammed into 50 square meters. >> i want to buy a flat first because i am in a rent now. but i have a flat, my satisfaction will increase, you know? that's the main fact. and my other plan is that i want to buy an exclusive bmw car. >> for the time being, rana still rides a motorcycle. but judging by the demand for click farms, he'll be able to upgrade soon. >> there is general consensus worldwide about the urgency of dealing with the impact of climate change.
but as we have seen at various international conferences, sharp divisions remain on how we should go about it. >> the central american nation of costa rica has come up with its own strategy. a quarter of the country has been designated a nature reserve to protect the region's bio- diversity and reduce environmental degradation. various initiatives have brought progress, but as we hear, it is sometimes tough to find the right balance between economic and environmental interests. >> it's night-time on this beach on costa rica's southern pacific coast. a female sea turtle buries her eggs in the sand, watched over by police officers who see wildlife protection as national duty. once the turtle has disappeared back into the sea, they gather the eggs. >> she made a nest, but there's
a risk that the waves will wash it away. so, we're taking the eggs out and putting them in an incubator. >> this is a city administration initiative, and for this german expert, it's a model for the future. michael schlönvoigt is looking for ways to help protect costa rica's biodiversity. the landscape here is changing, sometimes very quickly. here, for instance, several meters of coastline have disappeared in the past three months, after a large river altered its flow. >> this is in part a result of climate change. there's an increase in rainfall intensity. but it's also a result of human intervention. if you look, you can see there are a lot of tree trunks moving in the river. deforestation in higher areas, in the highlands, has increased the speed of the river's flow, and then the river floods more easily when it rains.
>> predicting changes to the landscape and advising politicians is michael schlönvoigt's job. today, he's in the capital san josé to consult with costa rican authorities. his task is to help draw up guidelines for conservation areas, with a special focus on climate change. >> thanks to a gap analysis, we discovered that certain conservation areas are too small. they're not big enough to be able to adapt to the effects of climate change. >> in order to protect the country's biodiversity, some of the conservation areas are to be connected with others, and the areas redrawn. so, where should the new borders be, and how can conservation be carried out? >> it all depends on the relationships we have to the fishermen and the local authorities. it's up to them whether we'll be
able to expand these zones or not. ballena naonal park. these corals look the way they're supposed to. the marine biologist is satisfied. >> what a beautiful place. the reef is in very good shape, really, really nice. the corals look really good, the surface is perfect and there are a lot of fish. >> one of the reasons is that there are very strict rules in the national park. snorkeling and looking is allowed. touching is strictly forbidden. schlönvoigt points to the marino ballena national park as a good example. here, authorities were able to get local residents on board years ago, but only after dealing with angry protests. the fishermen were worried about their livelihoods.
>> a guard station was burned down in 1994. we don't know who did it. maybe it was because of a conflict of interest. but today, the fishermen from the 1990's work as tour guides. >> there are only a few fishing boats now, out along the edge of the national park. most of the fishermen have retrained as tour guides and their new careers have changed the way they think. >> it used to be that the national park meant that we weren't allowed to fish. but later, and thanks to the training, we changed our minds. we now look at nature in a new way. >> by taking tourists on whale watches, the former fisherman now earns three times as much as he used to.
but in a nearby mangrove swamp, things aren't looking so good. there are dead trees marring the idyll. >> why are these trees here so bare? what's happened? >> it's mainly from chemicals. they're sprayed on pineapple plantations here in the area. rice paddies, too. and on the oil palm tree plantations here in front of us. >> the problem is that agriculture is creeping too close to the conservation area. but there's no money to enforce laws and compensate local residents. but schlönvoigt has an idea. >> we've found out that up to 400 tons of co2 per hectare can be absorbed. and here, we have a total of 16,000 hectares of connected rainforest or mangrove swamp. so, there's a huge capacity for absorbing co2.
we're now conducting a study to see if we can get the mangrove swamp into a redd process. we're very optimistic that it will happen. >> redd stands for "reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation" and is a kind of co2 offset scheme. the credits could be used to preserve the mangrove swamp. businesses are also being asked to do their part. the hotels depend on tourists who also come for the natural beauty. so here, an international hotel chain is sponsoring an initiative where children help reforest a section of the coastline. the trees will give shade and help fight erosion. it's an exemplary project, but many more are needed. >> we assume that currently, under-financing of the entire conservation area system is at 100%. we have a budget of maybe $50 million to $60 million a year provided by the conservation area authority. but we really need around $100 million to manage everything properly.
>> in order to find the funds needed, the experts on the ground still need a lot more good ideas. >> there is increasing concern about the high number of child marriages in the world. globally, an estimated 14 million girls are married off annually before they turn 18. in most cases, without their consent. these girls are deprived of their childhood, their right to education and opportunities according to unicef, in over 70% of marriages in niger, the girls are underage; in chad and bangladesh, it's over 60% and in mozambique, more than 50% of girls are married off before they turn 18. child marriage also has a very detrimental affect on the health of girls, who often become mothers at a young age. we take a closer look at this problem in mozambique.
>> ilse guambe is 15 years old and a mother. that's nothing unusual in rural mozambique, where half of all girls are married before they're of legal age. one in five is married before the age of 15. their husbands' families generally just see them as cheap labor. >> after i had my baby, my parents sent me to my in-laws. all they did was insult me. i wasn't welcome there. >> and ilse was one of the lucky ones. she and her child are healthy. essita muhlanga lives far away from the nearest hospital. >> it happened during the birth. when it was over, i was incontinent. >> her husband works in south africa. just 14, essita was alone when she went into labor. her baby was too big, and the birth took several days. the pressure from the baby cut off blood flow in her pelvis, causing tissue damage and tearing.
>> after the birth, my baby was very weak and died. i was very sad. then i noticed that i could hardly walk anymore. >> the world health organization says some 3.5 million women around the world suffer this kind of injury, called obstetric fistula. it's rare in industrialized nations, where caesarean deliveries are carried out in complicated cases. essita's going to have surgery at the hospital in muzrisi, which specializes in treating fistulas. it's supported by the un's population fund. dr. michaque tembe says pregnancies among young girls are one of the biggest problems in rural mozambique. >> these child weddings are a terrible thing. the girls aren't ready for pregnancy yet, and not only physically. the children should not have to be responsible yet for their own
children. >> but it's not only about giving the young mothers medical care, it's also about education. actors have come to this village, putting the suffering of child brides on stage. the play is meant to convince the elders, the decision-makers in the village. the legal marriage age in mozambique is actually 16. and after today, no one in the village can say they didn't know that. salmina cumbane, who herself was a child bride, thinks the campaign is working. >> when the play started, most of the village elders here thought it was fine to force a girl to marry against her will. but i think that the longer they watched, the better they understood that you shouldn't force children to marry.
they should go to school and then decide themselves whom they want to marry. >> going back to school offers the girls a chance to determine the course of their own lives. >> all i want is to go back to school. i don't want to go back to my husband. i suffered so much, too much. when i finish school, then i can get job training and earn my own money. >> for the young mothers, childhood is over. but perhaps their daughters can look forward to a better future. >> from girls robbed of their health and of opportunities in mozambique to a rapidly aging population in japan. falling fertility rates in countries like germany are contributing to what is called a graying population. but it's less well known that the problem is equally acute in
japan, where almost a quarter of the population is over 65 years of age. senior citizens living in small towns and villages often face an isolated and lonely future. we take a look at some innovative ways to help them cope. >> tomo choki day begins with a -- tomo choki begins the day with a prayer of thanks and offerings on the home altar. she believes she'd no longer be alive without divine help. >> thank you for letting me wake up healthy again. please let me spend the day without any problems. >> a day like any other, spent alone with nothing but photographs for company. her father. her mother and her husband, who died three years ago. since then, the 86-year-old widow has lived by herself. >> in the evening, when it gets dark outside, it's difficult for me. i shut the windows, draw the curtains, and turn all the lamps on, so it's really bright.
then i turn on the tv, so i don't feel so lonely. >> her three children left their home in southern japan and now live in cities. they call their mother often, but they don't want to move back. and tomo doesn't want to move in with one of them. she says someone has to look after the house, that's the tradition. she lives in a valley on the japanese island of kyushu, where rice paddies shimmer in the sunlight. the soil has always provided food for the people here. but many no longer want to live here. abandoned houses, places that have been uninhabited for years, their owners dead, the children moved away. in some villages, 70% of the population is of retirement age. tomo choki doesn't often have visitors. sometimes masayoshi kiyohara from the neighborhood committee comes by.
his main concern is that old people could die alone in their homes, helpless. so, the villagers have come up with a solution. every morning, they put up a yellow flag in front of their houses. >> we put the flag out in the morning, and bring it in again at night. everyone in the village has to participate, and then it works. when we see the flag, then everyone knows the people inside are fine. >> if the flag fails to appear, the house is immediately visited by a neighbor, and medical help provided when needed. the idea has spread to many neighboring villages, too. but it doesn't solve the fundamental problem. no pitter-patter of tiny feet here in this schoolyard. an exercise class is taking place in the former school cafeteria. people who come to this school
in the small town of kunisaki want to learn how to stay mobile. a social services provider has taken over the building. but the original rooms were too big for their new uses. >> this used to be one big classroom. we turned it into four separate rooms for resident care. the windows stayed as they are, and the tables are from the school. each resident has one. >> once, this school had 400 pupils. there were five children in the last graduating class. in 2008, the school was closed. what the town now needs is effective senior care. that's the case all over japan, not just in remote areas. this is a trade fair for nursing products in tokyo. the demographic shift in japan has also opened up a huge new market for things like adult
diapers with a suction device, meaning they can be changed less often. the nursing products industry has seen the writing on the wall. this is a bed that can monitor a patient's heartbeat and send the information to doctors or family members. many of the innovative products have one goal -- helping seniors to live independently. there's a device that helps you stand up, and robot modules make climbing stairs easier. and for emotional needs, a robot made to look like a baby seal. it has a sensor that reacts to touch and kind words. the modern generation of robots doesn't avoid physical contact . just the opposite. they're meant to help where human contact is lacking. "i'm palro" it says, "i'm responsible for the entertainment here. i'll try to do my best, so be kind to me! a round of applause!"
there's not much that palro can't do. >> palro can entertain an audience at a nursing home for 20 minutes. it asks quiz questions, dances, and plays with people. the reaction to it is positive. it's also used in day centers. the clients enjoy going there when they hear, "palro is here!" >> here among the rice paddies in kyushu, there are no robots. instead, the neighbors look after one other. that's a help to tomo choki, but it can't replace what once was. >> when my children were small, the house was full of life and noise. they were always running around. those days are gone.
now my children have families of their own. i have ten great-grandchildren. they like me, and when they call out, "grandma, grandma!", it makes me very happy. >> happiness is when the children came home -- come home. if only they came more often, her yellow flag wouldn't be such a lifeline. >> the challenges of an aging society -- not just confined to western nations but also a growing problem in asia. that's it for now. don't forget you can go to our website for more information on those and other reports. -- other stories. from me, amrita cheema, and the "global 3000" team here in berlin, thanks for being with us. michaela küfner will be back with you next week. be sure to join us. until then, goodbye. captioned by the national captioning institute --www.ncicap.org--
>> our guest is the ambassador to the united states from the republic of azerbaijan. the ambassador formally served as consul general to los angeles and 13 states. foras senior counselor foreign affairs and the office of the president. mr. ambassador, thank you for visiting with us today. >> it is good to be here. please call me dennis. what would be thcultural background?
name.uslim turkey it is a reflection of our identity being a muslim nation for a long time. somebody referred recently to azerbaijan as a hidden treasure. tell me how. >> i hope it is not hidden anymore. i hope it is open to the world. i don't want to exaggerate because we live in a very interesting part of the world. uniquenessthink the the collections of cultures and influences. i will give you a couple of examples. of theat the center
muslim civilizations. worlds,nd the persian the slavic world, and altogether coming to azerbaijan. there are so many influences coming together. >> you were born in the capital city of baku. the last 22hanged, years are the years of independence? >> it is difficult to explain has always been a southern and very pretty town. it has always had this unique
but i think one of the greatest achievements was reinvesting the management sector. the new highways, new architecture. we discussed the relief center. >> it is quite unique. one of the best architects in the world. the whole culture is just fantastic. we also protect our heritage. city or the the old old town, you see how much effort is put into protecting >> it is part of that human