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tv   60 Minutes  NBC  February 28, 2016 7:00pm-8:00pm EST

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presents, preserving the past. >> the $540 million national museum of african-american history and culture is rising on the national mall. its complexion rendered in shades of bronze, a building of color against history's white marble. >> this is not the museum of tragedy. it is not the museum of difficult moments. it is the museum that says here is a balanced history of america that allows us to cry and smile. >> italy is home to two-thirds of the world's cultural treasures, trouble is the country is too broke to keep its historic rooms, churches and monuments from crumbling to dust. >> but now, some of this most treasured and endangered
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a government but by a more respected institution: the fashion business. >> what is possible for us to do for the country, we need to do now. >> when pope benedict xvi came to the familia he consecrated the church as a basilica. >> not since 1883 when it was first envisioned by antoni gaudi had it been seen in all of its glory. >> he wanted to write the whole of the history in the catholic faith in one building. i mean, how crazy and how
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that idea is? >> cbs money watch pup date brought to you by: >> glor: good evening. apple and f.b.i. take their encryption battle to congress on tuesday. a new push today for f.a.a. to set limits on how cramped airline seats can be. and warren buffett said this weekend berkshire-hathaway added $15.4 billion to its net worth
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i'm jeff glor, cbs news. there isangeinstincthat s within y. like chaos. in tseimes, wed that weyou ush in, when everyone else is running away. introducing the jeep renegade,
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>> pelley: good evening, and welcome to "60 minutes presents." i'm scott pelley. tonight, "preserving the past." we'll explore three memorable buildings, where architecture is honored and history is kept alive. we're going to begin in washington with a museum that has yet to open its doors.
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since america's original sin, and still, riots are ignited in the friction between race and justice. as this debate continues, the smithsonian is completing a monumental project, the $500 million national museum of african american history and culture. the idea was authorized by an act of congress, which called it "a tribute to the negro's contribution to the achievements of america." the words are jarring because the act was written in 1929. as we first told you last spring, building this museum has been a long struggle, just like the story it hopes to tell. beside the monument to washington, a slave-holding president, the museum is breaking free of the ground on the mall's last five acres. eight decades after congress
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then failed to fund it, the dream is being written, this time in steel and stone: ten floors-- five above ground, five below; its complexion, rendered of color against history's white marble. now. it's a big job. >> lonnie bunch: well, as i tell people, at 8:00 in the morning, i have the best job in america, and at 2:00 in the morning, it's the dumbest thing i've ever done in my life. this is a romare bearden from the 1950s. >> pelley: sleepless nights are all in a day's work for the museum's founding director, lonnie bunch, a scholar of the 19th century. >> bunch: clearly, this is... ought to be one of those moments where people are going to sort of reflect, pause. what does it mean once we open? what does it mean in terms of development opportunities? >> pelley: in 2003, president bush signed the law creating the museum.
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and bunch has raised most of another $270 million. >> bunch: i knew that this is where this museum would have to be, that this is america's front lawn, and this is the place where people come to learn what it means to be an american, and this museum needs to be there. >> pelley: so, we're on the grouou floor. this is where the visitors will come in. this will be their first experience in the museum. so, what's going to be here? >> bunch: they will walk in either from the mall or from constitution ave, and they will run into amazing pieces of african-american art. >> pelley: when all of this is finally complete, what will america have? >> bunch: america will have a place that allows them to remember-- to remember how much we as a country have been improved, changed, challenged, and made better by the african- american experience. they'll have a place that they can call home, but they'll also have a place that will make them change. >> pelley: but even this place is only space until you fill it. >> oh, my goodness.
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at some of these things for you? >> no. >> no?! >> pelley: seven years ago, the smithsonian began rummaging the attics and basements of america. >> this may have marked a milestone in his life. and what we don't know is what that was. >> but at least it gives me something i can investigate. >> pelley: 3,000 people brought their family history to 16 smithsonian events across the country. >> mary elliott: and this is the early free black family based out of baltimore? >> yes. >> pelley: it sounds like "antiques roadshow." >> nancy bercaw: it is like "antiques roadshow." >> pelley: mary elliott and nancy bercaw are curators. >> elliott: we have experts from across the museum field. experts in conservation. experts who understand about paper, about metals, about you name it-- fabrics, textiles. and they come in and they review objects for the public. >> the coating on this is in pretty good condition. >> some of that looks like it's dried out a little bit. >> and don't put it near the air conditioning unit because that will dry it out too much.
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someone to give up a priceless family heirloom? >> bercaw: do you know what? our museum pitches itself. all we have to do is tell the absolute honest truth. people have been waiting for us. people in america have been waiting for this moment. and so, literally, they just hand us things. >> elliot: and we're very excited like you are. >> pelley: thousands of relics were examined, but only 25 will be in the collection. this is one of them. >> renee anderson: this was actually a connection we made with the family. mr. jesse burke was an enslaved man, and he was charged with playing this violin and entertaining the slave holder and his guest. >> pelley: this is the smithsonian's warehouse in maryland, where the story is being written. and these are a few of the lines. "received by grigsby e. thomas, the sum of $350 in full payment
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jim, about ten years old, this 31st day of december, 1835." jim would have been familiar with these-- shackles dating before 1860, bondage that might have been broken if the keeper of this bible had succeeded in his bloody rebellion. nat turner had said that god commanded him to break the chains. his bible was taken away before his execution. paul gardullo is a leader of the curating team. >> paul gardullo: i think many of us who know the story of slavery know about nat turner; know about nat turner from the perspective of perhaps a freedom fighter, perhaps a murderer. well, we know this is a religious person. we know this is a person who can read, and when you begin with that, and those ideas, suddenly, the person of nat turner and
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light. and i look to do that again and again, ways that we can see well-worn stories, stories we think we know, in a new light. >> pelley: you may think you know the story of a boy murdered for whistling at a white woman, until you are confronted with his casket. >> bunch: the story of emmett till is a crucially important story in terms of what it tells us, both about sort of reinvigorating the civil rights movement, but also it's a story of his mother, mamie mobley, who was really one of the most powerful people, who said that her son's murder should not be in vain, that it should help to transform america. >> pelley: no one was punished for the murder of emmett till. his body was exhumed in a later investigation, and the original casket was neglected. >> bunch: but then the question was-- would we ever display it? should we ever display it? and i wrestled a lot with it,
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hearing mamie mobley in my head. and she said, "i opened this casket to change the world, to make the world confront the dangers, the power, the ugness of race in america." >> pelley: a lot of the things that you intend to put on display are going to be hard to look at. >> bunch: what i'm trying to do is find the right tension between moments of sadness and moments of resiliency. >> pelley: one resilient moment came out of the blue. air force captain matt quy and his wife tina rebuilt an old crop duster, and in curiosity, they sent the serial number to an air force historian. >> matt quy: and he said, "are u ttg wn because i have some news for you." >> pelley: turned out, in 1944, the stearman trained america's first black squadrons, the tuskegee airmen, who flew to fame in world war ii.
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airmen. i'd seen a p-51 plane, but i'd never really, truly understood what it meant. >> matt quy: take your time. >> pelley: before donating the plane, known as a pt-13, the quys carried the last of the airmen back to the air. >> matt quy: and it was just great to sit back in the back seat and look at this real tuskegee airman in a real tuskegee airplane. just magical. >> leo gray: the greatest thrill in my life was sitting in the seat where you are and watching the ground drop out from underneath me. the pt-13 was the baby that we used to learn how to fly. >> pelley: the smithsonian collected the thoughts of lieutenant colonel leo gray in 2010. >> gray: they said we couldn't fly. but we had the best record of any fighter group in the 15th air force, and probably in the air force itself. we stayed with our bombers, we
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could. and we proved that we could fly. >> pelley: time is the enemy of history, so smithsonian conservationists have been working for years restoring america's heritage from textiles to trains. this 1920 railcar had two sections-- "white" and "colored." the same number of seats, but "colored" was compressed in half the space-- physical, touchable, jim crow confinement just like the guard tower from the prison in angola, louisiana, notorious for cruelty. >> carlos bustamante: it's about 21 feet tall. and this is cast concrete, so it's an enormous object. >> pelley: from monumental to miniscule, carlos bustamante is the project manager building a place for 33,000 moments in time. >> bustamante: so when you had the railcar, the railcar pieces, the guard tower, and all the
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convoy of about 12 semi-trucks traveling down the road across six states to get here. and it took them about three days. >> pelley: how do you get those things into this building? >> bustamante: so we set up two very, very large cranes. and these cranes are... are rare, there's not a lot of them this size. and we picked up these two objects, and basically brought them over the site and lowered them down about 60 feet below grade. >> pelley: the answer is, you don't move these objects into the building, you put these objects in place and you build the building around them? >> bustamante: exactly. there's no other way. >> gardullo: oftentimes, what i'm drawn to are some of the smaller things-- shards of glass that were picked up after the bombing of the 16th street baptist church in birmingham, alabama. and it's finding the balance
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scott, that makes this work a challenge and so wonderful. >> pelley: what is something that you desperately want and have not been able to find? >> gardullo: i want willie mays' mitt. ( laughs ) >> pelley: which would be quite a catch to display along with louis armstrong's horn, and chuck berry's horn behind the chrome of his '73 cadillac. there's the welcome of minton's playhouse, which resonated to miles, monk and dizzy. ali's headgear, pristine condition. and this firemen's head gear, a revolutionary invention in 1914 by mechanical genius garrett morgan. do you think the country's ready for this now? >> bunch: i don't think america is ever ready to have the conversation around race, based on what we see around the landscape, whether it's ferguson
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really ready to shine the light on all the dark corners of the american experience. but i hope this museum will help, in a small way, to do that. >> pelley: this is not the american museum of slavery? >> bunch: this is not the museum of tragedy. it is not the museum of difficult moments. it is the museum that says, "here is a balanced history of america that allows us to cry and smile." >>pelley: on september 24th, america's first black president will cut the ribbon to the smithsonians' first national museum of african american history and culture in washington d.c. >>announcer: see what maryanne wore at the lincoln memorial and a copy of the emancipation declaration at: 60minutesovertime.com. ,wolfuffi puffg.
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>> pelley: it's estimated that italy is home to two-thirds of the world's cultural treasures. trouble is, the country's too broke to keep its historic ruins, churches and monuments from crumbling to dust.
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taxes go unpaid, corruption in an overstuffed bureaucracy is rife. but now, some of its most treasured and endangered landmarks are being saved-- not by the government, but by a more respected italian institution, the fashion business. as morley safer reported in 2014, it's stepped in to rescue some of italy's most iconic sites-- among them, the very symbol of its rich, violent and inventive history, the colosseum in rome. >> morley safer: with its stunning, timeless sights, it's justifiably called "the eternal city"-- a holy place to billions; a vast landscape of the sacred and profane; an architectural delight, especially when viewed at sunset. and smack in the middle is the colosseum, the greatest surviving wonder of the ancient world, a memorial to the rise,
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rome, a place truly colossal. >> kimberly bowes: we think it seats about 50,000 people. but this number depends on how wide you think the roman behind was. if you think that they had big behinds, then you calculate lesssml his,ou calculate more. >> safer: backsides aside, professor kimberly bowes is the director of the american academy in rome and an expert on ancient mediterranean history who knows every inch of the colosseum. she's taking us to the very top level, far above where tourists tread, for a sight that, over the centuries, very few people have seen firsthand. >> bowes: the view is terrifying! and the view is extraordinary. look at this, this is where the poor people sat. you really get the scale of this building here, though. look how big this is! people are ants! >> safer: the place was built by
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years, finished a mere half- century after the crucifixion. the performers here were gladiators, wild animals, even comedians. i gather that this place was the entertainment center, the broadway of its day, yes? >> bowes: in a way. the whole point is to produce marvels, to produce a spectacle that would have amazed the audience. the people with the most power, the senators, are down at the bottom. and the people with the least power, the slaves and the women, are up at the top. >> safer: women? >> bowes: women. like, you don't want women to get too close to gladiators. you have to keep them separate. because your greatest fear... you've two fears if you're a roman man. one is that your slave is going to kill you one day in your bed. and your second fear is that your wife is going to run off with a slave, like a gladiator. this is what everyone's afraid of, so you've got to put the women up on the top. >> safer: so, even though the
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were kind ofovie ofthei >> bowes: theye.>> s: and turn toholloofor andea of h it all mit have lked.( chnd ause ) >> bowes: thers a me in"gladi" wherssell owe lks out right we safprofeswes filmrs high rks fo thoricuracofheir co recion of eum. >>es: e ole a is really the re-enactment of roman conquest, the continual expansion of the empire. >> safer: backstage was actually underground-- the basement. >> bowes: until recently, this was just filled with dirt. >> safer: a labyrinth of corridors-- dungeons for slaves, cages for animals, all brought from the far reaches of the empire. and wooden elevators, raised by ropes and pulleys, leading to
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this is exactly the kind of thing that would have been used to wow the audience. >> safer: since the 18th century, the roman catholic church has venerated the colosseum as a symbol of the early christian martyrs who were put to death for their beliefs. professor bowes tells visitors there were indeed early christians quietly executed elsewhere in rome. but as for the colosseum... >> bowes: we have not one piece of evidence that any christians were ever killed in this building, not one. there are, i think, really interesting reasons for this. if you take a group of people who, by all accounts, are extraordinarily brave in the face of certain death, and you put them in this space and put them on display, who's everyone going to cheer for? they're going to cheer for the christians, right? because they show such extraordinary bravery. this is not a smart thing to do politically. >> so, i'm in the famous colosseum. >> safer: six million tourists a year visit here, snapping
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gladiators who pass the time with cigarettes and cell phones. the place has survived fires and earthquakes over the centuries. now, there's a new crisis-- finding the money to manage the crowds and keep up with basic maintenance. the director of the colosseum is rossella rea. >> rossella rea ( translated ): the money isn't there. there's very little, totally inadequate funding. only 5% of what we need. >> safer: too little money, and from the italian parliament, too much red tape. a lot of people say the bureaucracy is so top heavy that that's the reason why things don't get done. >> rea: bureaucracy is not just heavy, it is extremely heavy, and we are the first victims. bureaucracy, for us, is a killer. >> safer: but that scaffolding you saw earlier is a sign that help is on the way. the colosseum is getting a badly
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an unlikely source. to prevent further ruin, a benefactor is spending an arm and a leg-- $35 million-- on a place where, 2,000 years ago, gladiators and slaves literally lost arms, legs and lives, and all in the name of show business. the benefactor is diego della valle, a prominent italian businessman who knows a lot about the business of showing. della valle is c.e.o. of tod's, the luxury leather goods company. crafting stylish shoes and bags has long been an italian specialty. having made his bundle, della valle decided to give some back to the state. why spend so much of your own money, millions upon millions, to fix this wreck? >> diego della valle: why not?
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i am very proud to be italian. and there is a very famous kennedy speech, no? is the moment that what is possible for us to do for our country, we need to do now. >> safer: the shoes that made della valle's fortune are assembled the old-fashioned way- - by hand, stitch by stitch. and the work he's funding at the colosseum is also about as low- tech as it gets. it's being cleaned literally inch by inch to get rid of centuries of caked-on dust, grime, air and auto pollution. the stone is travertine, a kind of limestone. no chemicals are allowed, only purified water and elbow grease- - days, weeks, months, years on end of scrubbing. built by hand, saved by hand. how long is it going to take? >> della valle: the colosseum, i think, three years from now.
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finished? >> della valle: i am very curious. >> safer: to get some idea, we were shown a few sections that have been completely cleaned-- 2,000 years old, and looking almost brand new. and in the world of high style, it's become fashionable to follow della valle's example. are bankrolling similar worthy causes. the fendi fashion house donated $3.5 million for some newplumbing for a fr warworks it's the trevi foun...>> marceo,ome here! saf.where54 years marmastronni andanitberg wding fei'"la dolce vita," "e swfe,"er l me aance>> silndi: this movie
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powerful image of the trevi fountain. cinema has big power. >> safer: silvia fendi's grandfather started the business 90 years ago. and as we spoke, huge crowds had a last chance to throw in a coin before the closing of the site for repairs. >> fendi: it means that you will be in good health in order to come back, so it's very important for us. this country gave us a lot, and so it's nice, at a point, to... to give back something. >> safer: elsewhere in rome, the bulgari fashion house is paying to clean and repair the spanish steps, where tourists stop to rest their feet. a japanese fashion company with ties to italy is restoring the pyramid of cestius, built to honor a noble roman two decades before the birth of christ and after the roman conquest of egypt.
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rialto bridge over the grand canal will be cleaned and strengthened, thanks to $7 million from this man, renzo rosso. is the government too poor, too broke to maintain its treasures? >> renzo rosso: no, i think we have to face with the reality. the reality is that they don't have money. >> safer: rosso is a farmer's son, a self-made man known as the "jeans genius," as in diesel jeans. he built the brand from the ground up, expanding into other businesses and becoming a billionaire several times over. >> rosso: i want more short. >> safer: his sleek headquarters rival anything in silicon valley, what with the espresso bars and day care, where kids learn the international language of business. >> clap out, clap in. >> safer: but the fashion industry is a rare bright spot in the stagnant italian economy, and these workers are the lucky
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elsewhere, fully half the country's young adults are unemployed. there's corruption, public and private, and widespread tax evasion. >> rosso: the italian people are tired of this corruption. because we have too many people that steal, too many people that put the money in his pocket. we have 40% of people who don't pay tax. can you imagine? 40%. it's unbelievable. >> safer: pope francis talks about the problem in scathing terms, saying corrupt politicians, businessmen and priests are everywhere. and the country's new young prime minister, matteo renzi has declared war on the political establishment, saying the whole system should be scrapped. diego della valle agrees. >> della valle: i think it's possible now to... to open a new way. the old point of view was without any sense. i hope in the new point of view. i push for the new point of view.
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scrubbers continue their work, it's worth noting that his generous offer to restore the country's greatest monument was mired in the bureaucratic mud for nearly three years before work could begin. >> bowes: this is the real challenge that italy has. this is why sites are closed and monuments are falling down. the bureaucracy will have to change in order to actually make it possible for someone to come and say, "here, do you want $25 million?" without the bureaucracy saying, "well, i don't know. i'll have to think about it." >> safer: but time has a way of standing still for italians. past glories are always present. the food remains superb and the noble wines still lubricate the conversation. on the surface, it's still la dolce vita, "the sweet life." as for the future, that's
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>>pelley: i'm scott pelley. stick around.
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access.wgbh.org captioning funded by cbs and ford. we go further, so you can. >> pelley: how many of you have been declared dead by the federal government? all of you. 86 million names are on a list called the death master file. if your name is on it, the social security administration has declared you dead, and shared that with banks, law enforcement, and many government agencies you might depend on. you couldn't get access to your bank accounts. you couldn't get a credit card. how did you live? >> well, for a time, i lived in my car. >> stahl: most of us take for granted that we can instantly recognize people we know by looking at their faces. but imagine for a second what life would be like if you couldn't. >> no idea. >> don't have a clue. >> stahl: couldn't recognize yourself in a mirror. >> this is a problem i have been having. >> stahl: faces. >> yes, faces.

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